Clear Beyond WordsVisual Thinking And How It’sChanging Plain LanguageClarity Conference, Washington DCMay 23, 2012Josiah F...
What Do We Mean By     “Visual”?
7.5 Peer Assisted Networking Technology.
7.5 Beer Assisted Networking Technology.
7.5 Peer Assisted Networking Technology.
7.5 Peer-Assisted Networking Technology.
BP
BPVisual Difference
BPVisual Difference     Intuitive
P B
P BConceptual Difference
P BConceptual Difference       Learned
PImage
PLetter
:-P Image
:-PImage
Image
Some Intuitive Things
Groupings
GroupingsRelative size
Similarity
Difference
Hierarchy
Singularity
Singularity
Ambiguity
Shape Completion
The Tyranny of the Visual — ICue The President
Palm Beach County, Florida    November 7, 2000
No punch hole
Reform Party
?
Over 3 times more votes for Reform Party than innext-highest Florida county.
Over 3 times more votes for Reform Party than innext-highest Florida county.Over 19,000 ballots disqualified for double vo...
Over 3 times more votes for Reform Party than innext-highest Florida county.Over 19,000 ballots disqualified for double vo...
Over 3 times more votes for Reform Party than innext-highest Florida county.Over 19,000 ballots disqualified for double vo...
The Tyranny of the Visual — IIIt’s The Blue Spray Can
Laundry starch
Oven cleaner
Same typeof container
Same typeof containerSame color
Same typeof containerSame colorSame font
Same type of container  Same color  Same font   Virtuallyidentical names
Same type of container  Same color  Same font   Virtuallyidentical names    Yellow block letters
Same type  of container  Same color   Same font   Virtuallyidentical names    Yellow block lettersYellow starburst
Same type  of container  Same color   Same font   Virtuallyidentical names    Yellow block lettersYellow starburst  Descri...
The Tyranny of the Visual — IIIIt’s OK, Nobody Died
Paralyzing drug usedin surgery.
Paralyzing drug usedin surgery.Drug that reversesparalyzing drug: samecontainer type, samecap and label color,same drawer.
Paralyzing drug usedin surgery.Drug that reversesparalyzing drug: samecontainer type, same                          ?cap a...
Switched to color-coded containers.
Switched to color-coded containers.Put each drug in adifferent drawer.
Switched to color-coded containers.Put each drug in adifferent drawer.No further problemsreported.Source: New York Times, ...
The Tyranny of the Visual — Bonus EpisodeActually, It Is Rocket Science
Would You Launch The Challenger?
Would You Launch The Challenger?O-ring leaks in earlier tests/launches
Source: Edward Tufte, Visual Explanations
Would You Launch The Challenger?                      12O-ring damage index                      8                      4 ...
Would You Launch The Challenger?                      12O-ring damage index                      8                      4 ...
Would You Launch The Challenger?                      12O-ring damage index                      8                      4 ...
Putting the Visual to Work — I Street Smarts
Manhattan Street Vendor
Manhattan Street Vendor Regulations
Title
Introduction
Four topic sections
Source: CandyChang.com
Putting the Visual to Work — IIYou Snooze, We Lose
Information Security Policy
Information Security Policy
Information Security                                                                                 InfoSecurity.fmr.com ...
Information Protection Policy (SP2I) Quick ReferenceHandle and Dispose                                                    ...
e else into a XYZ Investment                                                                                              ...
Never let anyone else into a XYZ InvestmentManagement space. If a person needs to come in anddoes not have a working badge...
Never let anyone else into a XYZ InvestmentManagement space. If a person needs to come in anddoes not have a working badge...
esta pessoa ligar para o número abaixo.                  el servicio que proporciona a XYZPa janm kite nenpòt lòt moun ant...
esta pessoa ligar para o número abaixo.                  el servicio que proporciona a XYZPa janm kite nenpòt lòt moun ant...
Never copy or photograph XYZ Investment Management             Never take XYZ Investment Management property or ma­       ...
Putting the Visual to Work — III Soak The Poor
Payday Loans
The Picture (2007)
$8 billion in borrowing costsThe Picture (2007)
Typical pricing menu says: $15 per $100     $8 billion in borrowing costs    The Picture (2007)
Generally perceived APR: 15%Typical pricing menu says: $15 per $100     $8 billion in borrowing costs    The Picture (2007)
Actual average APR:    Generally perceived APR: 15%Typical pricing menu says: $15 per $100     $8 billion in borrowing cos...
Actual average APR: 443%    Generally perceived APR: 15%Typical pricing menu says: $15 per $100     $8 billion in borrowin...
Almost exclusively used by lowest-income people           Actual average APR: 443%         Generally perceived APR: 15%   ...
The Study (2008)
University of Chicago Booth School of Business        The Study (2008)
Focus on borrowers’ understanding of costsUniversity of Chicago Booth School of Business        The Study (2008)
Test group: graphic about costs on cash envelope  Focus on borrowers’ understanding of costs University of Chicago Booth S...
Several different graphics testedTest group: graphic about costs on cash envelope  Focus on borrowers’ understanding of co...
