These guidelines introduce and promote the essential elements of participatoryrangeland management (PRM). Based upon the s...
Introductory Guidelines toParticipatory Rangeland Managementin Pastoral AreasCompiled byFiona Flintan and Adrian Culliswit...
Introductory Guidelines toParticipatory Rangeland Managementin Pastoral AreasCompiled byFiona Flintan and Adrian Culliswit...
Published in 2010ISBN 978-99944-847-1-3Save the Children is the world’s leading independent child rights organization. Mor...
Contents07   Introduction to participatory rangeland management11   Stage 1: Investigating PRM     Step 1: Identifying ran...
Boxes, Figures and Tables                       Acronyms and Abbreviations08   Box 1                                      ...
The structure of these guidelinesThe purpose of these Guidelines is to introduce and promote the essential elements of par...
‘Rangeland productivity hotspots’ needto be protected for pastoralists toensure the viability and growth of thepastoral pr...
Introduction to participatory rangeland managementRangeland management in Ethiopia                              without a ...
Based upon the success of participatory forest man-             The second task is for the rangeland management unit,ageme...
Figure 1 The stages of the PRM processment processes that will be followed, including monitor-    the management plan and ...
A Hamar man waters his cattle. Access to water                                                      is becoming increasing...
1Investigating PRMStep 1 Identifying rangeland resources and usersThe basis of a rangeland management agreement is the ran...
user group; and the effective institutional mechanisms              forest boundaries, physical features (such as rivers, ...
Participatory mapping of resources bycommunity members is a key startingpoint for understanding resource use,users, access...
A community-drawn resource map can prove to be a valuable tool for land use planning in pastoral areas.whom should have wh...
Table 1 Four ‘Rs’ matrix for a dry season grazing area                                               Guidelines to Partici...
Exclusion of community groups from customary institutions and decision-making processesDryland groups such as pastoralists...
2Negotiating PRMStep 2 Setting up or strengtheningrangeland management institutionsThe establishment or strengthening of f...
Local customary authorities in Afar meet to resolve a dispute involving the use of their dry season grazing areas.nected. ...
2Negotiating PRMStep 3 Defining the rangeland management unitand preparing the rangeland resource assessmentThe rangeland ...
without which the whole pastoral system that func-         other useful information for understanding different soil  tion...
i) To provide an inventory of resources and their condi-   tion as a contribution to the rangeland management   plan and t...
Experience with Participatory Forest Management (PFM)                                                      suggests that a...
2Negotiating PRMStep 4 Developing the rangeland management planThe rangeland management plan is the vital last step before...
is important to test their effectiveness and impacts. Skills  Box 3 Woreda Environment                                    ...
2Negotiating PRMStep 5 Establishing therangeland management agreementThe rangeland management agreement is the binding con...
or zones) and its resources, for example who can do what      within forest management agreements and propertyin the area ...
3Implementing PRMStep 6 New roles for communitiesand rangeland management advisorsParticipatory rangeland management requi...
• Adaptors to climate change and related influences.          • Monitors of PRM processes and of rangeland manage-• Commun...
3Implementing PRMStep 7 Arresting and reversingdeclining rangeland productivityImplementing new rangeland management appro...
ment options to consider. However capacities may needto be (re)built if such practices are new or have not been     Box 6 ...
3Implementing PRMStep 8 Participatory monitoring and evaluationThe effectiveness of its monitoring and evaluation system w...
The plan needs to ensure that PRM monitoring and     Box 7 Definition of monitoring                                       ...
Introductory Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management in Pastoral Areas
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Introductory Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management in Pastoral Areas

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The purpose of these Guidelines is to introduce and promote the essential elements of participatory rangeland management (PRM).

After introducing participatory rangeland management and explaining why it is now important for Ethiopia, the Guidelines set out the sequential steps involved in PRM, divided into three stages of investigation, negotiation and implementation. In the main section (negotiation), the reader can make quick reference to the specific steps in the process and its main outcome — a participatory rangeland management agreement.

The long-term implementation of PRM requires that new partnerships be established between government and communities, that new negative threats to rangelands be addressed, and that rangelands are effectively monitored. The book concludes with clear guidance on what is needed within each of these final steps in the process.

[ Originally posted on http://www.cop-ppld.net/cop_knowledge_base ]

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Introductory Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management in Pastoral Areas

  1. 1. These guidelines introduce and promote the essential elements of participatoryrangeland management (PRM). Based upon the successful experiences ofparticipatory forest management, the guidelines provide a process followingthree stages of investigation, negotiation and implementation. The sequentialsteps of this process lead to the development of a rangeland management planand a legally binding rangeland management agreement between a local range-land management institution and the appropriate local government office. PRM supports community leadership and inclusiveness in land use planningpolicy and practice. It takes into account the interests, positions and needs of allrangeland users in pastoral areas and offers opportunities for negotiations to becarried out between these different stakeholders to come to agreement over thefuture of pastoral land use. It provides a suitable and legitimizing process ofcommunal land and resource tenure that fits with both the priorities of pastor-alists as well as government bodies. This document has been developed with the assistance of many NGO andgovernment representatives who have an interest in supporting pastoralistsand their livelihood processes. It is anticipated that the Guidelines will help tofurther inform policy and decision makers whose task is to establish effectiverange management as a basis for the sustainable development of the rangelands. EUROPEAN COMMISSION Humanitarian AidSave the Children USA FAO Emergency and Rehabilitation European Commission Directorate GeneralEthiopia Country Office Coordination Office for Humanitarian Aid — ECHOPO Box 387 PO Box 5536 PO Box 5570Addis Ababa Addis Ababa Addis AbabaEthiopia Ethiopia EthiopiaTel: + 251 (0)11 372 8455-60 Tel: +251 (0)11 551 7233 Tel: +251 (0)11 663 8616 / 618 0256Fax: + 251 (0)11 372 8045 Fax: +251 (0)11 551 5266 Fax: +251 (0)11 663 8611
  2. 2. Introductory Guidelines toParticipatory Rangeland Managementin Pastoral AreasCompiled byFiona Flintan and Adrian Culliswith assistance fromMembers of the Natural Resource ManagementTechnical Working Group, Ethiopia
  3. 3. Introductory Guidelines toParticipatory Rangeland Managementin Pastoral AreasCompiled byFiona Flintan and Adrian Culliswith assistance fromMembers of the Natural Resource ManagementTechnical Working Group, EthiopiaEUROPEAN COMMISSION Humanitarian Aid
  4. 4. Published in 2010ISBN 978-99944-847-1-3Save the Children is the world’s leading independent child rights organization. More typically associated with education,health and HIV programming, Save the Children’s Ethiopia Country Office is supporting pioneering work with pastoral chil-dren and community leaders in Ethiopia as part of a global climate change mitigation and adaptation initiative. The immedi-ate focus is to maintain livestock productivity — in particular milk — and therefore mitigate malnutrition in children underfive. In the longer-term, Save the Children seeks to:• Arrest and reverse rangeland degradation for future generations of children• Promote sustainable economic development in the rangelands to address poverty and reduce dependence on food aid• Secure international payments for ‘rangeland environmental services’ including the subsidized sequestration of carbonAcknowledgementsThe Guidelines were compiled by Fiona Flintan1 and Adrian Cullis,2 supported by Ben Irwin,3 based on work previously car-ried out in Ethiopia under the Participatory Forest Management initiative which was initially led by FARM Africa, SOS Saheland the Bureaus of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Oromia and Southern Nations and Nationalities Peoples’(SNNP) Regions. In particular the Guidelines are based on the planning steps developed in the ‘Key Steps in Establishing Par-ticipatory Forest Management’”.4 The compilers could not have completed the task without the support and encouragement of the Natural Resource Man-agement Technical Working Group (NRM TWG) which was established as part of the USAID-funded Enhanced Livelihoods inthe Mandera Triangle/Enhanced Livelihoods in Southern Ethiopia (ELMT/ELSE) and EU-funded PILLAR (Pastoral ImprovedLivelihoods and Resilience) programs, and has spread to include a wide range of stakeholders working in pastoralist areasthroughout Ethiopia, including staff of both government and non-government agencies. Members who have been particu-larly active in supporting this initiative over the last two years are listed at the end of the document. The compilers wish also to thank Corinna Riginos, Siva Sundaresan and Jeff Herrick for helping to develop the sections onrangeland resource assessment and monitoring and evaluation. Thanks to Kelley Lynch who prepared the document for printing and provided the photographs and to Helen de Jodewho provided technical editing services. Thanks also to Alison Judd for the photograph on page 12 and Craig Leggett for thephotograph on page 24. The compilers recognize that pastoral leaders, in particular customary leaders, have played the central role in guidingrangeland management experts in clarifying centuries long rangeland management institutions and systems, and in identi-fying contemporary challenges and opportunities. This dialogue carried out in the main with local government and agencyfield staff has enabled components of the process to be tested, refined and developed within local rangeland managementsystems. The compilers hope that with the continued support of all stakeholders that it will be possible to further develop thiswork and start the process of mainstreaming PRM within zonal, regional and federal government policies, legislation andpractice, with a view to arresting and reversing rangeland degradation and laying the foundation for more sustainable liveli-hoods of pastoral communities. It is therefore planned that this introductory volume will be followed by a series of guide-lines on practical applications of participatory rangeland management. The NRM TWG would be pleased to hear more about activities, projects and programs that are using participatory range-land management approaches. Please contact Fiona Flintan (fionaflintan@gmail.com, fionaflintan@yahoo.co.uk) or AdrianCullis (acullis@savechildren.org.et) This publication has been produced with the assistance of FAO, with funding from ECHO’s Regional Drought Decision.The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not reflect the views of FAO or ECHO.
