Management Functions by Y. Tayde


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Electric Cooperative; management functions, criticisms; managerials skills; governance framework; managerial roles

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Management Functions by Y. Tayde

  1. 1. Prof. Jo Bitonio DM 214 Strategic Planning Reporter: YVONNE C. TAYDE
  3. 3. POSDCoRB Created by Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick in their “Papers on the Science of Administration” (1937) Based of Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management, Outlines the 7 functions of the executives Developed as a means to structure and analyze management activities; it sets a new paradigm in Public Administration.
  4. 4. POSDCoRB  According to Gullick the POSDCoRB activities are common to all organisations. They are the common problems of management which are found in different agencies regardless of the nature of the work they do. POSDCoRB gives unity, certainty, and definiteness and makes the study more systematic.
  5. 5. Criticism The critics pointed out that the POSDCoRB activities were neither the whole of administration, nor even the most important part of it. The POSDCoRB view overlooks the fact that different agencies are faced with different administrative problems, which are peculiar to the nature of the services, they render and the functions they performed.
  6. 6. Criticism The POSDCoRB view takes into consideration only the common techniques of the administration and ignores the study of the ‘subject matter’ with which the agency is concerned. A major defect is that the POSDCoRB view does not contain any reference to the formulation and implementation of the policy. Therefore, the scope of administration is defined very narrowly, being too inward looking and too conscious of the top management.
  7. 7. Is defining goals, establishing strategy to meet them, establish plans to coordinate activities, outline methods for doing them to accomplish purpose set by the cooperative. P L A N N I N G
  8. 8. Planning Gulick: outlining the things that need to be done and the methods for doing them to accomplish the purpose set for the enterprise Joseph Massie: planning is a process by which a manager looks to future and discovers alternatives. Kreitner : planning is process coping with uncertainty by formulating a future course of action to achieve specified results
  9. 9. Strategic Planning Tactical Planning Operational Planning Disaster Planning Succession Planning Crisis Planning Compensation Planning Example of Planning in Business or Government
  10. 10. PRINCIPLES of Planning • Must be realistic • Must be based on felt needs • Must be flexible • Must be democratic • Must start with simple projects • Must include social responsibility
  11. 11. Organizing establishment of the formal structure of authority through which work subdivisions are arranged, defined, and co- ordinated for the defined objective Organize: teams tasks projects
  12. 12. How to Organize? Determine the roles needed Obtain resources and allocate them to roles Organize offices and data systems. Assign resources to roles and delegate authority and responsibility to them. Assign tasks to the roles Determine best resource (people or equipment) for the role
  13. 13. STAFFING The whole personnel function of bringing in and training the staff and maintaining favorable conditions of work  HR Planning  Recruitment  Selection  Orientation  Training and Development  Performance Appraisal  Transfer, Promotion, Demotion  Separation, Termination, Retirement
  14. 14. DIRECTING continuous task of making decisions and embodying them in specific and general orders and instructions and serving as the leader of the enterprise Motivation (induces and inspires to perform better)) Communication Competent leadership ( work w/ zeal & confidence)
  15. 15. Pull, Don’t Push Pull • Pull (lead people) by effective directing • Motivate • Assist and inspire Push • sit back and give orders
  16. 16. COORDINATING - The all important duty of interrelating the various parts of the work - The very essence of management. It is required in each & every function and at each & every stage & therefore it cannot be separated. responsibility of every manager right from the bottom to the top Synchronized efforts understanding of interpersonal and horizontal relationships of people good communicati on
  17. 17. integrating the various plans through mutual discussion, exchange of ideas. e.g. - co-ordination between finance budget and purchases budget when a manager groups and assigns various activities to subordinates, and when he creates department’s co-ordination uppermost in his mind. A manager should bear in mind that the right no. of personnel in various positions with right type of education and skills are taken which will ensure right men on the right job. PLANNING AND COORDINATION STAFFING AND COORDINATION. ORGANIZING AND COORDINATION. . The purpose of giving orders, instructions & guidance to the subordinates is served only when there is a harmony between superiors & subordinates DIRECTING AND COORDINATION. .
