1. If someone asked you what memory is (to define)
memory, what would you say?
2. Are there different types / kinds of memory? If so,
3. How important is the ability to remember? Why?
Explain your thoughts?
4. Without our memory we would not survive. Agree
or disagree, and explain your choice.
5. Without memories we would not know who we are.
Agree or disagree, and explain your choice.
The concept of memory is difficult to define.
Memory is one of those abilities that we take for
Certainly memory is related to learning.
Is the system or process by which the products
or results of learning are stored for future use.
- Material that has been learned must be
repeated in the order which it was presented.
- Phone numbers
- Simple procedure like how to make coffee
- Math equations
- Items to be recalled are learned in pairs. During recall,
one member of the pair is presented and the other is to
Example: Learning a foreign language, basic definition
- When material that has been learned may be repeated in
any order. Here the task is to remember as many items as
possible, regardless of their order
Example: Essay Answers.
1. Who was Herman Ebbinghaus?
2. What are nonsense syllables and why are
3. Explain the curve of forgetting.
4. What is a recognition test (provide an
5. What is a relearning test? What does it
have found a strategy that
emphasizes free recall. . . Use music.
How many commercials have you seen or
heard that did not include music or a jingle?
Advertisersassume that we are more likely to
remember brands and products if they are
associated with catchy phrases or jingles.
Surprisingly little research has been conducted to verify
Results of research that has been done are mixed:
Some studies have yielded a positive correlation between
memory and music, some have found no relationship, and
still others have found that music can actually interfere
Most psychologist conclude that items associated with
musical jingles or catchy phrases are easier to retrieve
from memory, but that pairing an item with music it
does not necessarily enhance recognition of those items
•Be all that you can be •Tastes great, less filling
•Army •Miller Lite
•M'm, M'm good •Good to the last drop
•Campbell’s Soup •Maxwell House
•Waaay delicious •Don’t leave home without it
•Wendy’s •American Express
•Winston tastes good like a •Wassup?!
cigarette should •Budweiser
•Winston’s Cigarettes •Have it your way.
•A little dab'll do ya •Burger King
•Brule Cream •Got milk?
•Diamonds are forever •I’m Love’n it
•Just do it
• Eat Fresh • Safeway
• Subway • Excelerate your Breath
• Have a Break • Excel
• Kit Kat • You’ll Find Us
• Betcha can’t have just one • Best Sleep Center
• Lay’s Chips • Think outside the Bun
• Makes a nice light snack • Taco Bell
• Coffee Crisp • The Best a Man can get
• Pure Nature • Gillette
• Disani • Do the Dew
• Be Kool • Mountain Dew
• Kool Aid • You can do it we can help
• Look, Ma, no cavities! • Home Depot
• Crest • What’s in your Wallet
• Zoom Zoom • Capital one
• Mazda • Is it in you?
• Ingredients for life. • Gatorade
Theencoding-storage-retrieval model of memory
would serve our purpose well if we only had one type
of memory to store
However, we have at least three well-defined types of
Short Term Memory
Long Term Memory
Therefore the information processing model of
memory must be modified:
Encoding – “type” of storage – Retrieval
1. Sensory Memory:
- Storage of sensory events such as sights, sounds, and
tastes, with no further processing or interpretation
- Provides us with a very brief image of all the stimuli
that are present at a particular moment
- it is quite large
only briefly about one half to one second,
depending on which sensory systems are involved
Sensoryinformation that is not selected for further
processing by higher brain centers is displaced by
incoming stimuli and may be lost completely
Once info has be selected from sensory memory, it is
transferred to our conscious awareness
Info must be processed in STM before it can be
transferred to more permanent storage in LTM
STM lasts only for a short period of time
Itappears that items are lost from STM in 10 -20
Forexample: one study found that participants’ recall
of a three-letter stimulus fell from 90% correct
immediately following the presentation of the
stimulus, to 5% correct after 18 seconds
There are two reasons for this:
1. Unless memories are practiced or rehearsed they
become weaker and fade away
2. To make room for new incoming information some
of the memories in STM are pushed out or displaced
For example: In the same experiment as above
participants counted backwards by threes (an
interfering task) after learning the three-letter
The result was that most Short Term information was
Theory states that we can hold approximately 7 (+-) 2
items in our STM
What about phone numbers that are 10 digits with the
Grouping or chunking things is the solution
STM is limited to five to nine items 7(+-)2, each of
those items may consist of a chunk or group of items
Initial15-20 second STM leads to a second phase
called working memory
Working memory – the intermediate processing stage
between STM and LTM, where attention and
conscious effort are brought to bear on the material
For example: you are in class listening to a lecture in
which a definition is mentioned. While you hold what
the teacher is saying in your STM, you retrieve word
meaning from LTM. Then you use Working memory
to make sense of the new sentence you just heard.
