Corey Templeton CMS 498 Work Presentation


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My presentation for the Gender Communication in Social Institutions assignment. Topic: Work.

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Corey Templeton CMS 498 Work Presentation

  1. 1. Gender  Communication  in  Social  Institutions    Topic:  Work    By  Corey  Templeton  
  2. 2. Overview   Areas  that  will  be  covered:   •  Gender/Sex   •  Gender  Communica>on   •  Work  as  a  Social  Ins>tu>on   •  Gender  and  Work   •  Gender  Communica>on  in  the  Workplace   •  The  Future  of  Gender  and  Work  as  a  Social  Ins>tu>on  
  3. 3. Gender/sex?    What  is   As  defined  by  the  World  Health  Organiza>on:   Sex  refers  to  the  biological  and  physiological  characteris>cs  that  define   men  and  women.     Gender  refers  to  the  socially  constructed  roles,  behaviors,  ac>vi>es,  and   aKributes  that  a  given  society  considers  appropriate  for  men  and  women.   Examples  of  Sex  –  Male  and  Female   Examples  of  Gender  –  Masculine  and  Feminine   For  this  presenta>on,  I  will  use  primarily  use  the  term  gender,  but  it  will   apply  to  both  the  socially  constructed  and  biological  meanings  of  both   gender  and  sex.    
  4. 4. Gender  Communication?  What  is   As  DeFrancisco  &  Palczewski  (2007,  pg.  107)  summarized:     “People  literally  speak  and  perform  their  bodies  and  iden55es  into  being”   Gender    is  one  of  many  aKributes  that  make   up   an   individual.   It   is   also   one   of   the   most   recognizable   from   the   perspec>ve   of   studying  communica>on.       How  individuals  communicate  and  construct   gender,   both   verbally   and   nonverbally,   has   implica>ons   on   how   the   individual   is   perceived   on   interpersonal   and   cultural   levels.  
  5. 5. Work  as  a  SOCIAL  INSTITUTION?  What  is   For   the   purpose   of   this   presenta>on,   I   will   define   work   and   social   ins>tu>ons  using  the  defini>ons  provided  in  the  textbook    (DeFrancisco  &  Palczewski,  2007):     “The  meaning  of  work  is  not  universal.    From  culture  to  culture  and  from   >me  to  >me,  the  meaning  significance  of  work  shiYs.  At  the  present  .me   in   the   United   States,   if   someone   were   asked   to   define   work,   she   or   he   would  most  likely  define  it  as  paid  work  outside  the  home”  (pg.  201).     Sociologist   Margaret   Anderson   (2006)   defines   ins$tu$ons   as   “established   pa1erns   of   behavior   with   a   par$cular   and   recognized   purpose;   ins5tu5ons  include  specific  par5cipants  who  share  expecta5ons  and  act  in   specific  roles,  with  rights  and  du5es  aGached  to  them.”  (pg.  142)  
  6. 6. Work  as  a  Social  institution   The  defini>ons  of  work  and  social  ins>tu>ons  are  broad,  much  like  the   ac>vi>es   and   organiza>ons   they   seek   to   define.   Since   culture   plays   a   major   role   in   these   defini>ons,   I   will   tackle   this   topic   using   my   own   culture.   Work  is  a  major  social  ins.tu.on,  especially  in  capitalist  socie>es  such   as   the   United   States.   The   highest   unemployment   rate   in   the   United   States,  since  it  has  been  officially  recorded,  was  10.8%  in  November  and   December  of  1982  (Manuel,  2012).  Work,  or  the  absence  of  work,  is  a   major   aspect   of   everyone’s   life   in   the   Un>ed   States.   One   of   the   first   things   that   people   ask   a   new   acquaintance   is:   “What   do   you   do?”   What   is   usually   being   asked   through   this   ques>on   is:   “What   do   you   do   for   work?”  