Control group: cash in unmarked envelope        Several different graphics testedTest group: graphic about costs on cash e...
Two graphicsyielded significant results
Costs of borrowing $300 over various periods
Costs of borrowing $300 over various periods Costs for same borrowing on a credit card
Typical repayment profile for payday borrowers
Two graphics yielded significant resultsParticipants who got envelopes with graphics borrowed $40 less on average next pay...
Two graphics  yielded significant results Participants who got envelopes with graphics  borrowed $40 less on average next ...
One of 52 case studies in Joseph Kimble’s new book
Putting the Visual to Work,Even When Almost Everything Still Has To Be Words       Market Correction
Directed Shares Program —“Friends and Family” IPO Shares
How To Participate InThe Directed Share ProgramThe ProgramThe Directed Share Program from XYZ Brokerage Services LLC gives...
Frequently Asked Questions                                                                                                ...
Timeline                                                                                                                  ...
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More carrot clarity2012

  1. 1. Clear Beyond WordsVisual Thinking And How It’sChanging Plain LanguageClarity Conference, Washington DCMay 23, 2012Josiah FiskPrincipal, More Carrot LLCBoston
  2. 2. What Do We Mean By “Visual”?
  3. 3. 7.5 Peer Assisted Networking Technology.
  4. 4. 7.5 Beer Assisted Networking Technology.
  5. 5. 7.5 Peer Assisted Networking Technology.
  6. 6. 7.5 Peer-Assisted Networking Technology.
  7. 7. BP
  8. 8. BPVisual Difference
  9. 9. BPVisual Difference Intuitive
  10. 10. P B
  11. 11. P BConceptual Difference
  12. 12. P BConceptual Difference Learned
  13. 13. PImage
  14. 14. PLetter
  15. 15. :-P Image
  16. 16. :-PImage
  17. 17. Image
  18. 18. Some Intuitive Things
  19. 19. Groupings
  20. 20. GroupingsRelative size
  21. 21. Similarity
  22. 22. Difference
  23. 23. Hierarchy
  24. 24. Singularity
  25. 25. Singularity
  26. 26. Ambiguity
  27. 27. Shape Completion
  28. 28. The Tyranny of the Visual — ICue The President
  29. 29. Palm Beach County, Florida November 7, 2000
  30. 30. No punch hole
  31. 31. Reform Party
  32. 32. ?
  33. 33. Over 3 times more votes for Reform Party than innext-highest Florida county.
  34. 34. Over 3 times more votes for Reform Party than innext-highest Florida county.Over 19,000 ballots disqualified for double votesin presidential race (4 times more than in senaterace, which had no butterfly ballot).
  35. 35. Over 3 times more votes for Reform Party than innext-highest Florida county.Over 19,000 ballots disqualified for double votesin presidential race (4 times more than in senaterace, which had no butterfly ballot).Election decided by 537 votes.
  36. 36. Over 3 times more votes for Reform Party than innext-highest Florida county.Over 19,000 ballots disqualified for double votesin presidential race (4 times more than in senaterace, which had no butterfly ballot).Election decided by 537 votes.. . . or by one person who didn’t understand theprinciples of visual communication.
  37. 37. The Tyranny of the Visual — IIIt’s The Blue Spray Can
  38. 38. Laundry starch
  39. 39. Oven cleaner
  40. 40. Same typeof container
  41. 41. Same typeof containerSame color
  42. 42. Same typeof containerSame colorSame font
  43. 43. Same type of container Same color Same font Virtuallyidentical names
  44. 44. Same type of container Same color Same font Virtuallyidentical names Yellow block letters
  45. 45. Same type of container Same color Same font Virtuallyidentical names Yellow block lettersYellow starburst
  46. 46. Same type of container Same color Same font Virtuallyidentical names Yellow block lettersYellow starburst Description very small
  47. 47. The Tyranny of the Visual — IIIIt’s OK, Nobody Died
  48. 48. Paralyzing drug usedin surgery.
  49. 49. Paralyzing drug usedin surgery.Drug that reversesparalyzing drug: samecontainer type, samecap and label color,same drawer.
  50. 50. Paralyzing drug usedin surgery.Drug that reversesparalyzing drug: samecontainer type, same ?cap and label color,same drawer.Five of six surgeons at ?Denver hospital gavethe wrong drug atleast once.
  51. 51. Switched to color-coded containers.
  52. 52. Switched to color-coded containers.Put each drug in adifferent drawer.
  53. 53. Switched to color-coded containers.Put each drug in adifferent drawer.No further problemsreported.Source: New York Times, 5 Dec 1999
  54. 54. The Tyranny of the Visual — Bonus EpisodeActually, It Is Rocket Science
  55. 55. Would You Launch The Challenger?
