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C++ CoreHard Autumn 2018. Debug C++ Without Running - Anastasia Kazakova

Macros, templates, compile-time evaluation and code generation, reflection and metaclasses – C++ tends to hide the final code passed to the compiler under the tons of various names and aliases. Add here the preprocessor that shadows the actual running curve of your program with dozens of alternatives mixed in a non-trivial way. While this allows to avoid boilerplate code and reduce copy-paste and other errors, such an approach demands better tooling support to make the debugging process easier. To find an error in such a code, one has to continuously read-fix-run it and compare the results with some etalon, or to debug in order to find actual substitutions. But should you really wait until your code is run or even compiled to debug it? Or how to deal with the situations when the code can’t be run on the local machine? A text editor with code completion won’t help, while a smart IDE that “gets” your code can do a better job. In this talk we’ll see interesting approaches to solving cases like macro and typedef ‘debug’, understanding types when auto/decltype hide them, dealing with different code branches depending on the preprocessor’s pass-through, and other ideas. Some suggestions are already implemented as ready-to-use features in CLion and ReSharper C++, tools for C++ from JetBrains (that means I can show it in action), others are planned for the future. The aim of this talk is to share the workflows supported by the tools that can help C++ developers create better modern C++ code.

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Debug C++
Without Running
Anastasia Kazakova
JetBrains
@anastasiak2512
C++ CoreHard Autumn 2018
Agenda
—
1. Why this talk? Tricky C++.
2. Classic solution: debugger, static/dynamic analyzer.
3. How an IDE can help?
Agenda
—
1. Why this talk? Tricky C++.
2. Classic solution: debugger, static/dynamic analyzer.
3. How an IDE can help?
Time for a quote
—
“C makes it easy to shoot yourself in the foot;
C++ makes it harder, but when you do it blows your whole leg off”
- Bjarne Stroustrup
http://www.stroustrup.com/bs_faq.html#really-say-that
JetBrains Dev Ecosystem survey 2017/2018
—
C++ Foundation Developer Survey 2018
—

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C++ CoreHard Autumn 2018. Debug C++ Without Running - Anastasia Kazakova