  5. 5. Contents07 Introduction to participatory rangeland management11 Stage 1: Investigating PRM Step 1: Identifying rangeland resources and users17 Stage 2: Negotiating PRM Step 2: Setting up or strengthening rangeland management institutions Step 3: Defining the rangeland management unit and preparing the rangeland resource assessment Step 4: Developing the rangeland management plan Step 5: Establishing the rangeland management agreement27 Stage 3: Implementing PRM Step 6: New roles for communities and rangeland management advisors Step 7: Arresting and reversing declining rangeland productivity Step 8: Participatory monitoring and evaluation
  6. 6. Boxes, Figures and Tables Acronyms and Abbreviations08 Box 1 GIS Geographical information systems Pastoralism as a mainstay of the economy M&E Monitoring and evaluation09 Figure 1 NRM Natural resource management The stages of the PRM process PFM Participatory forest management15 Table 1 PRM Participatory rangeland management Four ‘R’s matrix for a dry season grazing area PTD Participatory technology development20 Box 2 TWG Technical working group Local land-use planning at a landscape level21 Table 2 Possible habitat types24 Box 3 Woreda Environment Management Plans26 Box 4 The experience of Participatory Forest Management in Borana30 Box 5 Management of invasive species30 Box 6 Climate change challenges32 Box 7 Definition of monitoring and evaluation
  7. 7. The structure of these guidelinesThe purpose of these Guidelines is to introduce and promote the essential elements of par-ticipatory rangeland management (PRM). It is hoped that the Guidelines will help furtherinform government policy and decision makers whose task is to establish effective rangemanagement as a basis for the sustainable development of the rangelands. The book is structured to enable easy reference. After introducing participatory range-land management and explaining why it is now important for Ethiopia, the Guidelines setout the sequential steps involved in PRM, divided into three stages of investigation, nego-tiation and implementation. In the main section (negotiation), the reader can make quickreference to the specific steps in the process and its main outcome — a participatoryrangeland management agreement. The long-term implementation of PRM requires that new partnerships be establishedbetween government and communities, that new negative threats to rangelands beaddressed, and that rangelands are effectively monitored. The book concludes with clearguidance on what is needed within each of these final steps in the process. Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management 05
  8. 8. ‘Rangeland productivity hotspots’ needto be protected for pastoralists toensure the viability and growth of thepastoral production system as a whole.
  9. 9. Introduction to participatory rangeland managementRangeland management in Ethiopia without a high level of technical and chemical input and a risk of serious environmental damage and degra-There is growing concern in the Horn of Africa that global dation.5climate change and the increasing incidence of drought Today competition over resources and land in pastoralare undermining livelihood systems in the rangelands. areas of Ethiopia has grown. Populations have increasedWhilst the increasing incidence of drought does seem to due to natural growth, as well as from an influx of settlersbe true, it is also clear that the lack of a coherent and commercial enterprises into pastoral areas; keen toapproach to decision-making in the rangelands has done acquire land in those areas where agricultural productionmore to undermine former levels of rangeland productiv- is perceived to be viable. Invariably, areas of higher agri-ity than cyclical droughts could ever achieve. The reckless cultural productivity are those pockets that are alsodevelopment of water in former ‘wet season’ grazing ‘rangeland productivity hotspots’ — the areas that pro-areas, for example, has resulted in spontaneous settle- vide essential grazing in times of drought and are there-ment and year-round grazing. Unless grazing is better fore central to the health of pastoral production systems.managed in the rangelands, and grass given the oppor-tunity to recover, highly palatable species are effectively Participatory rangeland management asgrazed out and the species mix potentially irrevocably a land use planning and managementchanged. tool for pastoral areas The rangelands have historically been managedaccording to customary governance systems, which has Recognizing the changes Ethiopia now faces, pastoralworked well until recent times. The rangelands include leaders, local government and other stakeholders havediverse ecological zones, which the extensive livestock accepted the importance in finding a more comprehen-production systems that form the mainstay of pastoralist sive approach to land use planning policy and practice,economies depend upon to access ‘key’ grazing that takes into account the interests, positions and needsresources — in particular to survive droughts. However of all rangeland users in pastoral areas. Land use plan-unless these key grazing resources can be identified and ning and management tools need to be developed forprotected for future generations, extensive livestock pastoral areas and be included within relevant policies,keeping will become increasingly challenging, and the future legislation, and other guiding or decision-makingranks of households depending on food aid will grow as processes.there are few proven and viable alternative livelihood Several regional governments in Ethiopia are currentlyoptions. actively developing land use policies and it is anticipated The pastoralist system’s dependence on key resources this process will be scaled-up to other pastoral areas inat certain times of the year includes many dry season the future.8 Whilst positive, there appears to be a lack ofgrazing areas and watering points — the ‘rangeland pro- pastoral specific experience to guide decision makers inductivity hotspots’. At the same time the system also firstly, the inclusion of the interests, positions and needsmakes use of secondary value land and resources that of pastoralists specifically; and secondly, in developing aare often poor in quality. Unless there is secure access to suitable and legitimizing process of communal land andthe ‘hotspots’ these poor value resources cannot other- resource tenure that fits with both the priorities of pas-wise be used for livestock, or other production systems, toralists as well as government administrative bodies. Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management 07
  10. 10. Based upon the success of participatory forest man- The second task is for the rangeland management unit,agement (PFM) in Ethiopia, efforts are being made to or area that the institution will be responsible for, to bedevelop participatory rangeland management as a tool fully negotiated. This is done via a participatory range-for policy and decision makers in order to address the land resource assessment, and then by facilitating achallenges highlighted above. As with its forestry man- negotiation process between the different stakeholdersagement counter-part, PRM promotes inclusivity and to clarify the boundaries of the rangeland managementparticipation of all stakeholders in land use planning unit. The outcome of the negotiation should be a consen-processes, including pastoralists, with a view to ensure sus between all parties as to how to access resources,improved rangeland management and hence liveli- how the resources should be managed and by whom.hoods, through the establishment of a government certi- In the next step the rangeland management plan isfied rangeland management agreement. drawn up, specifying: the roles and responsibilities of the rangeland management institution; its rangeland man-Summary of the participatory agement unit including information on resources andrangeland management process their condition; and an outline of the rangeland manage-The process of PRM is a series of sequential steps inwhich the elements are put in place to produce a partici- Box 1 Pastoralism as a mainstaypatory rangeland management agreement. The objec- of the economytive is to have an agreement that is endorsed by all Extensive livestock keeping, or pastoralism, is anrelevant stakeholders, which is legally binding and can efficient and productive livelihood system that hasbe effectively monitored. The PRM process can be been developed and refined by pastoralists overdivided into three distinct stages (see Figure 1), which several centuries to enable pastoral households toare summarized briefly here: survive and thrive in semi-arid and arid range-1. Investigating PRM lands. In addition to meeting household subsis-The first stage in the PRM process is the gathering of tence needs, pastoralism also contributesinformation about the different resources found in the substantially to the Ethiopian economy. Not onlyrangelands, their uses (including at different times of the does pastoralism provide a high output livelihoodyear), and the stakeholders and users (including their for the majority of rangeland inhabitants, but it isinstitutions and groups that have a role in rangeland also a very environmentally sound use of the avail-resource management). This is achieved through the use able resources, contributing to rangeland biodiver-of different tools including resource mapping and stake- sity and providing a range of other environmentalholder analysis. services including carbon sequestration.2. Negotiating PRM In 2008 the direct financial value of pastoralismThe second stage is focused on negotiation. The initial was estimated to be 1.22 billion USD per annum. Intask is to identify the most appropriate community-led addition, livestock production, particularly pastoralgroup or institution to manage the process — the range- production, provided a large number of indirectland management institution. In the majority of pastoral economic values (including draught power, manure,areas in Ethiopia customary institutions still play a central tourism and rangeland products such as gums androle in the management of rangeland resources and their resins), which are estimated to exceed 458 millionaccess, and have evolved sophisticated managementsystems that allow the utilization of rangelands for the USD. This gave a total estimated economic value forbenefits of a variety of stakeholders. PRM can be based pastoralism in Ethiopia of at least 1.68 billion USDupon these long standing indigenous knowledge sys- per annum.tems, though adjustments to new challenges and devel- Source: SOS Sahel 20086 ; EEA 2004/20057opments may need to be made.08 Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management