  56. 56. Would You Launch The Challenger?O-ring leaks in earlier tests/launches
  57. 57. Source: Edward Tufte, Visual Explanations
  58. 58. Would You Launch The Challenger? 12O-ring damage index 8 4 0 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 Temperature ( o F) of joints
  59. 59. Would You Launch The Challenger? 12O-ring damage index 8 4 0 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 Temperature ( o F) of joints
  60. 60. Would You Launch The Challenger? 12O-ring damage index 8 4 0 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 Temperature ( o F) of joints Forecast temperatures on launch day
  61. 61. Putting the Visual to Work — I Street Smarts
  62. 62. Manhattan Street Vendor
  63. 63. Manhattan Street Vendor Regulations
  64. 64. Title
  65. 65. Introduction
  66. 66. Four topic sections
  67. 67. Source: CandyChang.com
  68. 68. Putting the Visual to Work — IIYou Snooze, We Lose
  69. 69. Information Security Policy
  70. 70. Information Security Policy
  71. 71. Information Security InfoSecurity.fmr.com Information Protection Policy Securing Private and Proprietary Information (SP2 I) Effective October 1, 2008 Purpose • t’s essential to assign the right classification I to each item. Assigning too low a classification To establish the requirements for classifying, labeling, puts sensitive information at risk. Assigning too handling, and disposing of Fidelity information. high a classification, while generally less damag- ing, can still be harmful as it restricts access and Scope forces you and others to take excessive security precautions. If you see information that you This policy applies worldwide to all Fidelity regular or think is classified incorrectly, notify the person or temporary employees, contractors, and consultants. office from whom you received the information. • pplying this policy requires both knowledge A Key points and judgment on your part. For example, in some cases, it may be appropriate to assign a • Proper classification, labeling, handling and higher classification to a certain document than disposal of information is an integral part of that type of document would normally receive. Fidelity’s business. By following the instructions Because no policy can address all possible situ- in this policy, you help protect Fidelity from legal ations, it’s important to follow the instructions in and financial liability as well as regulatory and this policy in both letter and spirit. reputational risk. Read this policy carefully and refer to it whenever you have questions. • our business unit may have additional Y requirements concerning information security. Understanding and following these is your responsibility. Ask your manager or your business unit’s Information Security Office (ISO). Note that some non-U.S. companies may have their own versions of this policy; be aware of potential policy differences when working with companies in other countries. Fidelity Internal Information
  72. 72. Information Protection Policy (SP2I) Quick ReferenceHandle and Dispose C l a S S I f I C at I o n Public fidelity fidelity fidelity Highly Confidential (HC) Information Internal Confidential Personal Employee Your PINs/ Information Information Basic HC Data1 Data2 PasswordsHandleGet approval before assigning classification •Do not share outside Fidelity (such as with vendorsor contractors) except on a need-to-know basis andwhen the recipient is restricted from disclosing the • • • • • Never Shareinformation to othersUse caution when discussing in public • • • • • N/AReport possible or actual loss immediatelyto ISO or Corporate Security • • • • • •Properly encrypt when sending outside Fidelity3 • • • • N/AInside Fidelity, share only on a need-to-know basis • • • • N/AStore locked in desk / office • • • • N/ALimit access even on internal websites and systems • • • • N/ADo not leave unattended in copiers/printers • • • • N/ADo not remove from Fidelity premises withouta specific business requirement • • • N/AProperly encrypt when sending inside Fidelity3 • N/ANever share with anyone, and never carry with therelated device •DisposePlace in desk-side recycling container (paper only) • •Personally shred (paper only) • • • •Place in a locked Fidelity recycling container(all storage media, including paper) • • • • • •1 See policy for complete definition. 2 Compensation and performance data only. 3 As determined to be appropriate by your business unit. Fidelity Internal Information
  73. 73. e else into a XYZ Investment tri­fold; front panelpace. If a person needs to come in anda working badge, tell them to call thentrada de ninguna persona a las ins­YZ Investment Management. Si alguien We appreciate the service you Welcome to XYZ Investment provide to XYZ Investment Mana­y no dispone de una tarjeta de identifi­ gement. Thank you. If you haveue llame al número de teléfono que se Management any questions, please discuss themo. with your manager or your XYZnguém entrar em uma área da Investment Management contact. Management. Se uma pessoa precisarer um crachá de trabalho, peça para Le estamos muy agradecidos por r para o número abaixo. el servicio que proporciona a XYZ Information is vital to XYZ Investment Management. Si tienenpòt lòt moun antre nan yon espas XYZ Investment Management. Wenagement. Si yon moun bezwen antre alguna pregunta, consulte con yon badj travay, di yo rele nimewo ki su gerente o con su persona de need your help to keep our contacto de XYZ Investment Mana­ gement. offices and our information safe. 