  7. 7. Work  as  a  social  institution   DeFrancisco  and  Palczewski  (2007,  pg.  202)  reference  a  number  of   sources  which  speak  to  the  importance  of  work  in  American  culture:   •  “The   almost   unques5oned   belief   that   work   is   good   and   the   demoniza5on   of   those   on   welfare   demonstrates   the   way   rhetorical   construc5ons   of   work   maintain  its  func5on  as  a  social  ins5tu5on”  (Schram,  1995).   •  “The   job   a   man   does   is   ‘a   major   basis   of   iden5ty   and   what   it   means   to   be   a   man’”  (Messerschmidt,  1996).   •  “Every   U.S.   ci5zen   is   expected   to   work,   to   become   a   ‘taxpaying   ci5zen’”  (Pateman,  1989).  
  8. 8. Gender  and  Work   •  Some  occupa>ons  are  more  gender   segregated  than  others.  In  some  instances  it   brings  up  the  ques>on  of  equality  and  in   other  cases  it  brings  up  the  ques>on  of   whether  males  and  females  do  tend  to  have   some  inherent  preferences  for  certain  kinds   of  work.   •   For  example,  the  small  amount  of  female   CEO’s  at  Fortune  500  companies  appears  out   of  balance  based  on  how  many  females  work   at  those  companies.  In  contrast,  there  may   not  be  outright  discrimina>on  preven>ng   women  from  working  in  the  logging  industry,   but  it  is  an  occupa>on  in  our  culture  that   rela>vely  few  women  pursue.      
  9. 9. Gender  and  Work   Data  complied  from  2007  illustrates   gender  segrega>on  in  various  careers:         More  than  90%  Female:   More  than  90%  Male:    •  Dental  hygienists   •  Logging  workers    •  Preschool/kindergarten  teachers   •  Automo>ve  body/related  repairers  •  Secretaries  and  admin.  assistants   •  Cement  masons,  concrete  finishers  •  Dental  assistants   and  terrazzo  workers  •  Speech-­‐language  pathologists   •  Bus  and  truck  mechanics  and  diesel  •  Licensed  prac>cal/licensed  voca>onal   engine  specialists   nurses   •  Electrical  power-­‐line  installers/•  Child  care  workers   repairers  •  Hairdressers/hair  stylists/ •  Tool  and  die  makers   cosmetologists   •  Roofers  •  Recep>onists/informa>on  clerks   •  Heavy  vehicle/mobile  equipment  •  Payroll/>mekeeping  clerks   service  Home  appliance  repairers     •  Crane  and  tower  operators    
  10. 10. Gender  and  Work   •  “…Gendering   of   organiza5ons   is   maintained   through   communica5ve   prac5ces   such   as   ‘organiza5onal   structure,   ideology,   interac5ons   among   works,   and   in   the   construc5on   and  maintenance  of  individual  iden55es’”     -­‐(DeFrancisco  &  Palczewski,  2007,  p.  202)   In   the   textbook,   the   authors   note   that   sociologist   Dana   M.   BriKon   describes   all   work   ins>tu>ons   as   being   masculine.   Although   that   s>ll   seems   to   be   primarily   true,   I   think   there   are   excep>ons.   Prior   to   the   industrial   revolu>on,   what   we   considered   “work”   was   primarily   carried   out   by   men   and   this   naturally   led   to   work   being   masculinized.   The   increasing   number   of   women   in   the   workforce   will   undoubtedly   bring   a   more  gender  neutral  (or  at  least  less-­‐masculine)  workplace  in  the  future.    