  11. 11. Figure 1 The stages of the PRM processment processes that will be followed, including monitor- the management plan and agreement, with appropriateing and evaluation and adaptive management. changes being made based on a system of adaptive The rangeland management plan forms the basis of management. The rangeland management institutionthe rangeland management agreement — the final step and the appropriate government office, should workin the negotiation stage. This is drawn up, approved, and together to ensure implementation occurs. This newsigned by the rangeland management institution and partnership will require people to take on new roles andthe appropriate local government body. This rangeland new ways of working.management agreement must be recognized by govern-ment as providing lawful authority for the rangeland Outcome of the participatory rangelandmanagement institution to manage the resources in the management processrangeland management unit, according to the agreedrangeland management plan. With the establishment of PRM, the relevant and agreed upon customary institution(s) and/or defined community3. Implementing PRM rangeland management group is legally enabled to over-The final stage of the PRM process is the implementation see the sustainable management of the natural resourcesof the rangeland management plan, and adherence to found in the defined rangeland area. Though customarythe rangeland management agreement by the rangeland institutions have been managing rangeland resources forusers. Adherence is the responsibility of the rangeland centuries, the difference with this process is that themanagement institution, supported by the appropriate agreed upon institutions/groups are provided with thegovernment office providing necessary technical advice legal authority to do so. This is enabled by, and depend-and legal backing. Regular monitoring and evaluation of ent upon, a negotiated and documented legally bindingthe PRM process is vital to ensure the implementation of rangeland management agreement. Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management 09
  12. 12. A Hamar man waters his cattle. Access to water is becoming increasingly difficult as access to water sources is cut off by agricultural expan- sion, settlements and fencing of ‘the commons.’10 Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management
  13. 13. 1Investigating PRMStep 1 Identifying rangeland resources and usersThe basis of a rangeland management agreement is the rangeland’s resources and resource users.Before negotiations can get underway it is essential that everyone involved in the process has aclear understanding of what the resources are and who the users are. Local government staff andNGO representatives can facilitate the collection of information on rangeland resources and assistcommunities to carry out a stakeholder analysis.Understanding rangeland resourcesUsers of the rangeland rely on a large number ofresources to enable them to support viable livelihoods.These resources are spatially and temporally distributedacross a ‘landscape’ or a pastoral ‘resource unit’. In thepast, different levels of customary institutions have man-aged access to these resources, in terms of who can grazeand water their animals, when and for how long. Suchaccess and user rights are not fixed however: reciprocalarrangements are common as a means to ensure thateach user group has access to rangeland resources at alltimes, including during times of drought. For this reasonrights to rangeland resources might not be immediatelyclear to an outsider, but instead appear vague, with shift-ing assertions and continuous contestation and negotia-tion of access rules. Resource rights can also be described as non-exclusive,multiple, asymmetric (priority given to certain users) andin some cases time-bound. They are associated with cer-tain unique conditions relevant to pastoral economiesnamely: the seasonal mobility of animals and herds; the Rights of access to use rangeland resources are defined anduneven distribution of resources over a grazing territory; protected by pastoral customary institutions such as thethe variability of rainfall; the existence of more than one Gada. Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management 11
  14. 14. user group; and the effective institutional mechanisms forest boundaries, physical features (such as rivers, roads,for regulating the use of resources and for preventing paths), and other key resources such as fuel-wood andand resolving violent conflict arising from competition non-timber dryland products, botanical resources andover resources. minerals. Information on different grazing, water, forage A general understanding of rangeland resources can and forest areas, and their condition/health can also bebe gained through a series of consultations and discus- added to the map.sions with community and government representatives, The directions that resource users and their livestockand other interested parties. A number of participatory move to use resources (mobility) can also be shown ontools can be used including: the map. Community drawn rangeland maps can be• Mapping of resources; related to topographic maps fairly easily and/or be con-• Seasonal calendars; verted to GIS maps or considered next to satellite images. A community drawn resource map is the basis• Rangeland species matrix; and for developing a rangeland area map to be included in• Rangeland condition/health historical trend analysis. the rangeland management plan. The most powerful and information generating of As it is likely that men and women will view resourcesthese tools is likely to be the mapping of resources. Com- and their use differently, it is preferable to carry out map-munity maps drawn of resources found in a specific area, ping and other information gathering exercises with menand resulting discussions about their use, condition, and women separately. It may also be necessary to takeaccess etc. have proved to be a highly useful land-use into account other social/cultural divisions in the societyplanning tool. and take actions to ensure that all views and perspec- Resources can be re-mapped at different scales for a tives are included.given area e.g. at landscape level or at district level. Ide-ally the map will display important information, such as Understanding rangeland usersdry and wet season grazing reserves, water sources, The second crucial task in the ‘Investigating PRM’ stage is to undertake a thorough review of rangeland users through a stakeholder analysis. As noted, rangelands have multiple users, or stakeholders, and the relation- ships between them need to be understood if a more inclusive management of rangeland resources is to be achieved. Stakeholders include men and women, young and old, and rich and poor – all of whom will have differ- ent relations with rangeland resources and their use. The immediate objective of a stakeholder analysis for PRM is to identify and analyze all the different stakehold- ers in terms of their direct and indirect use of rangeland resources. The current, and potential, roles and responsi- bilities of the different users can then be identified, and the interests, positions and requirements of all stake- holders fully understood. This process will allow potential and actual risks and conflicts between groups to be iden- tified and highlighted.In Afar as in other pastoralist areas, livestock and pastoralists Identifying how people perceive their own rights and(men, women, young, old, rich and poor) use resources in dif- responsibilities over resources, as well as those of others,ferent ways and at different times of the year. is then the starting point in initiating discussions about12 Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management
  15. 15. Participatory mapping of resources bycommunity members is a key startingpoint for understanding resource use,users, access and management. Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management 13