람을피델리티공간에들어오게하지개인이들어와야하는데근무배지가없 Bienvenido a XYZ Investment Management있는번호로전화하라고하십시오. Agradecemos o serviço que você La información es de vital importancia presta à XYZ Investment Manage­ para XYZ Investment Management. ment. Obrigado. Se tiver alguma dúvida, discuta o assunto com o Necesitamos que nos ayude a proteger nuestras XYZ oficinas y nuestra información. seu gerente ou seu contato na XYZ Investment Management. Bem­vindo à XYZ Investment Management Nou apresye sèvis ke w bay XYZ In­ As informações são vitais para a XYZ vestment Management. Mèsi. Si w Investment Management. Precisamos da sua gen nenpòt kesyon, tanpri diskite ajuda para manter os nossos escritórios e as yo avèk manadjè ou a oswa kontak nossas informações protegidas. XYZ Investment Management ou. Byenveni nan XYZ Investment Management 여러분들께서피델리티대해진 Enfòmasyon trèzenpòtan pou XYZ Investment 심으로감사의마음을갖고있습 Management. Nou bezwen èd­ou pou kenbe XY Z 니다.감사합니다.혹시문의사항 biwo nou yo ak enfòmasyon nou yo senesòf. 이있으시면,여러분의상사나피7891 피델리티에오신것을환영합니다 델리티해당연락담당자와말씀 해보시기바랍니다에주시는서 피델리티에있어정보는생명과저희 비스에. 사무실과정보를안전히지키기위해 여러분의도움이필요합니다같습니다. X Y Z Investment Management Rev. 2/12 XYZ Investment Management Internal Information
  74. 74. Never let anyone else into a XYZ InvestmentManagement space. If a person needs to come in anddoes not have a working badge, tell them to call thenumber below.No permita la entrada de ninguna persona a las ins­talaciones de XYZ Investment Management. Si alguien We appreciate the service you Welcome to XYZ Investme provide to XYZ Investment Mana­necesita entrar y no dispone de una tarjeta de identifi­ gement. Thank you. If you havecación, pídale que llame al número de teléfono que se Management any questions, please discuss themindica más abajo. with your manager or your XYZNunca deixe ninguém entrar em uma área da Investment Management contact.XYZ Investment Management. Se uma pessoa precisarentrar e não tiver um crachá de trabalho, peça para Le estamos muy agradecidos poresta pessoa ligar para o número abaixo. el servicio que proporciona a XYZ Information is vital to XYZ Investment Management. Si tienePa janm kite nenpòt lòt moun antre nan yon espas XYZ Investment Management. WInvestment Management. Si yon moun bezwen antre alguna pregunta, consulte conepi li pa genyen yon badj travay, di yo rele nimewo ki su gerente o con su persona de need your help to keep ouanba a. contacto de XYZ Investment Mana­ gement. offices and our information절 대로다른사람을피델리티공간에들어오게하지마십시오.한개인이들어와야하는데근무배지가없 Bienvenido a XYZ Investment Manage는경우,밑에있는번호로전화하라고하십시오. Agradecemos o serviço que você La información es de vital importancia presta à XYZ Investment Manage­ para XYZ Investment Management. ment. Obrigado. Se tiver alguma dúvida, discuta o assunto com o Necesitamos que nos ayude a protege XYZ oficinas y nuestra información. seu gerente ou seu contato na XYZ Investment Management. Bem­vindo à XYZ Investment Manage Nou apresye sèvis ke w bay XYZ In­ As informações são vitais para a XYZ vestment Management. Mèsi. Si w Investment Management. Precisamos gen nenpòt kesyon, tanpri diskite ajuda para manter os nossos escritóri yo avèk manadjè ou a oswa kontak nossas informações protegidas. XYZ Investment Management ou. Byenveni nan XYZ Investment Manag 여러분들께서피델리티대해진 Enfòmasyon trèzenpòtan pou XYZ In 심으로감사의마음을갖고있습 Management. Nou bezwen èd­ou po XYZ 니다.감사합니다.혹시문의사항 biwo nou yo ak enfòmasyon nou yo 이있으시면,여러분의상사나피 123-456-7891 피델리티에오신것을환영합니다 델리티해당연락담당자와말씀 해보시기바랍니다에주시는서 피델리티에있어정보는생명과 비스에. 사무실과정보를안전히지키기위 여러분의도움이필요합니다같습 XY Z Investment M Rev. 2/12 XYZ Investment Management Internal Information
  75. 75. Never let anyone else into a XYZ InvestmentManagement space. If a person needs to come in anddoes not have a working badge, tell them to call thenumber below.No permita la entrada de ninguna persona a las ins­ We appreciate the service youtalaciones de XYZ Investment Management. Si alguien provide to XYZ Investment Mana­necesita entrar y no dispone de una tarjeta de identifi­ gement. Thank you. If you havecación, pídale que llame al número de teléfono que se any questions, please discuss themindica más abajo. with your manager or your XYZNunca deixe ninguém entrar em uma área da Investment Management contact.XYZ Investment Management. Se uma pessoa precisarentrar e não tiver um crachá de trabalho, peça para Le estamos muy agradecidos poresta pessoa ligar para o número abaixo. el servicio que proporciona a XYZPa janm kite nenpòt lòt moun antre nan yon espas XYZ Investment Management. Si tieneInvestment Management. Si yon moun bezwen antre alguna pregunta, consulte conepi li pa genyen yon badj travay, di yo rele nimewo ki su gerente o con su persona deanba a. contacto de XYZ Investment Mana­절 대로다른사람을피델리티공간에들어오게하지 gement.마십시오.한개인이들어와야하는데근무배지가없는경우,밑에있는번호로전화하라고하십시오. Agradecemos o serviço que você presta à XYZ Investment Manage­ ment. Obrigado. Se tiver alguma dúvida, discuta o assunto com o XYZ seu gerente ou seu contato na XYZ Investment Management. Nou apresye sèvis ke w bay XYZ In­ vestment Management. Mèsi. Si w gen nenpòt kesyon, tanpri diskite yo avèk manadjè ou a oswa kontak