  11. 11. Gender  and  Work   The   overall   percentage   of   women   in   the   workplace   overtook   the   percentage  of  men  in  1990  (Shedlock,  2012):  50%  
  12. 12. Gender  and  Work  Although   the   amount   of  women   employed   in   the  United  States  is  greater  than  the   amount   of   men,   women  only   made   79.9%   of   the  income  of  men  (as  of  2008).    It   is   encouraging,   however,  that   the   pay   gap   is   clearly  moving  in  the  right  direc>on.       (Fogary,  2012)  
  13. 13. Gender  and  Work   Despite  the  overall  income  equality  between  women  and  men  in  the  United   States,  recent  data  from  2012  highlights  a  new  trend:   “Overall,  women  s>ll  earn  only  about  80  percent  of  mens  wages,   but   among   young   adults,   women   out-­‐earn   men.   According   to   a   recent   analysis   of   147   of   the   countrys   150   biggest   ci>es   conducted   by   a   market   research   company,   the   median   full-­‐>me   salaries  of  young  women  are  8  percent  higher  than  those  of  their   male  peers.  In  some  ci>es,  young  women  bring  in  as  much  as  20   percent  more.  Experts  aBribute  the  disparity  to  the  growing  gap   in  educa.onal  achievement”  (Stuart,  2012).    
  14. 14. Gender  Communication   in  the  workplace   Communica>on   paKerns   in   the   workplace   tend   to   follow   broader   cultural   trends.   Even   in   the   largest   corpora>ons,   individual   workers   s>ll  have  their  own  unique  iden>>es  and  communica>on  paKerns.     General  stereotypes  about  men  and  women  in  the  workplace:   “As   bosses,   men   tend   to   be   more   authoritarian   and   women   more   collabora5ve.  Men  dont  give  much  feedback;  women  want  too  much   feedback.  Men  are  thought  not  to  ask  enough  ques5ons;  women  are   thought  to  ask  too  many  ques5ons.”  (Tugend,  2012).       Is   there   truth   in   the   above   stereotypes?     For   every   example   given,   I   can   certainly   think  of  both  men  and  women  that  meet   or   do   not   meet   those   generalized   expecta>ons  of  their  gender.    
  15. 15. Gender  Communication   in  the  workplace   Just   as   our   social   ins>tu>ons   have   been   created   through   gender,   our   understanding  of  gender  is  affected  by  our  social  ins>tu>ons.        “As  men  engage  in  gendering  prac5ces  consistent  with  ins5tu5onalized   norms   and   stereotypes   of   masculinity,   they   nonetheless   create   social   closure  and  oppression”  (DeFrancisco  &  Palczewski,  2007,  pg.  206).       Instead   of   seeking   to   create   a   completely   gender-­‐neutral   workplace,   I   think  there  may  be  value  in  recognizing  differences  between  genders  and   invi>ng  people  to  u>lize  the  most  beneficial  traits  associated  with  either   gender   as   it   relates   to   the   task   at   hand.   For   instance,   most   workplaces   require   employees   that   are   flexible   and   able   to   solve   problems   in   a   variety  of  ways.      
  16. 16. Gender  Communication   in  the  workplace   There   are   many   laws   and   regula>ons   that   seek  equality  for  all  genders  in  the  workplace.   The   AFL-­‐CIO   (the   largest   labor   union   in   the   U.S)   website   provides   some   informa>on   on   this  maKer:  •  Title   VII   of   the   Civil   Rights   Act   of   1964   prohibits   employment   discrimina.on   based   on   sex   by   a   private   employer,   state   or   local   government   or   educa>onal   ins>tu>on  with  15  or  more  employees.  •  Sexual  harassment  is  a  form  of  illegal  sex  discrimina>on  that  violates  Title  VII  of   the  Civil  Rights  Act  of  1964  •  Congress   is   considering   the   Employment   Non-­‐Discrimina>on   Act   (ENDA)   that   would   prohibit   discrimina>on   in   hiring,   firing,   promo>ons,   compensa>on   and   other  employment  prac>ces  because  of  a  person’s  sexual  orienta.on  or  gender   iden.ty  by  employers  with  15  or  more  employees.        
