Animal Protein Production & Consumption Governance


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Presentation from the Informal Consultation on Livestock Issues between the FAO Animal Production and Health Division and interested Non-Governmental Organizations. 1–2 December 2009 Italy, Rome FAO Headquarters.

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Animal Protein Production & Consumption Governance

  1. 1. Animal protein Title production & Sub-title consumption governance27 Oktober 09 Madelon Meijer
  2. 2. trendsConsumption Per capita meat consumption has increased from 30 kg in 1980 to 42.2 kg in is growing 2008. rapidlyConsumption In the US per capita consumption of meat is 123kg whilst in India it is 5kg. is unequal Many African countries consume between 5 and 10kg of meat per annum. Global per capita supply of fish has grown from 9.9kg in 1960 to 16.7kg in Fish 2006. In some developing countries fish supplies 75% of people’s proteinconsumption intake.The ‘livestock Milk, beef, pork and chicken are now 4 of the 5 most produced commodities revolution’ in the world (by value). Meat production is expected to double by 2050.Production is Production systems are becoming more intensive. More than 50% of pork intensifying and 66% of poultry and eggs are now produced in industrial systems. The share of pork and poultry in total livestock production has increased. Pigs and These sectors contributed 77% of growth in livestock production between poultry 1980 and 2002.Aquaculture Aquaculture now accounts for 47% of global fish food supply. Between 2000 is growing and 2006 it was the fastest growing agrifood sector.
  3. 3. C ow m il k ,w ho le R , f re 0 20000000 40000000 60000000 80000000 100000000 120000000 140000000 160000000 ice s ,p h C ad at tle dy M e C Pi g at hi ck me e n at H M en eaB eg t uf gs Wh fa ,i e lo n at m s V il k, So hel eg y l et who be ab l a le e, f ns s f r res es h h ne s M C a ot ize to n P l ot i nt S at ug oe ar s ca n G e G To ra p ro m es un at dn oe ut s, Ap s w pl ith es S s he he ep l l M Global production of agricultural C ea as t sa va commodities ranked by value (2007) Production value (Int $1000)*
  4. 4. Livestock and total dietary proteinsupply in 1980 and 2002 Total protein supply from livestock (g/per person) Total protein supply 1980 2002 1980 2002 Sub-Saharan Africa 10.4 9.3 53.9 55.1 Near East 18.2 18.1 76.3 80.5 Latin America and the Caribbean 27.5 34.1 69.8 77 Asia developing 7 16.2 53.4 68.9 Industrialised countries 50.8 56.1 95.8 106.4 World 20 24.3 66.9 75.3
  5. 5. Food prices, food security & animal feed Food, fuel, There is growing competition between food, animal feed and biofuels - but feed the relationship is complex. Demand for feed is predicted to increase to 1competition billion tonnes by 2030 from a 1997/9 baseline. Traditional animal feeds (high energy cereals) are an inefficient means ofAnimal feed: feeding animals – incurring a significant energy loss in the process. Moreenergy loss efficient feeds exist , for example forages and recycling waste human food.Feed versus We can argue that the loss of calories from using cereals as feed could feedfood debate more than 3.5 billion people in a year (UNEP 2009b). However, the , reduction of use of cereals as animal feed does not necessarily guarantee these will be available for human consumption – this is dependent on price signals to incentivis e production of these cereals for human consumption and sufficient purchasing power of the poor.Animal feed Research to model the impact of reducing meat consumption in the and food developed world reveal that it has little impact on child malnutrition lev els in security the developing world (Rosengrant et al, 1999). Most research currently focuses on the role of biofuels in driving food price Biofuels rises between 2003 and 2008. Some studies estimate that 60-70% of the increases in maize prices is due to biofuels (Lipsky, 2008, Collins, 2009). More No organisations have as yet attempted to model the impact of animal feed research on food price rises, though this has been done for biofuels. Further research needed is needed that understand the complexities of supply and demand dynamics.
  6. 6. Climate and land-use change Land-use 70% of all agricultural land (or 30% of the surface area of the planet) is change used by the livestock sector. Livestock is therefore an important contributor to land-use change. Livestock is thought to contribute between 12% and 18% of Greenhouse Gas Climate Emissions – playing a significant role in driving climate change. However, its change measurement is complex. Climate Developing countries may lose about 280 million tonnes of potential cereal change’s production as a result of climate change. In more than 40 countries in the impact developing world, mean cereal losses of 15% are expected by 2080. 80% of deforestation in the Amazon can be attributed to cattle ranching. ThisDeforestation has significant repercussions for biodiversity and carbon sequestration. Growing demand for animal feed and livestock production is playing a role in Land grabs driving a process of land grabbing.