  76. 76. esta pessoa ligar para o número abaixo. el servicio que proporciona a XYZPa janm kite nenpòt lòt moun antre nan yon espas XYZ Investment Management. Si tieneInvestment Management. Si yon moun bezwen antre alguna pregunta, consulte conepi li pa genyen yon badj travay, di yo rele nimewo ki su gerente o con su persona deanba a. contacto de XYZ Investment Mana­절 대로다른사람을피델리티공간에들어오게하지 gement.마십시오.한개인이들어와야하는데근무배지가없는경우,밑에있는번호로전화하라고하십시오. Agradecemos o serviço que você presta à XYZ Investment Manage­ ment. Obrigado. Se tiver alguma dúvida, discuta o assunto com o XYZ seu gerente ou seu contato na XYZ Investment Management. Nou apresye sèvis ke w bay XYZ In­ vestment Management. Mèsi. Si w gen nenpòt kesyon, tanpri diskite yo avèk manadjè ou a oswa kontak XYZ Investment Management ou. 여러분들께서피델리티대해진 심으로감사의마음을갖고있습 XYZ 니다.감사합니다.혹시문의사항 이있으시면,여러분의상사나피 123-456-7891 델리티해당연락담당자와말씀 해보시기바랍니다에주시는서 비스에. Rev. 2/12
  77. 77. esta pessoa ligar para o número abaixo. el servicio que proporciona a XYZPa janm kite nenpòt lòt moun antre nan yon espas XYZ Investment Management. Si tieneInvestment Management. Si yon moun bezwen antre alguna pregunta, consulte conepi li pa genyen yon badj travay, di yo rele nimewo ki su gerente o con su persona deanba a. contacto de XYZ Investment Mana­절 대로다른사람을피델리티공간에들어오게하지 gement.마십시오.한개인이들어와야하는데근무배지가없는경우,밑에있는번호로전화하라고하십시오. Agradecemos o serviço que você presta à XYZ Investment Manage­ ment. Obrigado. Se tiver alguma dúvida, discuta o assunto com o XYZ seu gerente ou seu contato na XYZ Investment Management. Nou apresye sèvis ke w bay XYZ In­ vestment Management. Mèsi. Si w gen nenpòt kesyon, tanpri diskite yo avèk manadjè ou a oswa kontak XYZ Investment Management ou. 여러분들께서피델리티대해진 심으로감사의마음을갖고있습 XYZ 니다.감사합니다.혹시문의사항 이있으시면,여러분의상사나피 123-456-7891 델리티해당연락담당자와말씀 해보시기바랍니다에주시는서 비스에. Rev. 2/12
  78. 78. Never copy or photograph XYZ Investment Management Never take XYZ Investment Management property or ma­ If you have XYZ Investment Management informationinformation. Never discuss XYZ Investment Management terials (including trash) from XYZ Investment Management that you need to throw away, put it in a XYZ Invest­information with others. space, unless it is specifically part of your job. ment Management recycling bin.No haga copias ni tome fotografías de la información No saque documentos o materiales (incluida la Si tiene información de XYZ Investment Managementde XYZ Investment Management. No hable con nadie de basura) de las instalaciones de XYZ Investment Manage­ que necesite tirar a la basura, póngala en unnuestra información. ment, a no ser que esta tarea sea un componente específico contenedor de reciclado de XYZ Investment de su trabajo. Management.Nunca copie nem fotografe informações da XYZ InvestmentManagement. Nunca discuta informações da XYZ Invest­ Nunca pegue itens ou materiais da XYZ Investment Man­ Se você tiver informações da XYZ Investment Man­ment Management com outras pessoas. agement (inclusive lixo) de uma área da XYZ Investment agement que precisar descartar, jogue­as em um Management, a menos que faça parte especificamente do cesto de reciclagem da XYZ Investment Management.Pa janm kopye oswa pran foto enfòmasyon XYZ Investment seu trabalho.Management a. Pa janm diskite enfòmasyon XYZ Invest­ Si w genyen enfòmasyon XYZ Investment Manage­ment Management ak lòt moun. Pa janm pran pwopriyete XYZ Investment Management ment ou bezwen jete, mete l nan yon bwat resiklaj oswa materyèl (ki enkli fatra) sòti lespas XYZ Investment XYZ Investment Management.피델리티정보를절대복사하거시오.피델리티정보를절대 Management, sof si li espesifikman pati travay ou.로다른사람들과말씀나누지마십시오나사진을찍지.. 버려야하는피델리티정,피델리티리사이클통에 구 체적으로자신직무의,피델리티자산이나자료(쓰레 집어넣으십시오보가있는경우. 기포함)를피델리티공간으로부터절대로가져가지마 십시오일환이아닌한. XYZ XYZ Investment La información de As informações da XYZ Enfòmasyon XYZ 피델리티정보는서류, Management information XYZ Investment Manage­ Investment Manage­ Investment Management 컴퓨터데이터,파일, includes papers, ment incluye papeles, ment incluem papéis, gen ladan papye, done 메모등그밖의사무실 computer data, files, datos de computadora, dados de computadores, òdinatè, dosye, nòt, ak 에서있는모든자료들 notes, and all other archivos, notas y mate­ arquivos, observações e tout lòt materyèl yo ki 을포함합니다. materials found in riales de cualquier otro todos os outros materiais jwenn nan biwo nou yo. our offices. tipo que se encuentren en encontrados em nossos nuestras oficinas. escritórios. XY Z Investment Management XYZ Investment Management Internal Information
  79. 79. Putting the Visual to Work — III Soak The Poor
  80. 80. Payday Loans
  81. 81. The Picture (2007)
  82. 82. $8 billion in borrowing costsThe Picture (2007)
  83. 83. Typical pricing menu says: $15 per $100 $8 billion in borrowing costs The Picture (2007)
  84. 84. Generally perceived APR: 15%Typical pricing menu says: $15 per $100 $8 billion in borrowing costs The Picture (2007)
  85. 85. Actual average APR: Generally perceived APR: 15%Typical pricing menu says: $15 per $100 $8 billion in borrowing costs The Picture (2007)
  86. 86. Actual average APR: 443% Generally perceived APR: 15%Typical pricing menu says: $15 per $100 $8 billion in borrowing costs The Picture (2007)