Memory stage that has a very large capacity and the
capability to store information relatively permanently
Rehearsalor practice is important in the transfer of
information from STM into LTM
Two types of memory rehearsal:
1. Maintenance Rehearsal
2. Elaborative Rehearsal
Maintenance Rehearsal: rehearsal used when we
want to save or maintain a memory for a specific
period of time.
Elaborative Rehearsal: Meaning is added to the
material to be remembered.
- This leads to more permanent memory and promotes
transfer of information into LTM.
memory loss is due to fading or decay of
memories over time (Curve of Forgetting)
Other memory loss is caused by interference
There are two main types of memory interference:
Situation in which previously learned (old) information
hinders the recall of information learned more recently
For example: You move into a new house but find
yourself still using your old address and phone number
Example 2: In January many people continue to write
the previous year’s date
2. Retroactive Interference:
- Situation when information learned more recently
(new information) hinders the recall of information
learned previously (old information)
- Models of memory suggests that when a memory is
recalled from LTM and enters our consciousness, it may
be combined with new information that have been
received, creating a new memory.
- If this new modified memory is properly rehearsed it
may be transferred back to LTM for permanent storage
1. What word was 26 Right
written under the
diamond at the end 2 Wrong
of the trailer?
2. What mode of 6 Right
was used to 22 Wrong
3. What colour was the 4 Right
4. How old was the last
woman / girl in the
Woman Avg =24
Girl Avg = 18
5. Was anyone
wearing a watch? 19 Right
10 Techniques for Improving Memory:
1.Number of study sessions:
- Generally the greater the number of sessions the better the
learning and memory
2. Distribution of Study Sessions:
- Sessions should be spread out. Spaced practice is more
effective than massed practice
3. Meaningfulness of Material:
- If you attach meaning you will learn better and remember
4. Similarity of items:
- a group of items of the same general type will be
learned better than a group of dissimilar items
5. Serial Positioning:
- Items at the beginning and end of a study session or
list will be learned better than items in the middle of
the study session or list
6. Mnemonic Devices:
- When you are not able to attach authentic meaning
to information, creating associations to help you
remember the material will increase memory
- Creating mental images or pictures in your mind
enhances recognition and recall of information
8. Grouping or Chunking:
- grouping similar items together into categories helps
to remember them better
- Creating special codes to help learn material that
10. Exercise regularly – Both mind and body
What was his technique?
Walk a path several times
Then hang a memory on each significant part
of the path.
We are going to do that.
Walk a path in the school.
Classes are in session so you need to be silent.
As you walk the path create 10 anchors.
These could be rooms or teachers.
It should be some place where you have a memory.
Walk the path 4 times! Memorize the order of
Attach a memory technique on an anchor.
Try to have meaning to the association
Ex. Maybe Serial Positioning could be associated with the
Foods’ Lab (Cereal -> food, get it?)
Question #5 Will be discussed / presented and Handed
in by group:
1. Leader – Leads discussion / makes sure everyone has
2. Recorder – Writes down group’s answers / thoughts
3. Focuser – Redirects the group back to the task at hand when
they get off task
4. Time Keeper – reminds group of time remaining so that task
5. Reporter – Shares key points of the groups discussion with
the whole class
3 Major types of LTM:
Memory for making responses and performing
Memory for general knowledge.
7-2 = ?
Alberta shares a border with BC
Big cities tend to be rather impersonal
Tip-Of-The-Tongue phenomenon. We will test
your semantic memory.
Write down your answers to each of the
1. Which ocean is adjacent to California?
2. Which type of engine is used to power an
3. What do bears do in the winter?
4. What are 2 Manitoban lakes?
5. What is the capital of Saskatchewon?
6. Who was Canada’s first Prime Minister?
7. Where will the 2019 Olympics be held?
Name the province each of
the following cities are in:
1. Edmonton A
2. Dauphin M
3. Wistler B
4. Ottawa O
5. Medicine Hat S
6. Fort Nelson B
7. Fort Francis O
8. Abbotsford B
9. Flin Flon M
10. Moncton N
11. St. John’s N
12. Peterborough O
Also Called Flashbulb!