  16. 16. A community-drawn resource map can prove to be a valuable tool for land use planning in pastoral areas.whom should have what rights and responsibilities in a • Who takes what actions in terms of rangeland andfuture rangeland management system. To differentiate resource management? (Responsibilities)between different levels of rights to the rangeland’s • How do the different stakeholders relate to each other?resources, stakeholders can be divided into primary and (Relationships)secondary users. They may be differentiated according tothe proximity of their base settlement to a resource, such • Who benefits from the rangeland resources?as a water source or a dry season grazing area, or differ- (Revenues)entiated through their clan affiliations. To summarize this information a 4R’s (Rights, Responsi- The stakeholder analysis should involve group exercises bilities, Relationships and Revenues) matrix can be con-and discussions to identify rangeland stakeholders, and structed. Working with community groups it is possibleshould involve representatives from as many stakeholder to compile information about different stakeholdersgroups as possible. Two useful tools for the analysis are: under defined headings. It may be necessary to treat• Stakeholder and institution mapping; and each type of resource separately e.g. water, grazing,• The conflict onion browse, non-timber dryland products. Specific questions that the stakeholder analysis can The information obtained provides the basis for com-answer focus on four elements of rangeland use and man- munity discussions of who should be involved in theagement: agreement on a rangeland management system, and• Who has what rights to use the rangeland resources what rights, responsibilities and benefits they each and for what purpose? (Rights) should have.14 Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management
  17. 17. Table 1 Four ‘Rs’ matrix for a dry season grazing area Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management 15
  18. 18. Exclusion of community groups from customary institutions and decision-making processesDryland groups such as pastoralists tend to rely on customary institutions as the public face of decision-making processes.These customary institutions tend to be made up of male elders of a certain status, thereby excluding women, some youth andmore ‘marginal’ groups. Though it can be argued that these community groups have their interests represented by their malerelatives (the Elders) some caution is advisable in order to ensure that customary institutions are fully representative and fair.Having said this, it is too often assumed that women and other minority groups do not have ways to make their voices heardand are therefore without influence. Again, rather than taking things for granted, every effort should be made to clarify currentdecision-making processes, both formal and informal in order to establish fair, representative and inclusive decision-makingprocess, in which none are marginalized.16 Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management
  19. 19. 2Negotiating PRMStep 2 Setting up or strengtheningrangeland management institutionsThe establishment or strengthening of functional community-based rangeland management insti-tutions is at the centre of successful PRM. The rangeland management institution is the body orgroup that will take on the roles and responsibilities of community-based rangeland management.The strength of the rangeland management institution is therefore critical, including the skills andcapabilities of its members to carry out the duties assigned to them.The investigations of stage 1 will have established the sures on rangeland systems and pastoral communities.presence and current status of any existing rangeland In order to enter into a legal agreement with a govern-management institutions. Discussions can then be held ment body, a community body needs to have a formalamong the different stakeholders as to whether an exist- legal status. Currently only limited legal recognition anding institution is appropriate, and whether with some protection of community-based institutions can be pro-adaptation it can fulfill the necessary roles and responsi- vided for under Ethiopian law. Ethiopian law legally rec-bilities required of it, or if the development of a new ognizes only certain types of organization at thegroup or institution is a better solution. community level: To be recognized communities need to form NGOs, private enterprises or cooperatives.Legal authority Management arrangements can be formed at different It is important local government representatives are scales. Under participatory forest management (PFM),included within these initial discussions to ensure that single-village level cooperatives and grouped-villagethe rangeland management institution selected will be level cooperatives have both been formed. Once formed,able to gain legal recognition as a local rangeland man- cooperatives have to conform to the cooperative law andagement body. Its legal recognition will define its author- its rules and regulations of operation, as overseen byity, its role, its responsibilities and its benefits. Its tasks government Cooperative Bureaus.will include bringing any offenders of the defined range- Much can be learnt from past experience of establish-land management rules and by-laws to the appropriate ing cooperatives and their development. Cooperativeslaw bodies, the police or the court, so achieving this legal have proven success in business development and inrecognition is a critical challenge — and one that is mobilizing communities for a given purpose, particularlybecoming ever more important due to the different pres- those communities which are relatively loosely con- Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management 17
  20. 20. Local customary authorities in Afar meet to resolve a dispute involving the use of their dry season grazing areas.nected. However the appropriateness of cooperatives for Capacity developmentrangeland management and for providing the right It is likely that the capacities of communities involved inforum for the development of rangeland institutions is the rangeland management institution will need to bequestioned. This issue needs further consideration by rel- strengthened to build the knowledge and skills requiredevant regional and federal government departments if for managing the rangelands in modern times. In orderEthiopia is to identify, and scale-up, improved rangeland to do this development practitioners and naturalmanagement. resource advisors need to develop capacities and training skills in both community engagement and inclusiveness,Local authority and in promoting adaptive management of rangelandAs stated above, the rangelands have historically been resources by a community-led management unit.managed according to customary governance systems. The role of the rangeland management group will beThe advantage of working with a customary system is formally defined in the rangeland management plan andthat it recognizes and endorses the well-established roles agreement (steps 4 and 5). The group will need to buildand rights of different members of a community. It also recognition and understanding of itself, and its status, inincorporates the existing management mechanisms that relation to the other institutions with which it will work.prevent overexploitation of resources, and promotes sus- Central to the role of the management group is the abil-tainable use and availability of resources for all commu- ity to make decisions about rangeland management, andnity members, as well as occasional visitors. However, to take action to follow up on those decisions. Good deci-customary systems also have their limitations, as not all sion-making will determine the success of the overallhave a history of inclusiveness. Certain groups within rangeland management system.communities may feel, and indeed be, excluded and mar- The process described above is complex, and to helpginalized. Support may be needed so that excluded keep the process on track it will be important to ensuregroups can be accommodated, and/or linkages made clear communication between all parties throughout,with forums and institutions where these groups can be using local language and ensuring step-by-step informa-fully represented and involved. tion dissemination to all PRM parties.18 Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management
  21. 21. 2Negotiating PRMStep 3 Defining the rangeland management unitand preparing the rangeland resource assessmentThe rangeland management unit is the area of land over which the PRM institution will have pri-mary jurisdiction and authority. Defining this area, and establishing the presence and condition ofthe resources found within it through a participatory rangeland resource assessment, is the nextstep in the process of participatory rangeland management.The rangeland management unit units. Boundaries can therefore be considered some- thing of an alien concept. Traditionally, boundariesOnce the rangeland management institution has been where one group’s authority ended, and another’sidentified and its roles and responsibilities have been began, were simply ‘known’.clarified and agreed, the next step is to establish the However, for local government to approve the‘boundaries’ of its jurisdiction. These are not hard and authority of the rangeland management institution overfast boundaries and should include reciprocal grazing an area of rangeland, it will be necessary for rangelandarrangements with neighbors. units to be broadly defined — provided that all parties It is likely that a map of the approximate rangeland understand that the users themselves must then workmanagement unit under discussion will have been pro- out their reciprocal grazing rights. Discussions andduced as part of the investigation stage, and will show negotiations with neighboring rangeland managementthe types and distribution of the resources found. The institutions at the early planning stage however canrangeland management institution should confirm that sharpen the debate and ensure that this issue is notthis map, its ‘boundaries’, and its content, provide a suffi- overlooked.ciently detailed inventory of the resources found within The outcome of the process outlined above should bethe management unit. Ground truthing should also be a community-drawn map (perhaps supported by a digi-carried out to ensure that the map reflects the situation tized GIS map) that defines the following:on the ground. It may be possible for an NGO or govern-ment office to assist the community in digitizing the • The ‘known’ boundaries of the rangeland manage-community map (including the boundaries), although ment unit (albeit recognizing that these are porousthis is not necessary. Nor is it always empowering for the and flexible);community members. • The different types of natural resources found in the As has been noted, ‘boundaries’ in pastoral areas are management unit, including grazing areas, wateringseldom if ever like boundaries in more sedentary com- points, non-timber dryland products, community andmunities, as the rangelands are communally managed individual enclosures/exclosures, and mineral sitesand different groups of pastoralists have well established such as salt licks. The most important areas can bereciprocal grazing rights in neighboring management highlighted as ‘rangeland productivity hotspots’ — Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management 19