  87. 87. Almost exclusively used by lowest-income people Actual average APR: 443% Generally perceived APR: 15% Typical pricing menu says: $15 per $100 $8 billion in borrowing costs The Picture (2007)
  88. 88. The Study (2008)
  89. 89. University of Chicago Booth School of Business The Study (2008)
  90. 90. Focus on borrowers’ understanding of costsUniversity of Chicago Booth School of Business The Study (2008)
  91. 91. Test group: graphic about costs on cash envelope Focus on borrowers’ understanding of costs University of Chicago Booth School of Business The Study (2008)
  92. 92. Several different graphics testedTest group: graphic about costs on cash envelope Focus on borrowers’ understanding of costs University of Chicago Booth School of Business The Study (2008)
  93. 93. Control group: cash in unmarked envelope Several different graphics testedTest group: graphic about costs on cash envelope Focus on borrowers’ understanding of costs University of Chicago Booth School of Business The Study (2008)
  94. 94. Two graphicsyielded significant results
  95. 95. Costs of borrowing $300 over various periods
  96. 96. Costs of borrowing $300 over various periods Costs for same borrowing on a credit card
  97. 97. Typical repayment profile for payday borrowers
  98. 98. Two graphics yielded significant resultsParticipants who got envelopes with graphics borrowed $40 less on average next payday
  99. 99. Two graphics yielded significant results Participants who got envelopes with graphics borrowed $40 less on average next payday17% less; annually, would mean $8.5 billion less
  100. 100. One of 52 case studies in Joseph Kimble’s new book
  101. 101. Putting the Visual to Work,Even When Almost Everything Still Has To Be Words Market Correction
  102. 102. Directed Shares Program —“Friends and Family” IPO Shares
  103. 103. How To Participate InThe Directed Share ProgramThe ProgramThe Directed Share Program from XYZ Brokerage Services LLC gives you the opportunity to buy sharesof Newco Wireless stock at the IPO price. The exact price won’t be known until the evening before thestock begins to trade publicly, but it is currently expected to be somewhere between $00.00 and $00.00.Is This Program Right for Me?Stock investing isn’t for everyone. Many factors could push the price of Newco Wireless stock up or down.These factors could be related to the company, to one or more industries, or to the stock market in general.The choice to invest is yours, although you may want to consult with an investment adviser, financialplanner, family members, or anyone else who is typically included in your financial decisions.If You Want to ParticipateTo get started with the program, there are three things you need to do:• Read the enclosed materials, including the preliminary prospectus, which tells you about Newco Wireless stock and its risks.• Decide how many shares you want to request. In deciding, you may want to consider several factors, includ- ing your investment goals, how you plan to pay for your shares, and how much exposure you may want to a single stock.• Tell us how many shares you’re interested in buying, either by visiting the web site or by using Form A, the Indication of Interest Form.You can request as few as 100 shares, as many as XXX,XXX shares, or any amount in between that isa multiple of 50. For example, if you want to request more than 100 shares, but less than 300, your pos-sible choices would be 150, 200, or 250 shares.When requesting shares, keep in mind that you might not be allocated the full number you ask for.Depending on supply and demand, you might not be allocated any shares. At the same time, it’sunwise to request more shares than you want, because you might receive — and have to pay for —your full allocation.Keep this package handy until the program is over and you have paid for your shares. You can use thetimeline on the following pages as a reminder of what you need to do and when. www.fidelity.com/goto/cingular 1-800-358-2670
  104. 104. Frequently Asked Questions Is there a difference between the number of shares I request and the number I’m allocated? There could be. You can choose how many shares to request, up to your maximum allowable number (which has been determined by your employer). However, you can’t choose how many shares you actu- ally will be allocated. Your actual allocation will depend on a number of factors, including how many shares are made available to the entire program and how many shares other employees request. Do I need to purchase all shares allocated to me? From the time you submit your Indication of Interest until the time you confirm on the evening before the trading day, you can choose how many shares you want to purchase: all, some, or none. Until you confirm and the shares are placed in your account, you can opt out of the program at any time, with no obligation or penalty. Once the shares are in your account, you are committed: you will be held respon- sible for buying, at the IPO price, all shares in your account. Why might the timing of the IPO change? Many factors can influence the actual date of an IPO. One factor is the Securities and ExchangeHow To Participate InThe Directed Share Program Commission, which must declare a stock’s registration statement effective before any shares of that stock can be publicly sold. Once this has occurred, the