  7. 7. BiodiversityBiodiversity 2.5 billion people depend directly on wild and traditionally cultivated plant and species to meet their daily needs (Dronamraju, 2008).livelihoods Biodiversity is particularly important for the livelihoods of poor people – aBiodiversity case in Zimbabwe reveals that the poorest receive 40% of their total incomeand the poor from environmental products – it is only 29% for the richest. Economic The economic impact of biodiversity loss has been valued at £40billion a cost year (Sukhdev, 2008). 306 of 835 terrestrial eco-regions are at threat from livestock production. 23 Livestock of 35 global hotspots of biodiversity are affected by livestock (Steinfield et al, production 2006). Livestock keeping is responsible for around 30% of the biodiversity loss of land (Stehfest et al, 2008). More than one third of the global pig supply is supplied by a very few Lacking commercial breeds, 85% of chicken by a limited number of breeds and 90%agrodiversity of cattle in industrialised countries from six tightly defined breeds (Worldwatch Institute, 2007).Agrodiversity Agrodiversity is vital for the livelihoods and food security of the poor: diverse and animal breeds are better suited to local climate conditions, require fewer, livelihoods expensive inputs, are more resistance to local disease and are important for adaption. Climate change will make diversity increasingly important.
  8. 8. waterWater use by Livestock production is a significant user of water and contributes to water livestock scarcity predominantly through the use of irrigated land to produce animal feed. Large-scale livestock production is an intensive user of water. In extensive Water use systems livestock areand a to obtain 25% of their water requirements from QuickTime™ decompressor able are needed to see this picture. animal feed. This decreases to 10% in intensive systems. Processing and servicing in the livestock industry is also water intensive. Livestock makes a significant contribution to water pollution through Water eutrophication from animal waste, antibiotics, hormones, chemicals from pollution tanneries, fertilisers, pesticides used from feed crops and soil sediments.
  9. 9. employment Large-scale animal protein production leads to the marginalisation of small-Employment scale farmers through blocked mobility, reduced market access through increased barriers to entry.Small-scale 640 million smallholders and 190 million pastoralists are raising livestock and livestock these people make up 70% of the world’s poor. Livestock make a vitalproduction contribution to people’s livelihoods and food security. In countries where large-scale production does not dominate, small-scale Livestock livestock production makes a vital contribution to agricultural GDP: 90% in and GDP Mongolia, 84% in Niger and 40% in Ethiopia.Employment Relocating smallholders as a labour force in industrial agriculture only vs market absorbs a small amount of people, the number of people absorbed into access alternative employment is likely to be smaller than the number displaced. 45 million people are estimated to be employed directly and indirectly inAquaculture aquaculture in 2006 – many of these are small-scale fishers and dominate in Asia.
  10. 10. production80% arable land now used for livestock, 30% agriculture land for feedFAO: 70% food production rise needed to feed world20% by land expansion?Remainder by increased efficiency?Efficiency vs externalisation of cost? 12
  11. 11. distributionProduction increase necessary but insufficient:Today sufficient food produced to feed all.Yet, over 1 billion hungry people e.g. despite livestock revolution hundreds of millions poor have no animal protein access, would benefit their healthFor the poor the issue is one of distribution rather than production.
  12. 12. Invest in agriculture to support the poors’ livelihoods• 3 of 4 poor people live in rural area’s.• Depend on ag-related income generation.• Production increase does as rule not benefit them: e.g. 1 billion of the poor producing livestock.• Market access an approach, limited success.
  13. 13. Food feed fuelGlobal competition for• Staples (for feed & fuel): food price crises 2008• access to land, water, forests, grassland: land grabbingpoors’ demand loses outRural poor depend on access to natural resources: 1,5 billion (UNEP 2009), others: 2,5 billion. As resources price increases, poor lose access, move to urban or more marginal area’s. Extremely vulnerable to resource degradation: erosion, deforestation, drought, climate change.Weak national & international governance: zoning, social policies, land- water management, anti trust, enforcement, human rights etc..
  14. 14. basic goals AP• Europe, US (OECD) drastic reduction consumption• Production sustainable and respecting HR
  15. 15. Duty to target poverty & food insecurity• Obligation of governments and companies to enforce Classic Human Rights to Food and Livelihood.• Sustainable consumption-production require internalisation of social cost• Focus on indirect impacts necessary: food prices, climate change, access to land, water & other natural resources.
  16. 16. 19
  17. 17. Oxfam Novib roles• Agendasetting research e.g. AP social impacts global, food prices, ag-investment, small farmers, EU land, carbon, biodiversity, poverty foodprints,• Global CSO network (support, joint lobby or campaign) e.g. CSO conference meat/dairy 2009 to increase south CSO influence• Regulatory lobbies north, south and internationally.• consumer campaigns.• multistakeholder processess with NGOs, companies, governments 1. Integration of global lessons learned on biofuels, palmoil, soy, aquaculture, land management. 2. Strengthen rights approach to food and livelihood.• Land grabbing research and lobby 2010: economic drives, banks