  22. 22. without which the whole pastoral system that func- other useful information for understanding different soil tions in the area is at risk and which therefore should and habitat types. be afforded the most protection e.g. dry season graz- Community and government representatives will also ing areas or watering points. have to decide on broad, but useful, habitat or rangeland• Other important sites, services or resources including condition types within each soil type. These habitat or sites of cultural and religious importance, settlements, range condition types can then be mapped on top of soil agricultural land areas, health posts, etc. types. The resulting map can be used to guide both man- agement and assessment decisions for specific sub-units• Key mobility routes can also be shown on the map, within the overall rangeland management unit. The which will highlight the different usage of resources chosen habitat types should therefore be broad enough and parts of the rangeland management unit at differ- to encompass large areas of land (probably on the scale ent times of the year. of hundreds of hectares), but specific enough to inform The mapping of soil types is another potentially useful management planning. An example of possible habitatexercise that can generate information important for types is shown in Table 2 below.future resource management decisions. Government Individual communities, however, may want to dividerepresentatives may be able to provide soil maps or the landscape into more, or different, categories or sub- units that are more meaningful to them in terms of both resources and management. Box 2 Local land-use planning at Finally, different management activities that are cur- a landscape level rently being undertaken within the PRM area should also In the past the mapping of rangeland resources be considered. These might include areas under cultiva- and related management practices has been car- tion; areas where trees have been cleared or thinned; ried out at a kebele or Pastoral Association level. areas that have recently been burned; areas where other However this relatively small unit has proved to be rangeland restoration efforts are being undertaken; and limiting, and misses out larger livestock and any other targeted management activities. Such informa- human movements to access resources in the wider tion should be fully documented and supplement the rangeland. It is better to identify any traditional map of the rangeland management unit. resource management units that will reflect and incorporate much better the resource use and man- The rangeland resource assessment agement practices of functioning and self-support- A participatory resource assessment report is part of the ing pastoral communities. key documentation for PRM that will enable communities Recent work suggests that taking a landscape or to take up the legal management of the resources. The watershed approach to land use planning has many community should be supported in undertaking the benefits in a pastoralist context. Save the Chil- assessment exercises and preparing the report as key dren/US and SOS Sahel Ethiopia’s work with pas- rangeland management tools. toralists in Oromia region has shown that land use Once the overall rangeland management unit has been planning of the units, described locally as the defined and agreed upon by both the rangeland man- ‘dheeda’, is both appropriate and highly effective. agement institution and the relevant government office, At this level a NRM institution already exists with it is necessary to collect more detailed information on rules and regulations concerning NRM use: the the types and current condition of the different range- jarsa dheeda. Planning at this level can form the land resources. This can be achieved through carrying out basis from which larger-scale PRM processes can be a participatory rangeland resource assessment. A partici- developed. patory rangeland resource assessment has two main objectives:20 Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management
  23. 23. i) To provide an inventory of resources and their condi- tion as a contribution to the rangeland management plan and the rangeland management agreement, including the identification of ‘rangeland productivity hotspots’ and/or areas that are particularly sensitive and/or may require specific management interven- tions; andii) To provide a technical baseline of the resources and their condition against which to monitor subsequent changes, including the effects of the management actions that will be agreed upon in the rangeland man- agement plan. As such it is a first step in the design of a In Somali region gums and resins are tapped from local indi- participatory monitoring system. genous trees. Ensuring that this is done sustainably is key to The participatory rangeland resource assessment maintaining the resource.process consists of several key steps: lected in each rangeland sub-unit or zone, an interpre-1. Defining the rangeland sub-units or zones within the tation of these results, and management recommen- overall rangeland management unit based on use, dations for each sub-unit or zone based on these management, soil, and habitat areas, for use in the results. The report can best be made available in the PRM agreement and for data collection; appropriate local language.2. Deciding where to collect baseline data based on the The process of carrying out a baseline participatory identification of different sub-units or zones; rangeland resource assessment, and developing a long- term monitoring program, should involve (if not be lead3. Deciding what data to collect, and how, depending on by) the full participation and input of the community. In the level of detail required and/or specific manage- many of the above steps key decisions will have to be ment concerns for the area; made and agreed upon by both community members4. Documenting assessment data collection protocol, and government representatives. Development practi- including the design of data collection forms and iden- tioners or natural resource advisors and/or a relevant tification of feedback/verification methodologies; research institution can facilitate this process.5. Collecting baseline data by a team made up of com- Note: This section presents an overview of the participatory rangeland resource munity and government representatives; assessment process, while identifying areas that need to be more fully devel- oped to effectively use the process to guide management decisions. More6. Interpreting results by a team made up of community detailed guidelines for developing a participatory monitoring system are being and government representatives; developed in a parallel process which will result in the publication of a hand-7. Producing the assessment report, including the results book: “Monitoring Rangeland Health: A Guide for Facilitators and Pastoralist of the mapping exercises, the results of the data col- Communities.”9 Table 2 Possible habitat types Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management 21
  24. 24. Experience with Participatory Forest Management (PFM) suggests that a resource management plan (be it forest, rangeland or other resource) forms a solid foundation for formal and legally supported agreements governing access to resources and their management.22 Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management
  25. 25. 2Negotiating PRMStep 4 Developing the rangeland management planThe rangeland management plan is the vital last step before the drawing up of the rangeland man-agement agreement and its authorization. It is recommended that the plan be developed by therangeland management institution and be based on discussions with all relevant communitygroups and other stakeholders.The next step in the PRM negotiation process is the Once the rangeland management institution has adevelopment of the rangeland management plan. The draft plan, consultations and negotiations are necessaryplan’s objective and actions should reflect decisions that with the appropriate local government offices. ‘Outside’have been informed by data collected in the preceding facilitation by a third stakeholder may help ensure thatparticipatory rangeland resource assessment, for exam- these meetings are productive and supportive of theple the identification of areas within the rangeland man- intended outcome.agement unit that need to be managed in a particular As part of the plan many important actions will needway. The rangeland management plan might follow this to be considered, discussed, negotiated and agreedstructure, though local adaptations should be made: upon. These may include:1. Introduction. • Sustainable levels of grazing. These will be based upon the resources available, their distribution, and the2. Description of the rangeland management unit, movement patterns of livestock (which can only partly including a resource map and the information col- be predicted as mobility is primarily reliant on the cli- lected through the participatory rangeland resource matic conditions of a particular year or period). Plan- assessment. ning should include provisions for periods of crisis,3. Objectives of the rangeland management plan. such as grazing of grass reserved for times of drought.4. Rangeland management actions, including: rangeland • The development of watering points and terms of resources and use; rights of access and management access to them. It may be necessary to restrict the responsibilities; improvement and development; and development and access of some watering points if rangeland health and condition monitoring. adequate grazing is not available in the close vicinity5. Plans for monitoring and evaluation (M&E). to avoid overgrazing what is there.6. Methods for revision of the plan as part of an adaptive • Sustainable levels of non-timber dryland products management process. including gums and resins, and plant products. These Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management 23