stock’s IPO price must be set. UnexpectedThe ProgramThe Directed Share Program from XYZ Brokerage Services LLC gives you the opportunity to buy shares developments in the stock market can also affect the timing of an IPO. It may be disadvantageous toof Newco Wireless stock at the IPO price. The exact price won’t be known until the evening before thestock begins to trade publicly, but it is currently expected to be somewhere between $00.00 and $00.00. launch a new stock offering when markets are unsettled or investor sentiment is negative.Is This Program Right for Me? What’s the best way for me to pay for my shares?Stock investing isn’t for everyone. Many factors could push the price of Newco Wireless stock up or down.These factors could be related to the company, to one or more industries, or to the stock market in general.The choice to invest is yours, although you may want to consult with an investment adviser, financialplanner, family members, or anyone else who is typically included in your financial decisions. You can pay for your shares by check (including personal check), electronic fund transfer, or wire,If You Want to ParticipateTo get started with the program, there are three things you need to do: whichever is most convenient for you. However, if your payment doesn’t arrive by the payment dead-• Read the enclosed materials, including the preliminary prospectus, which tells you about Newco Wireless stock and its risks.• Decide how many shares you want to request. In deciding, you may want to consider several factors, includ- line, you will lose your allocated shares. You will also lose any gains you would otherwise have made, ing your investment goals, how you plan to pay for your shares, and how much exposure you may want to a single stock. or you will have to pay for any losses. Note also that you cannot pay for your shares by selling them• Tell us how many shares you’re interested in buying, either by visiting the web site or by using Form A, the Indication of Interest Form. first and then using that money to pay.You can request as few as 100 shares, as many as XXX,XXX shares, or any amount in between that isa multiple of 50. For example, if you want to request more than 100 shares, but less than 300, your pos-sible choices would be 150, 200, or 250 shares.When requesting shares, keep in mind that you might not be allocated the full number you ask for. When can I sell my shares? You can sell some or all of your shares at any time, beginning on the first public trading day. However,Depending on supply and demand, you might not be allocated any shares. At the same time, it’sunwise to request more shares than you want, because you might receive — and have to pay for —your full allocation.Keep this package handy until the program is over and you have paid for your shares. You can use thetimeline on the following pages as a reminder of what you need to do and when. you won’t receive any proceeds from selling shares until your payment for the shares has cleared— typically seven business days. No matter when you sell shares, you must pay for them all within three business days of the first public trading day . If you sell your shares, you’ll have to pay a brokerage www.fidelity.com/goto/cingular 1-800-358-2670 commission. You can find the commission schedule at www.XYZ.com. How do I use my XYZ account? We have opened a XYZ account in your name, using information provided by your employer, because you need a brokerage account to participate in the program. Any shares you are allocated will be placed in your new XYZ account automatically. Once you have paid for your shares, you may sell them or transfer them to another brokerage account, and close your XYZ account, if you like. H owever, since your XYZ account is a fully functional brokerage account, you may want to keep it, as it offers features such as discounted commissions for buying and selling other stocks. Other questions? You can get answers from XYZ at the web site or the automated phone line. Brokerage services for this program are provided by XYZ Brokerage Services LLC, Member NYSE and SIPC. 1.757806.100 XXX-XXX-XXX 4.DSP-PMC-APP1
  105. 105. Timeline PHASE 1 PHASE 2 PHASE 3 Sun. Mon. Tues. Wed. Thurs. Fri. Sat. Sun. Mon. Tues. Wed. Thurs. Fri. Sat. Sun. Mon. Tues. Wed. Thurs. Fri. Sat. Sun. Mon. Tues. 2/3 2/4 2/5 2/6 2/7 2/8 2/9 2/10 2/11 2/12 2/13 2/14 2/15 2/16 2/17 2/18 2/19* 2/20* 2/21 2/22 2/23 2/24 2/25* 2/26 A B C D E F G Participant kits arrive Submit your indication of interest and brokerage application; follow p by checking your status Confirm your interest Trading day: Shares Share payment due between 6 p.m. and allocated and public 10 p.m. Eastern Time trading startsStep-by-Step Instructions *Schedule could change; watch for notification or check with the program phone number or web site. PHASE 1 C . Send in your form(s). All participants need to Follow the instructions on the web site or phone line to confirm how many shares you are interested in pur- To pay by check: Make out your check to “XYZ Brokerage Services LLC.” Write your account numberSIGN UP FOR THE PROGRAM send in Form B. You will also need to send in Form A chasing. Your shares will be allocated soon after the on the memo line. Fill out a deposit slip (from the