Think of a comera Take a picture and it will stay in
Here are some of mine:
May 25th 2002 4:03PM
35 cm of Snowfall Nov. 15th 2005
Nov 26th 2007
The death of Michael Jackson
Sep 11th 2001
Height from: 5’3 - 6’3
Weight from: 150 – 220 lbs
Age From: 17 - 37 years old
Shirt: Yellow, Green, White, Plaid
Pant Style: Khaki, Cargo, Dress, Slacks
Pant Colour: Cream, Tan, Beige, Dark, Black,
Hair Style: Short, Spiky, Curly, Straight
Hair Colour: Black, Dark Brown, Light Brown,
Brown, Blonde 175 lbs
White Necklace Yellow Shirt
Greenish Grey Dress Pants
Had a knife Glasses
“Looked like a white Boughen” old
French for “Already Seen”
There are 40 theories
70% of population stated to have experienced it
Most in ages 15 – 25
result from an overlap between the neurological systems
responsible for STM and those responsible for LTM. The events
would be stored into memory before the conscious part of the
brain even receives the information and processes it.
Eye seeing faster than the other eye.
Eye- Witness Testimony
One of the most intriguing applications of the “encoding
specificity hypothesis” has been in the area of eye witness
Such testimony often play an important part in jury trials
Listen to story.
What cues were present when the accident was present?
What cues were present when the statement was made?
Is it possible for the drivers of the 2 cars to modify the memories
of the eye witness as they discussed the accident?
When you retrieve a memory from LTM it is placed in
STM. New information can then me added to the memory.
The” states that the effectiveness of memory retrieval is
directly related to the similarity of the cues present when
the memory was encoded.
The possibility that eyewitness reports may be inaccurate has
stimulated a large amount of psychological research
Psychologists have found that when a memory is retrieved from LTM,
it appears to be placed in STM for processing
While in STM it is possible to add new information to a memory and
then re-encode the modified memory
The next time you retrieve the new memory, your report may not
correspond exactly to what actually happened because the new
memory now contains the additional information
This effect was tested in several experiments conducted by Elizabeth
Focus of her work was on human memory and how it can be
changed by facts, ideas, suggestions and other forms of post-
Her interest in memory began with one of her first studies The
Lost in the Mall experiment.
Discovered what she termed as “False Memory Syndrome”
Discovered the “Misinformation Effect:
a memory bias that occurs when misinformation affects
people's reports of their own memory.
Famous Car Accident Reconstruction Experiment:
- Two groups of people watched a series of slides that
showed a collision between a red sports car and
- One groups saw the red sports car approach a stop
sign at the intersection, the second group saw the
sports car approach a yield sign at the intersection
- After the slide presentation was complete the
participant were asked a series of questions about
what they had seen.
For half of the participants in each group the questions
were consistent with what they had seen
For the participants in each group, the questions were
inconsistent with what really happened – if they had seen
a stop sign, the question referred to a yield sign, etc.
Finally, all participants were shown both pairs of slides
and asked to pick the one they had actually seen.
The results were startling:
75% of individuals who were asked consistent
questions after seeing the slides correctly picked the
slide that they had seen
Only 40% of the participants asked the inconsistent
questions were able to select the slide they had
The experiment proved that questioning had altered
their memory of the incident
Loftus repeated a similar experiment, called the Crash
Experiment and found similar results.
Recently Loftus had found similar findings in what
became known as the “Bugs Bunny” experiment
In addition to demonstrating the memory –altering
effects of questioning. Loftus did many other
controversial experiments involving the accuracy of eye
Her findings all concluded three important things:
1. Participants have trouble distinguishing
between individuals of other races
2. Violence interferes with memory retrieval
3. The degree of confidence of an eye witness is
not related to the accuracy of the memory.
1. Define Memory
2. Serial Paired-Association Free Recall
3. Herman Ebbinghaus and Non-Sense Syllables
4. Recognition and re-learning Test
1. Recognition: Test in which learning is measured by
th e ability to pick out obviously learned items from
a list that contains unfamiliar items ex high school
3 Stages of memory processing
Curve of Forgetting
The longer we waited the more we forgot
Atkinson – Shiffrin Model of Memory
Identify Three typses of Memory
Short Term Memory
George Miller 7 +- 2
Long Term Memory
Maintenance Memory Rehersal
Elaboritive Memory Rehearsal
Levels of Processing:
Deeper processing of information increases the
likelihood that the information will be places in
LTM. Rehearsal is important but so is How we
Four Types of LTM
Tip of the Tongue
Network of related concepts that are linked together.
Ex Newspaper – Sunday, Reporter, Classified etc.
Groupings or cluster of knowledge about an object
or sequence of events.
Five Techniques for improving Memory
What are Mnemonic Devices
Q1:What does it mean to have the ability to think?
That is, what is thinking?
Q2: What does it mean to be intelligent?
Q3:What are the characteristics of an intelligent
Q4:Isintelligence a result of your genes (nature) or
you environment (nurture)?
Q5:Can a person learn intelligence?