  • 1. Debug C++ Without Running Anastasia Kazakova JetBrains @anastasiak2512 C++ CoreHard Autumn 2018
  • 2. Agenda — 1. Why this talk? Tricky C++. 2. Classic solution: debugger, static/dynamic analyzer. 3. How an IDE can help?
  • 3. Agenda — 1. Why this talk? Tricky C++. 2. Classic solution: debugger, static/dynamic analyzer. 3. How an IDE can help?
  • 4. Time for a quote — “C makes it easy to shoot yourself in the foot; C++ makes it harder, but when you do it blows your whole leg off” - Bjarne Stroustrup http://www.stroustrup.com/bs_faq.html#really-say-that
  • 5. JetBrains Dev Ecosystem survey 2017/2018 —
  • 6. C++ Foundation Developer Survey 2018 —
  • 7. C++ difficulties: 42 — template<class T, int ... X> T pi(T(X...)); int main() { return pi<int, 42>; }
  • 8. template<class T, int ... X> T pi(T(X...)); int main() { return pi<int, 42>; } C++ difficulties: 42 —
  • 9. template<class T, int ... X> T pi(T(X...)); int main() { return pi<int, 42>; } int main() { return int(42); } C++ difficulties: 42 — template<class T, int ... X> T pi = T(X...); int main() { return pi<int, 42>; } int main() { return 42; }
  • 10. C++ difficulties: macro — #define X(a) myVal_##a, enum myShinyEnum { #include "xmacro.txt" }; #undef X void foo(myShinyEnum en) { switch (en) { case myVal_a:break; case myVal_b:break; case myVal_c:break; case myVal_d:break; } } //xmacro.txt X(a) X(b) X(c) X(d)
  • 11. C++ difficulties: macro — #define MAGIC 100 #define CALL_DEF(val, class_name) int call_##class_name() { return val; } #define CLASS_DEF(class_name) class class_##class_name { public: int count_##class_name; CALL_DEF(MAGIC, class_name) }; CLASS_DEF(A) CLASS_DEF(B) CLASS_DEF(C)
  • 12. C++ difficulties: context — //foo.h #ifdef MAGIC template<int> struct x { x(int i) { } }; #else int x = 100; #endif //foo.cpp #include "foo.h" void test(int y) { const int a = 100; auto k = x<a>(0); }
  • 13. C++ difficulties: compile-time generation — interface Shape { int area() const; void scale_by(double factor); }; struct Shape { virtual int area() const = 0; virtual void scale_by(double factor) = 0; virtual ~Shape() noexcept { } } $class interface { constexpr { compiler.require($interface.variables().empty(), "interfaces may not contain data"); for... (auto f : $interface.functions()) { compiler.require(!f.is_copy() && !f.is_move(), "interfaces may not copy or move; consider a" " virtual clone() instead"); if (!f.has_access()) f.make_public(); compiler.require(f.is_public(), "interface functions must be public"); f.make_pure_virtual(); } } virtual ~interface() noexcept { } };
  • 14. C++ difficulties: overloads — class Fraction {…}; std::ostream& operator<<(std::ostream& out, const Fraction& f){…} bool operator==(const Fraction& lhs, const Fraction& rhs){…} bool operator!=(const Fraction& lhs, const Fraction& rhs){…} Fraction operator*(Fraction lhs, const Fraction& rhs){…} void fraction_sample() { Fraction f1(3, 8), f2(1, 2); std::cout << f1 << " * " << f2 << " = " << f1 * f2 << 'n'; }
  • 15. C++ difficulties: overloads — void foo() { std::cout << "1n"; } void foo(int) { std::cout << "2n"; } template<typename T> void foo(T) { std::cout << "3n"; } template<> void foo(int) { std::cout << "4n"; } template<typename T> void foo(T*) { std::cout << "5n"; } struct S {}; void foo(S) { std::cout << "6n"; } struct ConvertibleToInt {ConvertibleToInt(int); }; void foo(ConvertibleToInt) { std::cout << "7n"; } namespace N { namespace M { void foo(char) { std::cout << "8n"; } } void foo(double) { std::cout << "9n"; } } int main() { foo(1); using namespace N::M; foo(1); }
  • 16. C++ difficulties: even more — • Constexpr • Injected code • …
  • 17. Agenda — 1. Why this talk? Tricky C++. 2. Classic solution: debugger, static/dynamic analyzer. 3. How an IDE can help?
  • 18. Do these help? — • Read-fix-run / read-fix-print-run and check results • Debug • Use static or dynamic code analysis
  • 19. Do these help? — • Read-fix-run / read-fix-print-run and check results • Debug • Use static or dynamic code analysis No!
 (not always)
  • 20. Herb Sutter’s keynotes CppCon’17 — Meta - Thoughts on Generative C++ • Abstractions are hiders • Abstractions need tool support • Good abstractions do need to be toolable
  • 22. Agenda — 1. Why this talk? Tricky C++. 2. Classic solution: debugger, static/dynamic analyzer. 3. How an IDE can help?
  • 23. The power of tools: Macro debug — Goal – understand the substitution w/o running the preprocessor
  • 24. The power of tools: Macro debug — Existing options: • Show final replacement
  • 25. The power of tools: Macro debug — Existing options: • Show final replacement • Substitute next step
  • 26. The power of tools: Macro debug — Existing options: • Show final replacement • Substitute next step • Substitute all steps
  • 27. The power of tools: Macro debug — Substitute macro – practical sample
  • 28. The power of tools: Macro debug — Be careful! Code might be affected!
  • 29. The power of tools: Macro debug — Be careful! Code might be affected!
  • 30. The power of tools: Macro debug — Macro debug requires all usages analysis!
  • 31. The power of tools: Macro debug — Macro debug requires all usages analysis!
  • 32. The power of tools: Type info debug — Goal – understand the final type
  • 33. The power of tools: Type info debug — Existing options: • Show inferred type
  • 34. The power of tools: Type info debug — Existing options: • Show inferred type
  • 35. The power of tools: Type info debug — Existing options: • Show inferred type • Substitute typedef (one step)
  • 36. The power of tools: Type info debug — Existing options: • Show inferred type • Substitute typedef (one step)
  • 37. The power of tools: Type info debug — Existing options: • Show inferred type • Substitute typedef (one step) • Substitute typedef and all 
 nested (all steps)
  • 38. The power of tools: Meta info debug — Debug the abstractions • Instantiating templates
  • 39. The power of tools: Meta info debug — template <typename T> auto get_value(T t) { if constexpr (std::is_pointer<T>::value) return *t; else return t; } void test() { auto pi = std::make_unique<int>(9); int i = 9; std::cout << get_value(pi.get()) << "n"; std::cout << get_value(i) << "n"; } Debug the abstractions • Instantiating templates • Constexpr evaluator
  • 40. The power of tools: Meta info debug — Debug the abstractions • Instantiating templates • Constexpr evaluator • Template intellisense
  • 41. The power of tools: Overloads debug — Debug functions and operators overload
  • 42. The power of tools: Overloads debug — Debug overloads: • Distinguish overloaded operators
  • 43. Overload resolution: 1. Do name lookup 2. Do template argument deduction 3. Pick the candidate 4. Check access control The power of tools: Overloads debug — Debug overloads: • Distinguish overloaded operators • Explain overload resolution
  • 44. Show candidates set via parameter info • One-by-one or all together • Parameters or full signature The power of tools: Overloads debug —
  • 45. The power of tools: Overloads debug — Show candidates set via parameter info • One-by-one or all together • Parameters or full signature
  • 46. • Show candidates set • Show explanations The power of tools: Overloads debug — ?
  • 47. The power of tools: Overloads debug — Debug overloads: • Distinguish overloaded operators • Explain overload resolution • Navigate to similar functions
  • 48. “Once an #include has been added, it stays” (http://bitsquid.blogspot.co.uk/2011/10/ caring-by-sharing-header-hero.html) Blowup factor = total lines / total lines parsed The power of tools: Includes profiler —
  • 49. Header heros: • PCH The power of tools: Includes profiler —
  • 50. Header heros: • PCH • Profilers The power of tools: Includes profiler —
  • 51. Header heros: • PCH • Profilers • Optimizers • Unused include check • Include what you use ( and don't include what you don't use) • Includator The power of tools: Includes profiler —
  • 52. References — • Herb Sutter, Meta - Thoughts on Generative C++ • [CppCon 2017] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4AfRAVcThyA • Niklas, bitsquid blog, Caring by Sharing: Header Hero • [2011] http://bitsquid.blogspot.co.uk/2011/10/caring-by-sharing-header-hero.html • C++ Foundation Developer Survey • [2018-2] https://isocpp.org/files/papers/CppDevSurvey-2018-02-summary.pdf • The State of Developer Ecosystem Survey • [2017] https://www.jetbrains.com/research/devecosystem-2017/cpp/ • [2018] https://www.jetbrains.com/research/devecosystem-2018/cpp/
  • 53. Thank you for your attention — Questions?