  26. 26. is important to test their effectiveness and impacts. Skills Box 3 Woreda Environment and knowledge need to be built through practical experi- Management Plans ence and the operation of the management plan. In order to support the full participation of com- The plan’s monitoring and evaluation (M&E) needs munities in the preparation and implementation should be considered and defined at the planning stage. of plans for environmental resources management, Communities and other stakeholders should define the appropriate indicators to measure change. The baseline Woreda Environment Management Plans (WEMPs) data collected as part of the participatory rangeland are being developed through consultations and resource assessment should form the basis of this M&E negotiations between representatives from woreda plan. M&E systems should be established based on governments and local communities. A process ini- processes already used by community members and uti- tiated by the federal Environment Protection lize their own knowledge systems, but should incorpo- Agency, the plans are for community implementa- rate appropriate scientific knowledge too. Development tion with government support. In developing and natural resource technical advisors can assist com- WEMPs a similar process is carried out as within munities to develop such systems. (M&E is discussed fur- PRM based on investigation, negotiation and ther in step 8). implementation, including the establishment of The most important principle is that the community by-laws. Although currently being developed more should develop the rangeland management plan. It must in highland areas of the country, there is room for be based on their decisions on how to manage the overlap and complementarities between WEMPs resources. Development practitioners or natural resource and PRM plans in pastoral areas. technical advisors must resist the urge to impose rules and regulations and revert to a top-down approach. The management plan needs to receive the approval of all should be in line with sustainable use protocols for dif- the communities living within the management unit. ferent groups, and species, of plants and products. Without this approval it is unlikely that actions will be• The utilization and management of invasive species taken seriously, or even allowed. such as Prosopis juliflora and Acacia drepolobium. Sometimes there can be conflicts of interest between those who want to utilize these species and those who want to see them completely removed.Key principles for the management planIssues of sustainability must not be compromised in themanagement plan. Further information may need to becollected on sustainable levels of resource use and har-vesting. If this is the case, then the gathering of requireddata and experimentation with grazing or harvestinglevels should become part of the plan of actions. Devel-opment practitioners or natural resource technical advi-sors can cover this task as part of their technical supportprovided to community managers. The rangeland management plan should be kept rela-tively simple and brief, should be reviewed on a regularbasis, and should ideally set a vision for the next 25 years Borana community members work together to clear the bushor more. As the management activities are carried out it that has encroached on the rangeland.24 Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management
  27. 27. 2Negotiating PRMStep 5 Establishing therangeland management agreementThe rangeland management agreement is the binding contract document for participatoryrangeland management between the government authorities and the rangeland managementinstitution.The final step of the ‘negotiation’ stage of PRM is the terms, the objectives of the agreement (as defined in thedrawing up and signing of the rangeland management management plan), and the condition/health and loca-agreement. It is likely that the formulation of the range- tion of the rangeland and its resources.land management agreement will require extensive Section four contains detailed information about themeetings, discussions and negotiations between the agreeing parties. On the government side this includesgovernment offices and the rangeland management which offices are involved in the agreement. On the com-institution, particularly on rights and responsibilities. The munity side, this includes the listing of the rangelandfinal agreement will require the signatures of the head of management institution executive committee membersthe appropriate woreda office such as the Livestock, Crop and group members.and Development Bureau on behalf of the government, Section five of the agreement describes benefit-shar-and the head or chairperson of the rangeland manage- ing arrangements. For example, if the community is man-ment institution on behalf of the community. aging a rangeland where there are usual (or primary) and A rangeland management agreement could be devel- occasional (or secondary) users, the agreement shouldoped as the following: state who has rights of access to the rangeland andArticle 1 Definitions under what conditions. Further, it may be agreed for example that if communities are benefiting from the col-Article 2 Objectives of the agreement lection and sale of dryland products such as gums andArticle 3 Location and condition/health of the range- resins, that a tax be paid to government and/or they be land and its resources provided with a share of the revenue. Such points shouldArticle 4 Description of the agreeing parties be clearly stated in the agreement.Article 5 Benefits of the agreeing parties Section six of the agreement is the clear specification of the rights and responsibilities of the two (or more) par-Article 6 Rights and responsibilities of the parties ties. Decisions about rights and responsibilities should beArticle 7 Condition, legality and duration of the negotiated through discussions with and between the agreement government and the community (or communities). The Sections one through three of the rangeland manage- rights and responsibilities need to be directly related toment agreement can include an introduction (similar to the rules and regulations that have been agreed concern-the rangeland management plan), the definition of key ing the rangeland management unit (including sub-units Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management 25
  28. 28. or zones) and its resources, for example who can do what within forest management agreements and propertyin the area and access which resources. Decisions need to leaseholds in cities) — this should be stated. Other legalrelate to the objectives of sustainable rangeland man- terms, conditions and/or requirements should also beagement. noted. In a situation where multiple users are involved it The final section stipulates the legal conditions of the may be thought useful that all such user groups agreeagreement. This includes the procedures to be followed over the terms of the rangeland management agreementin the event of a disagreement between the parties, a and sign it.default of contract by one of the parties, or the termina- The rangeland management agreement is a vital docu-tion of the contract. ment for PRM, and should be held by all parties. The The duration of a rangeland management agreement agreement can be made best available in the appropriatecould be as little as 25 years or as much as 99 years (as local language, and all parties should hold a copy. Box 4 The experience of Participatory Forest Management in Borana Under PFM in Borana a new community institution bi-monthly basis at madda (or PA) level and on a was set up which complimented the pre-existing monthly basis at district level. The group is in system controlled by the Gadaa. The new structure charge of regulating how, when and by whom the was composed of four levels: resource will be utilized and enforces rules and reg- Jarsa Maddaa kan Fina Badaa — a forest man- ulations. It grants permits for certain uses of the agement group responsible for the management of forest and resource collection, and prohibits the cut- one or more forest compartments belonging to a ting of re-growth, large trees and certain species particular kebele, PA or madda. that have religious significance. Whether the person is poor or better off, the forest regulation is equally Jarsa Ejjaa kan Fina Badaa — a forest manage- applicable to all community members. The collection ment group charged with the responsibility of man- of dead wood cannot be carried out without the aging a given forest block belonging to an approval of the forest management group. Defaulters aggregate of madda. from the regulations are subject to punishments to Jaarsa Aanaa ka Finna Badda — a forest man- the extent of exclusion from using any communally agement group composed of representatives of the owned resource. If someone is caught collecting a Jarsa Madda kan Fina Badaa, Gadaa and local gov- forest product illegally he/she could be subject to a ernment bodies, which undertakes forest manage- fine of five cattle or a five to ten year jail sentence ment at a district level. although no one has received such a punishment so Gumii Finna Badda — a forest management far. assembly comprising the entire membership of the In general these forest management institutions forest management groups functioning at the level and the PFM process that they support, are function- of district. ing well, with awareness and protection improving Both men and women were elected to these posi- within the communities and positive relations tions, including illiterate, rich and poor. The role of between management groups and government the forest management group is to manage and bodies strengthened through regular meetings etc. protect the forest from illegal extraction and fire, The system can be said to have positively con- promote awareness creation among the local com- tributed to the sustainability of forest resource man- munity, reflect on forest management issues on a agement and utilization.26 Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management
