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Chemical analysis in the electron microscope

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The chapter describes principles of the chemical analysis in the SEM and TEM. From "Electron Microscopy and Analysis" textbook by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys and Richard Beanland. Courtesy of Taylor and Francis Books UK.

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Chemical analysis in the electron microscope

  1. 1. Contents (Note: Page numbers are as in the whole book so that the index remains valid) Acronyms …………………………………………………….……………………… iii Preface ………………………………………………………………………………. iv 6 Chemical analysis in the electron microscope 6.1 The generation of X-rays within a specimen ……………... 170 6.2 Detection and counting of X-rays ………………………… 174 6.3 X-ray analysis of bulk specimens …………………………. 184 6.4 X-ray analysis of thin specimens in the TEM ……………... 193 6.5 Quantitative analysis in an electron microscope …………... 196 6.6 Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) ………………... 205 6.7 A brief comparison of techniques …………………………. 212 6.8 Questions …………………………………………………... 213 Further reading ……………………………………………………………..…………... 236 Answers …………………………………………………………………………………... 238 Index …………………………………………………………………………..…………... 243
  2. 2. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  3. 3. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  4. 4. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  5. 5. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  6. 6. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  7. 7. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  8. 8. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  9. 9. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  10. 10. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  11. 11. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  12. 12. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  13. 13. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  14. 14. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  15. 15. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  16. 16. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  17. 17. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  18. 18. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  19. 19. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  20. 20. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  21. 21. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  22. 22. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  23. 23. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  24. 24. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  25. 25. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  26. 26. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  27. 27. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  28. 28. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  29. 29. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  30. 30. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  31. 31. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  32. 32. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  33. 33. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  34. 34. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  35. 35. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  36. 36. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  37. 37. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  38. 38. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  39. 39. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  40. 40. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  41. 41. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  42. 42. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  43. 43. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  44. 44. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  45. 45. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  46. 46. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  47. 47. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  48. 48. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  49. 49. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  50. 50. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  51. 51. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  52. 52. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  53. 53. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  54. 54. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  55. 55. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  56. 56. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  57. 57. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  58. 58. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  59. 59. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).
  60. 60. __________________________________________________________ Electron Microscopy and Analysis, Third Edition (electronic copy) by Peter J. Goodhew, John Humphreys, and Richard Beanland. Reproduced by kind permission of Taylor and Francis Books UK under a Creative Commons Licence (BY-SA).

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