  17. 17. The  Future  I  think  it  is  important  to  recognize  how  work  is  closely  linked  to  the   rest   of   our   our   lives,   and   that   it’s   success   in   being   a   posi>ve  part  of  society  does  not  stop  and  end  at  the  beginning  and  end  of   the   workday.   Since   work   is   such   an   important   part   of   our  lives,  it  is  very  much  worth  studying  as  a  social  ins>tu>on.    Our  textbook  looks  at  the  importance  of  intersec>onality  (how  various   intersec>ng   factors   affect   our   iden>>es)   and   just   as  intersec>onality   creates   individuals   it   creates   and   maintains   our  social   ins>tu>ons   as   well.   Just   as   people   are   more   than   simply   a  gender,  work  is  also  dependent  upon  other  factors  such  as  the  ins>tu>ons   of   family,   educa>on,   and   media.   I   think   that  studying   gender   holis>cally,   from   an   individual   to   a   societal  level,  will  always  be  a  beneficial  prac>ce.  
  18. 18. Works  Cited    DeFrancisco,  Victoria,  and  Catherine  Helen.  Palczewski.  Communica5ng  Gender  Diversity:  A  Cri5cal  Approach.    Los  Angeles:  Sage    Publica>ons,  2007.  Print.    Fogarty,  Kevin.  "Gender  and  the  Workplace."  N.p.,  n.d.  Web.  Dec.  2012.  <hKp://­‐advice/gender-­‐workplace>.    "How  Women  Spend  Their  Time."  U.S.  Bureau  of  Labor  Sta5s5cs.  U.S.  Bureau  of  Labor  Sta>s>cs,    Mar.  2011.    Web.  09  Dec.  2012.  <  hKp://>.    Manuel,  Dave.  "Unemployment  Rates  in  the  United  States  since  1948."  Web.  09  Dec.  2012.    <    hKp://­‐unemployment-­‐rates-­‐in-­‐the-­‐united-­‐states.php>.    Shedlock,  Michael.  "Percentage  Growth  in  Government  Jobs  vs.  Private  Jobs:  Some  Facts."  Web  log  post.  Financial  Sense.  N.p.,  14  Aug.  2012.    Web.  09  Dec.  2012.  <hKp://              hKp://­‐shedlock/percentage-­‐growth-­‐in-­‐government-­‐jobs-­‐vs-­‐  private-­‐jobs-­‐some-­‐facts    Stuart,  Elizabeth.  "Growing  Pains:  Rate  of  Young  Men  Struggling  in  Careers  Alarmingly  Higher  than  for  Young    Women."    N.p.,  2  June  2012.  Web.  09  Dec.  2012.  <hKp://>cle/765580083/Growing-­‐pains-­‐Rate-­‐of-­‐young-­‐men-­‐struggling-­‐in-­‐  careers-­‐alarmingly-­‐higher-­‐  than-­‐for-­‐young-­‐women.html?pg=all>.    "Tradi>onal  Jobs  For  Men  And  Women  And  The  Gender  Divide."  Weblog  post.  The  Digera5  Life.  N.p.,  29  May    2007.  Web.  09  Dec.  2012.    <hKp://www.thedigera>>onal-­‐jobs-­‐for-­‐men-­‐and-­‐women-­‐the-­‐gender-­‐divide/>    Tugend,  Alina.  "Why  Dont  Women  Act  More  Like  Men  at  Work?"  The  Atlan5c.  N.p.,  15  Mar.  2012.  Web.  09    Dec.  2012.  <hKp://  www.theatlan>­‐dont-­‐  women-­‐act-­‐more-­‐like-­‐men-­‐at-­‐work/254556/>.    "What  Do  We  Mean  by  "sex"  and  "gender"?"  WHO.  World  Health  Organiza>on,  n.d.  Web.  09  Dec.  2012.    <hKp://  wha>sgender/en/>.    "Your  Rights  at  Work."  AFL-­‐CIO.  N.p.,  2012.  Web.  09  Dec.  2012.  <hKp://­‐and-­‐Workplace-­‐Rights/Your-­‐Rights-­‐at-­‐  Work>.      •