  29. 29. 3Implementing PRMStep 6 New roles for communitiesand rangeland management advisorsParticipatory rangeland management requires an effective partnership between the appropriatelocal government office and the community rangeland management institution, with each sideworking towards mutual goals. Important new changes are required in the roles of these partners,as well as in the roles played by supporting advisors/facilitators from NGOs and research institutes.New or adapted roles for community • Managers of the rangeland management institution.institutions in rangeland management • Resolvers of conflict and competition between andThe activities that the community undertakes are critical within rangeland user groups.in determining the success of PRM. In the implementa- • Decision makers of new rangeland rules and regula-tion of PRM the community will have strengthened roles tions.as rangeland managers. While some activities will be new • Implementers of rangeland management plans.to community members, others may have been carried • Protectors and controllers of rangeland resources.out previously, though without formal recognition.Recognition of their new role is the basis of the new nat- • Removers and controllers of invasive and damagingural resource relationship between government and the species.community rangeland managers. The list below gives • Selectors and planters of vegetation species for range-some examples of the new roles and activities for the land/rangeland rehabilitation.community. The list is not exhaustive. • Promoters of rangeland health and condition.• Information providers of new rangeland users and uses. • Marketers of rangeland products.• Legalized rangeland resource managers and rangeland resource users. • Evaluators of new ideas and technologies.• Assessors of rangeland resources through the partici- • Experimenters and actors with/within new rangeland patory rangeland resource assessment. management approaches and processes. Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management 27
  30. 30. • Adaptors to climate change and related influences. • Monitors of PRM processes and of rangeland manage-• Communicators of own knowledge and findings to ment agreements. others. • Advisors to rangeland management institutions.• Monitors and evaluators of participatory rangeland • Experimenters of new rangeland management management systems and practice. approaches and processes, including ways to improve rangeland condition and health. Activities will further evolve as the members of therangeland management institutions and the pastoralists • Facilitators of ‘rangeland management institution towho they represent, understand and develop their man- rangeland management institution’ learning, commu-agement operations and skills. This is done through nication and exchange.learning and practical experience and can be supported • Trainers in community rangeland management skillsand facilitated by both government and other partners. and practice.Such support will need to be on an ongoing basis as new • Analysts of rangeland management problems.challenges arise and new skills are needed to overcome • Generators of new technologies and innovations.them. • Identifiers of regional rangeland policies, rules and reg- ulations.New or adapted roles for rangeland • Providers of information to complement rangelandmanagement advisors management institutions’ knowledge. • Documenters / analysts of methods of PRM / dissemi-If PRM is to succeed, development and natural resource nators of PRM results.advisors from government and all other relevant stake-holders will also need to change. PRM offers a very differ- In addition to the specific skills above, new rural devel-ent approach to rangeland management. The list below opment technical capacity is also essential. Skills in par-identifies some of the new roles and activities natural ticipatory development will be particularly importantresource advisors will need to play — with the further including: Participatory Planning; Participatory Technol-development and understanding of their roles acquired ogy Development; Participatory Learning and Action;through learning and practical experience. and Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation, including Participatory Impact Assessment. Such “participation”• Investigators of local rangeland uses and users — must be meaningful and of the highest degree if PRM is rights and responsibilities. to succeed: communities must be allowed to lead their• Identifiers of local rangeland management systems — development and natural resource processes. rules and regulations. Other new skills implied in the new roles include con-• Actors in the participatory rangeland resource assess- flict management, facilitation and negotiation, commu- ment. nity institution development and rangeland/dryland• Advisors to rangeland management institutions about product processing and marketing skills. All these skills ways to monitor condition/health of rangelands and are new in terms of what development and natural resources. resource professionals usually do.• Facilitators of rangeland based problem-solution Ultimately, what is being asked for is a new commit- analysis. ment and understanding from development practition- ers and natural resource advisors to support new systems• Moderators of different interests, and of conflict and for community managed resources. If rangeland man- competition over resources. agers are to rise to the challenge then new PRM curricula• Facilitators in conflict resolution and transformation. and professional training will need to be put in place.• Negotiators of rangeland management rules and reg- This is perhaps a long-term change. In the short term, ulations. managers should request and seek out specialist training.28 Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management
  31. 31. 3Implementing PRMStep 7 Arresting and reversingdeclining rangeland productivityImplementing new rangeland management approaches through a practical working partnership isessential for the success and maximum effectiveness of PRM. But communities should not be left toget on with managing rangelands without assistance: they need support, skills and technical know-how from professional rangeland and natural resource advisors, particularly in the face of manynew changes and pressures on rangeland environments.Rangelands now face new and negative threats and chal-lenges, such as climate change or the ‘invasion’ of non-local plant species, for which adaptation is vital. But manynew and positive opportunities are also arriving, includ-ing improved communication networks that allow for agreater spread of knowledge and information, which canbe used to benefit rangelands and those who live there.To improve resiliency and the means to cope with thenew threats, and to optimize the benefits of new oppor-tunities, community rangeland managers and develop-ment/ natural resource advisors need to workhand-in-hand to share and develop new knowledge andskills. The management of the rangeland management unitwill be determined by the specific conditions and healthof the rangeland and the uses required of it. An area ofwell-managed rangeland will require different manage-ment skills and practices to those required for an area ofhighly disturbed and degraded rangeland in need ofrehabilitating. A dryland forest area will require differentmanagement skills and practices to those required for agrazing area to optimize grass production. New and/or revitalized tools such as the use of pre- Acacia drepalobium. The invasion of non ‘local’ or alienscribed fire or the establishment of communal grass species raises new challenges for communities as rangelandenclosures as drought reserves are important manage- managers. Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management 29