unless you submitted your Indication of Interest on the confirmation period (typically within two hours). Once confirmation statement acknowledging reciept ofBY FEBRUARY 19 Web page web site. XYZ Brokerage Services must receive shares are allocated, you will be responsible for paying your Indication of Interest) and send the check and your information by February 18, 2002, or you won’t image to comeA. Fo rm A : A llo for any and all shares in your account. ca tio n R e q the slip to: uest W h a t th is Fo be able to participate in the program. Be sure to allow r m is Fo r When you fill ou t, sig n, an • You let u s d send in th is form , y ou d o Submit your Indication of k now th two th in gs: lik e us to allocate at you’re in terested in p articip ating in • You ack nowledge to yo u. th e prog ra m and agre e to and h ow many If yo u are in dicatin th e term s th sh are you’d g your in terest at a re spe lled H owever, u nless u sin g th e p rog ou t below. you alread y h r am’s web site ave a brok era , y ou d on’t n ge account with eed to send in F idelity, yo u th is form . time for the mail. W h a t Yo u still n eed to sen A g r e e to b d in Fo rm B . y S ig n in gInterest. There are two ways you By Regular Mailcan do this: If you need to send your materials overnight, use the XYZ Investments Sam Sampleson PHASE 3• electronically, by going to the 123-45-6789 overnight address on the next page. PO Box 770001, Cincinnati, OH 45277-0030 Z111111111Directed Share Program web site PAY F O R Y O U R S H A R E S(URL shown on facing page) By Overnight Express• by mail, using Form A, the D. Check your status. Sometime W I T H I N 3 D AY S O F T R A D I N G D AY XYZ Investments – Newco Wireless Programprinted form that comes with this guide before February 18, call the program 2300 Litton Lane, Mail Zone KH2G, Hebron, KY 41048Whichever version you use, read the prospectus first, phone number or visit the web site to make sure that everything is in order with F. Check your account to find out how many shares are in it and how much you owe. When you call or log To pay by wire: Instruct your bank (which mayand be sure you understand and accept the terms your XYZ account and your Indication of on to check, you’ll see the number of shares you have charge for this service) to wire your payment to:before you agree to them. Interest. You’ll need your Social Security Number been allocated and the final IPO price. This informa- and your XYZ Account Number (in box at lower left). By WireB. Fill out and sign Form B, the account You’ll also need a Personal Identification Number (PIN), which you can set up the first time you call the pro- tion will be available at about 9 a.m. Eastern Time on the first day of public trading. Chase Manhattan Bank, NA ABA Number: 021000021application. To participate in the program, you gram phone number or go to the program web site. For credit to: National Financial Services G.need to have a XYZ account that is registered in your name only and is not a retirement Send XYZ a check or wire for the Account Number: 066196-221 account. Based on data provided by full amount you owe. If your payment doesn’t For benefit of: Sam Sampleson your employer, we have created an PHASE 2 arrive within three days of the first public trading day, Account Number: Z00000000 account like this for you. You need to you will lose your shares. If your payment is late, you One Chase Manhattan Plaza CONFIRM YOUR INTEREST complete, sign, and return Form B or will give up any gains or be charged for any losses. New York, NY 10004 you could be subject to Federal tax E V E N I N G B E F O R E T R A D I N G D AY Be sure to allow time for the mail. Remember that withholding. you can’t pay for your shares with the proceeds you E. Confirm your Indication of Interest the night before get from selling those shares. Newco Wireless stock begins to trade publicly. You can confirm by phone or through the web site. The period for confirming is only a few Check List hours long. If you don’t confirm with us P E R S O N A L I N F O R M AT I O N PHASE 1 PHASE 2 during this period, you will lose your YOU’LL NEED opportunity to purchase shares through Enter my Indication of Interest using web site or Form A. Confirm my Indication of Interest by web site or this program. We expect that the period Complete all sections of Form B. phone the evening before the public trading day. Number of shares you can request for confirming will be from 6 p.m. to 10 Sign and send in applicable form(s) in time to arrive PHASE 3 100 to XXX,XXX p.m. Eastern Time on Tuesday, Febraury 19, by Monday, 2/18. Check to see how many shares I actually received and Your Social Security number but it could change, based on when the Securities Visit web site or telephone to verify that everything how much I owe. 000-00-0000 and Exchange Commission declares the registration is in order. Pay for my shares by check, electronic funds transfer, statement effective and the stock is priced. To be sure Your new XYZ account number or wire within three business days of the trading day. you have the right day and time for confirming, Z00000000 check with the web site or the automated phone line. www.XYZ.com/goto/newco 1-800-358-2670

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