  18. 18. REPORTING Reporting is keeping those to whom the executive is responsible informed as to what is going on, which thus includes keeping himself and his subordinates informed through records, research and inspections
  19. 19. BUDGETING - means fiscal planning, control and accounting- - Quantification of plans - Financial planning - Monitoring & controlling scarce resources through performance measurement
  20. 20. Managerial Skills Conceptual Technical Human Decision Making Problem Solving MANAGERIAL SKILLS
  21. 21. CONCEPTUAL SKILLS Ability to see the ‘big picture’, to recognize and understand significant elements in a situation. Creation Phase:  Establish positive thinking  Develop creative ideas  Combine  Refine  Re-arrange  Simplify
  22. 22. Knowledge of and proficiency in activities involving methods, processes and procedures.  Development of your technical skills as an integral part of your personal development  Strong technical skills can save you time and increase income TECHNICAL SKILLS
  23. 23. Ability to work with people. Creation of an environment in which people feel secure and free to express their opinions.  HR is most important career skill  One’s ability to get along is the single most important factor affecting chances of success in the workplace HUMAN SKILLS
  24. 24.  Ability to solve problems that will benefit enterprise. Also ability to design a workable solution to the problems and to avoid them in future Simple tips: - get all the facts - weigh - decide - act Post Implementation: - monitor - verify results - document - celebrate success DECISION MAKING SKILL
  25. 25. PROBLEM SOLVING Prevention Principle – Solve problem @ the source. Live by the 1 – 10 – 100 rule Practice Principle
  26. 26. Fix Problem Before it Reaches Customer Fix Problem After it Goes to Customer 100 10 1 Cost •If problem is not fixed when it occurs it will become costlier to fix later – money and time 1 – 10 – 100 Rule Problem Solving Prevent Problem Time
  27. 27. Lately in public administration POSDECoRB Managerial Function 1 Planning 2 Organizing 3 Staffing 4 Directing/Influencing 5 Coordinating/Reviewing 6 Budgeting
  28. 28. Middle Level First-Line Workers 2 1 4 Top Level Management LEVEL OF MANAGEMENT 3
  29. 29. Levels of Management Responsible for working out strategies and plans to implement decisions and policies made by top level managers. Responsible for ensuring work is done according to plans. Top First-Line Middle determines the objectives, policies and plans of the organization. Managerial Skill Design/Human Skills Technical Conceptual/Design
  30. 30. Managerial Skills First Line Technical Design / Human Skills Conceptual / Design Middle Top Level
  31. 31. Middle Level First-Line PANELCO III ORG. CHART
  32. 32. Top Level Management Middle Level First-Line Reflective of the above discussion, CDA BOA Resolution No. 32-S-2011 provides the organizational structure of primary cooperatives under RA The Organizational Structure of a Primary Cooperative. Source : CDA BOA Resolution No. 32-S-2011
  33. 33. Governance Framework GA • General Assembly BOD • Board of Directors OO • Other Officers MS • Management Staff Source: Bitonio (2012) The cooperative governance framework as exhibited in the operation and management of cooperatives.
  34. 34. • General Assembly • Board of Directors • Other Officers • Management Staff Source: Bitonio (2012) GA BOD OO MS Flow of Accountability
  35. 35. 45 25 20 5 35 30 20 15 5 15 30 50 TOP MIDDLE FIRST Plan Org Leading Coordinating Managerial Functions
  36. 36. A.Interpersonal Roles (figurehead, liaison, leads) B.Decision Maker ( entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator) C.Informational Roles (monitors, disseminator, spokesperson) Managerial Roles
  37. 37. Management Issues Faced by the Coop. • Low collection efficiency(high A/R) • High operating Costs • High tax assessment by the BIR Financial • Interference of politics • Postponement of BOD electionsInstitutional • High system loss • Rampant pilferage/illegal connections • Frequent loan of materials by contractors Technical
  38. 38. 18794957?from_search=3, retrieved: 09/30/13 dot-introduction-to-management/ch01_sub6_xhtml, retrieved: 10/1/13. Reference: http:// theories/POSDORB.htm accessed Oct 5, 2013 accessed Oct 5, 2013 Daft, R. L., & Marcic, D. (2010). Understanding Management (7th Ed). Cengage Learning Johnson, D. (2002). Thinking government: ideas, policies, institutions, and public-sector management. Broadview press http:// theories/POSDORB.htm