Parts of a sentence final


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Parts of a sentence final

  1. 1. University of the PunjabDepartment of English Language &Literature
  2. 2. Parts of a SentencePresented to: Ms Amna ShahidPresented by: Zeeshan ShaukatRoll No. 41Zeeshan Shaukat
  3. 3. Look at These Sentences1. Colourless green ideas sleepfuriously.2. An ant crushes an elephant.3. My white cat is black.4. Love many people to football watch.5. Doll the beautiful by me is bought.Zeeshan Shaukat
  4. 4. Parts of a Sentence• S = Subject• P= Predicate V = Verb (Transitive/Intransitive) DO = Direct Object IO = Indirect Object OC = Object Complement Adverbial Zeeshan Shaukat
  5. 5. Students studied.Children play.Zeeshan Shaukat
  6. 6. A sentence is…• A group of words with asubject and verb thatexpresses a complete thought.SUBJECT PREDICATEThe dog barked at the mailman.Zeeshan Shaukat
  7. 7. Sentence Fragments• A sentence fragment is a group of words thatlooks like a sentence but…. does not contain both a subject and a verb OR does not express a complete thought.F / S When I get homeF / S Ran as fast as humanly possibleF / S Several decided not to attendZeeshan Shaukat
  8. 8. SUBJECT• The (complete) subject is the part of asentence about which something is being said.• It tells WHAT or WHOM the sentence is about.• It DOES something or is TALKED ABOUT.1. A line of people waited to see the movie.2. Standing in line were several applicants.3. The day of the performance arrived.Zeeshan Shaukat
  9. 9. Compound Subjects• When two or more subjects have the sameverb, it is called a compound subject.• Usually joined by “and” or “or”1. Ali, Ahmad, and Junaid carried their books.2. Either Islamabad or Murree is our destination.3. English and science are exciting classes.Zeeshan Shaukat
  10. 10. Find the Subject• Why are you looking so nervous inthis company?• What an exciting match it was!• Why does performing in a concertworry you so much?Zeeshan Shaukat
  11. 11. PREDICATE• The predicate is the part that sayssomething about the subject. It containsthe VERB.• Everything that is not part of thesubject of the sentence.• Predicate comes from a Latin wordpraedicare meaning to assert.• A predicate asserts or sayssomething about the subject of thesentence.Zeeshan Shaukat
  12. 12. PREDICATE1. Ishfaq Ahmad wrote several books.2. The movie star signed autographs forhours.3. Tahir, the minister, took a walk outsidetoday.4. After the ceremony, the captain will signautographs.5. The small village is located near the river.Zeeshan Shaukat
  13. 13. COMPLEMENTSWords that complete the meaning of a verb arecalled complements.1. I have a test today.2. The sun feels hot on my shoulders.3. The management has appointedHafeez the captain of the team.Zeeshan Shaukat
  14. 14. COMPLEMENTS• Subject-complement says somethingabout the Subject of the sentence, forexample what it is or what it is like.This picture is nice.• Object-complement says somethingabout the direct object of a sentence.They made him chairman.Zeeshan Shaukat
  15. 15. DIRECT OBJECT• The direct object receives the action expressedby the verb or names the result of the action.• Answers the question WHAT or WHOM after theverbSUBJECT VERB D.O.1. Volunteers distributed food at the shelter.SUBJECT VERB D.O.2. We watched the performance.3. The researchers followed the research pattern.Zeeshan Shaukat
  16. 16. INDIRECT OBJECT• The indirect object precedes the directobject and tells TO WHOM or FOR WHOM theaction of the verb is done.• Found by asking the question TO WHOM orFOR WHOM after the direct objectSUBJECT VERB I.O. D.O.1. My parents gave me a cake for my birthday.SUBJECT VERB I.O. D.O.2. He would not tell you a lie.3. She sent her mother some earrings.Zeeshan Shaukat
  17. 17. INDIRECT OBJECT• Indirect Objects can be rephrased asprepositional phrases after the direct objectThe dog brought his bone to me. (prepphrase)The dog brought me his bone. (indirectobject)• SEND, LEND, BRING, GIVEZeeshan Shaukat
  18. 18. Points to Remember• A direct object and an object-complement always refer to the sameperson or thing:They elected Ali chairman.(Ali = chairman)• An object-complement follows the directobject:Weve appointed Susan the union rep.(Susan = the union rep)Zeeshan Shaukat
  19. 19. Points to Remember• Direct and indirect objects always refer todifferent people or things:She lent me her new camera.(me her new camera)• An indirect object precedes a direct object.They gave her a present.• (direct object a present; indirect objecther)Zeeshan Shaukat
  20. 20. Points to Remember• An indirect object can generally be replacedby a word-group beginning with to or forwhereas the direct object in front of anobject-complement cannot be replaced inthis way:She lent her new camera to me.They gave a present to her.Zeeshan Shaukat
  21. 21. Transitive/Intransitive Verbs• A verb that has a direct object is called aTransitive verb:Rizwan kicked the ball angrily.Where did you buy that book?• A verb that is followed by both an indirectobject and a direct object is ditransitive.Ive brought you some fIowers.Zeeshan Shaukat
  22. 22. Transitive/Intransitive Verbs• A verb that does not have a direct object iscalled an Intransitive verb:A friend of mine lives in Delhi.My aunt is coming next weekend.Zeeshan Shaukat
  23. 23. Circle the Direct Objects and underlinethe Indirect Objects1. I will give you my answer tomorrow.2. Get me some new pens when youre intown, please.3. There are plans to teachschoolchildren first aid.4. Dont forget to take your wife someflowers.5. Tell me a story.Zeeshan Shaukat
  24. 24. Adverbials• Describe where, when, why, how, forwhom, with what, how much, etc. the actiondescribed in the sentence is carried out.1.I’ll see you at the match.2.Are you coming this evening?3.Atif sings melodiously.4.Youll have to cut it with a knife.Zeeshan Shaukat
  25. 25. Adverbials or Complements• Adverbials/Adjuncts give informationabout the action or state described by theverb of the sentence, whereascomplements give information about thesubject or object of the sentenceZeeshan Shaukat
  26. 26. AdverbialsYou have behaved foolishly.(Adverbial -that is how you have behaved)You have been foolish.(subject-complement -that is what you havebeen)Amir paints beautifully.(Adverbial -that is how Amir paints)Zeeshan Shaukat
  27. 27. Two men were walking along the streetwhen one fell into a hole and broke his leg.• Quick, he said to his friend Call me anambulance. •Okay, said the other man Youre anambulance. Structural AmbiguityZeeshan Shaukat
  28. 28. ? ? ? ? ? ?Zeeshan Shaukat