  32. 32. ment options to consider. However capacities may needto be (re)built if such practices are new or have not been Box 6 Climate change challengesused for some time. Approaches and processes used in Climatic fluctuations have always been a definingother parts of the world can also offer ‘new’ and positive feature of drylands, including rangeland areas, andinput including such as ‘planned livestock grazing.’ pastoralism is a livelihood system that has enabled Using participatory and experimental approaches to those who live there to cope with these fluctua-develop new community dryland practices, based upon tions. However global climate change is raising newand utilizing indigenous knowledge and customary prac- challenges for pastoral systems, with most climatetices, is the way forward. Participatory Technology Devel- models suggesting a decrease in the amount andopment (PTD) can be used in order to develop and try predictability of rainfall combined with an increaseout (experiment) appropriate rangeland based trials. For in evaporation caused by warmer temperatures. Toexample, where the management plan aims to rehabili- adapt to this the mobility of pastoralists and theirtate a rangeland area and encourage the growth of spe-cific high value grass species, the community members, livestock is, and will continue to be, critical.supported by the rangeland manager, can set up a Evidence of climate change in pastoral areas ofnumber of area based experiments in order to determine Ethiopia is already resulting in, for example,best species to introduce and manage. increasing frequency of droughts. At the same time In some areas, rangelands have been degraded so many people and livestock movements are beingmuch that simply reducing grazing pressure is not curtailed due to: wet season grazing areas being given over to commercial farming enterprises; increased sedentarization and privatization of Box 5 Management of invasive species rangeland resources by those turning to agriculture Many pastoral areas have seen an increase in the as a livelihood; inter-ethnic conflicts; and urban- ‘invasion’ of alien, non-‘local’ species in the last ization and expansion of settlements around water decade. These include such species as Prosopis, points. As a result, the interests and benefits of a Parthenium, and Acacia drepanolobium. These few are risking the displacement of the much species have taken over grazing areas and blocked larger group (those still relying on pastoralism as migration routes and access to water points. They a livelihood base), and their ability to adapt to prove very difficult to control and almost impossi- climate change in the future. ble to remove as they are easily spread and will re- Source: Eyasu Elias 200910 invade a piece of land unless strict measures are taken to prevent them from doing so. enough to allow the land to recover. In these cases, com- Some species such as Prosopis do have beneficial munities may consider doing some ecological restoration qualities and can be used to provide resources such or rehabilitation to promote land recovery. Though both as livestock feed, high quality timber and charcoal. communities and rangeland managers may have some However in most cases the benefits that such knowledge on and skills for this, it is likely that these can plants can bring is minimal in comparison to the be improved, and lessons learnt from other rangeland costs they incur for communities and their live- areas and experiences. Rehabilitation or restoration activ- stock. Integrated and strategic planning is required ities, for example, include reducing erosion through with communities, governments, research organiza- plugging up gullies and laying down obstructions to tions and other stakeholders working together to slow sheet erosion; facilitating plant establishment find solutions and ways to control the spread of through such as furrowing; and improved livestock man- such species. agement. All these techniques will need to be tested and adapted by communities.30 Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management
  33. 33. 3Implementing PRMStep 8 Participatory monitoring and evaluationThe effectiveness of its monitoring and evaluation system will ultimately determine the success ofthe PRM process. Communities need to develop their own M&E systems as part of taking up, orstrengthening, their rangeland management roles. There are two key steps within the PRM processwhere M&E must be integrated: in the negotiating stage when developing the rangeland manage-ment plan, and here in the implementation stage where M&E should be used to facilitate adaptivemanagement and/or help determine best management practices.Pastoralists are highly skilled at monitoring the range, crucial and a key area of capacity building for improvingwith community members holding valuable indigenous and developing community management.knowledge about rangelands, their processes and com-ponents. However, such knowledge is now fading as tra- M&E for the rangeland management planditional rangeland management faces new threats andnew skills and knowledge are now needed to cope with If the objectives of the rangeland management plan areand adapt to these changes (see step 7). clearly defined, and incorporate useful scientific knowl- For the PRM process it is recommended that knowl- edge (collected through the participatory rangelandedgeable rangeland managers are paired with talented resource assessment, step 3), then developing monitor-and committed development and natural resource advi- ing tools is relatively simple. The key is to ensure that thesors, to devise appropriate M&E systems that are fully communities articulate what changes they want to see incapable of measuring the condition/health and produc- order to improve their rangeland, for example antivity of the rangelands and any changes occurring. By increase/reduction in a particular species, or certain prac-doing so the more science-based M&E systems can be tices used or controlled. The collection and use of datacombined with methods that are traditionally used by within M&E systems can present a key challenge tocommunities, and a system established which then rangeland management groups, particularly to non-liter-reflects the needs, capacities and skills of those imple- ate groups. Non-literate methods of data collection andmenting it. Enabling the community to carry out partici- analysis can be developed based upon localpatory M&E of their rangeland management practices is methods/tools already used. Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management 31
  34. 34. The plan needs to ensure that PRM monitoring and Box 7 Definition of monitoring evaluation becomes part of every day management prac- and evaluation tice. But monitoring needs to be more than a checking Monitoring is the on-going process of collecting mechanism by community rangeland managers: the M&E data in order to measure the progress, and/or the system needs to support positive outcomes or impact condition, of an activity to guide implementation. based on the rangeland management plan. For example, if invasive species have been removed re-growth needs to be measured and monitored. Or M&E for adaptive management if grass and tree seedlings have been planted as Mechanisms need to be put in place to systematically part of a rehabilitation program, the rangeland review the results of M&E processes within the manage- manager needs to monitor (collect information on) ment plan, to reflect upon them and to develop new their survival and/or growth rate in order to know actions based on them as part of adaptive rangeland whether to continue or adjust the activity. management. Regular woreda (district) level PRM work- Evaluation is the periodic review of all the data ing group meetings to bring key government and com- and information gathered through the monitoring. munity PRM actors together to discuss issues arising, and Evaluation is an in depth analysis at a particular resolve problems, have emerged as a useful review point in time of an ongoing or completed activity mechanism for M&E information, and have ensured that for learning and future planning. the information is collectively analyzed and acted upon. Both monitoring and evaluation should promote Fundamentally the aim of M&E is to improve imple- joint learning and improved implementation, mentation. In a relatively new process like PRM it is although evaluations are likely to involve a wider essential that M&E be used positively to improve the PRM range of actors. system. This is especially important in this early period as PRM is established, developed and expanded.Endnotes1 NRM Regional Technical Advisor for USAID funded Enhanced Livelihoods in the Mandera Triangle/Enhanced Livelihoods in Southern Ethiopia (ELMT/ELSE).2 Director of the Livelihoods Unit, Save the Children/US3 Bale EcoRegion Sustainable Management Project4 Key Steps in Establishing Participatory Forest Management: A field manual to guide Practitioners in Ethiopia, 2007. Best Practice Series No. 1. Compiled by FARM-Africa/SOS Sahel Ethiopia, Oromiya Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development and Southern Nations and Nationalities Peoples Region Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development. London.5 Safriel and Adeel 2005. “Dryland Systems” Chapter 22 in R. Hassan, R. Scholes and N. Ash. Volume 1. Current Status and Trends. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. U.S: Island Press. Internet: http://www.millenniumassessment.org/en/ Condition.aspx#download6 SOS Sahel Ethiopia, 2008. Pastoralism in Ethiopia: Its Total Economic Values and Development Challenges. For IUCN-WISP, Nairobi.7 EEA (Ethiopian Economic Association), 2004/05. Transformation of the Ethiopian Agriculture: Potentials, Constraints and Suggested Intervention Measures. Report on the Ethiopian Economy. Volume IV. Addis Ababa8 A draft policy and legislation for pastoralist areas has been developed for the Afar region and another is being developed for Somali region.9 Riginos, C., J.E. Herrick, S.R. Sundaresan, J. Worden, J. Belnap, and M. Kinnaird. 2009. Monitoring Rangeland Health: A Guide for Facilitators and Pastoralist Communities. Nanyuki, Kenya: Mpala Research Centre.10 Eyasu Elias (2009) Threats of Climate Change on Pastoral Production Under Restricted Herd Mobility: A Case Study in Borena. A report for SOS Sahel Ethiopia.32 Guidelines to Participatory Rangeland Management

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