Minerals & Rocks
What is a Mineral?
 The building block of rocks
 Naturally occurring (versus synthetic)
 Inorganic (no C-H bonds)
 Sol...
What is a Mineral?
 Chemical composition & crystalline structure
are the two most important properties of a
mineral
 Ele...
Elements of the Earth
 8 elements make up
98% of Earth’s crust
 Oxygen
 Silicon
 Aluminum
 Iron
 Calcium
 Magnesium...
Elements of the Earth
 Some few elements ARE minerals (eg: gold)
 Most are comprised of 2 to 5 elements
 Held together ...
Crystals: the crystalline
nature of minerals
 Crystal – any substance whose atoms are
arranged in a periodic, repeating p...
Crystal Structures
Physical properties of minerals
 Crystal habit
 the way crystals aggregate
 Cleavage
 Some minerals tend to break alon...
Physical properties of minerals
 Hardness – Moh’s scale
 1 to 10, based on
minerals
 Specific gravity
 Density relativ...
Mineral classes and
rock-forming minerals
 Silicates
 Carbonates
 Sulfides
 Sulfates
 Native elements
 Halides
 Oxi...
Mineral classes and
rock-forming minerals
 Silicates
 Most abundant rock-
forming minerals
 Carbonates
 Form many sedi...
Silicate minerals compose 92% of Earth’s Crust
Igneous
 Intrusive (inside)
 Cool slowly
 Forms from molten
magma
 Has visible (large)
crystals
 Ex: granite/quartz
...
Metamorphic
(large – change)
 Formed by heat and pressure (physical) OR
 By chemical changes which occur through
reactio...
Metamorphic
Coquina Marble
Metamorphic
 Two types form different characteristics
 Foliated have visible bands
 Ex: gneiss and slate
 Non-Foliated...
Sedimentary
 Formed from Sediment
created by weathering and
erosion of existing rocks
which is then compacted
and cemente...
Clastic
 Easily seen
fragments
 Conglomerate
 Rounded particles
 Breccia
 Angled particles
 Not easily seen
fragment...
Chemical
 Formed by Chemical
Processes
 Evaporation
 Solid forms when
water is evaporated
 Halite (salt)/Gypsum
 Prec...
Bioclastic
 Are formed from
living organisms
 shell fragments
 Hard-shelled
organisms
 Clams, corals, oysters,
etc.
 ...
Organic
 Formed from living
organisms -
plants/animals
 Coal made from
plants
 Limestone made
from shells
Rock Cycle
Magma
Igneous
Weathering
& erosion
sedimentsSedimentary
Rock
Metamorphic
Rock
Heat &
Pressure
Compaction &
ceme...
Videos
 This is a super website for mineral
identification
 http://www.rocksforkids.com/RFK/identificati
on.html#Field
HPU NCS2200 Minerals & rocks chap 2 & 3
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HPU NCS2200 Minerals & rocks chap 2 & 3

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HPU NCS2200 earth science for elementary education majors summer 2104 online class rocks and minerals lecture

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HPU NCS2200 Minerals & rocks chap 2 & 3

  1. 1. Minerals & Rocks
  2. 2. What is a Mineral?  The building block of rocks  Naturally occurring (versus synthetic)  Inorganic (no C-H bonds)  Solid (ice is a mineral then, but water is not)
  3. 3. What is a Mineral?  Chemical composition & crystalline structure are the two most important properties of a mineral  Elements  fundamental component of matter  Cannot be broken down by ordinary means  88 naturally occurring elements in Earth’s crust
  4. 4. Elements of the Earth  8 elements make up 98% of Earth’s crust  Oxygen  Silicon  Aluminum  Iron  Calcium  Magnesium  Potassium  Sodium
  5. 5. Elements of the Earth  Some few elements ARE minerals (eg: gold)  Most are comprised of 2 to 5 elements  Held together by + / - electrical charges  Many can vary a little is components  88 elements form over 3,500 minerals  9 rock-forming mineral groups
  6. 6. Crystals: the crystalline nature of minerals  Crystal – any substance whose atoms are arranged in a periodic, repeating pattern  This pattern is crystalline structure  Unit cell – the smallest group of atoms making up the unique pattern  Crystal face – flat surface occurring when a crystal grows freely  Reflects light  Bonding creates crystal structure
  7. 7. Crystal Structures
  8. 8. Physical properties of minerals  Crystal habit  the way crystals aggregate  Cleavage  Some minerals tend to break along flat surfaces  Fracture  The way a mineral breaks other than cleavage
  9. 9. Physical properties of minerals  Hardness – Moh’s scale  1 to 10, based on minerals  Specific gravity  Density relative to water  Color  Obvious, but limited use  Streak  Color of fine powder  Luster  The manner it reflects light  “Other” properties
  10. 10. Mineral classes and rock-forming minerals  Silicates  Carbonates  Sulfides  Sulfates  Native elements  Halides  Oxides  Hydroxides  Phosphates
  11. 11. Mineral classes and rock-forming minerals  Silicates  Most abundant rock- forming minerals  Carbonates  Form many sedimentary rocks  Phosphates  Turquoise  Hydroxides  Bauxite  Halides  Table Salt  Sulfates  Gypsum  Sulfides  Pyrite  Oxides  Hematite  Native Elements  Gold, Silver
  12. 12. Silicate minerals compose 92% of Earth’s Crust
  13. 13. Igneous  Intrusive (inside)  Cool slowly  Forms from molten magma  Has visible (large) crystals  Ex: granite/quartz  Extrusive (outside)  Cool quickly  Forms from lava  Has invisible (small) crystals  Ex: basalt/pumice/Rhyolite Formed from cooling magma
  14. 14. Metamorphic (large – change)  Formed by heat and pressure (physical) OR  By chemical changes which occur through reaction between rock and outside chemical  Two types of metamorphism:  Contact and regional  Contact happens under the surface when magma intrudes into the rock  Regional happens on the surface from intense heat and pressure usually during mountain building
  15. 15. Metamorphic Coquina Marble
  16. 16. Metamorphic  Two types form different characteristics  Foliated have visible bands  Ex: gneiss and slate  Non-Foliated have no visible bands  marble
  17. 17. Sedimentary  Formed from Sediment created by weathering and erosion of existing rocks which is then compacted and cemented  Weathering and erosion  Particles, altered, or dissolved materials  Transported and deposited  Compaction  Lithification (“glueing” together)  Four Types  Clastic  Chemical  Organic  Bioclastic
  18. 18. Clastic  Easily seen fragments  Conglomerate  Rounded particles  Breccia  Angled particles  Not easily seen fragments  Sand sized  Sandstone  Clay sized  Shale/siltstone
  19. 19. Chemical  Formed by Chemical Processes  Evaporation  Solid forms when water is evaporated  Halite (salt)/Gypsum  Precipitate  Forms when two liquids are mixed  limestone
  20. 20. Bioclastic  Are formed from living organisms  shell fragments  Hard-shelled organisms  Clams, corals, oysters, etc.  Carbonate skeletons
  21. 21. Organic  Formed from living organisms - plants/animals  Coal made from plants  Limestone made from shells
  22. 22. Rock Cycle Magma Igneous Weathering & erosion sedimentsSedimentary Rock Metamorphic Rock Heat & Pressure Compaction & cementation Heat & Pressure Weathering & erosion
  23. 23. Videos  This is a super website for mineral identification  http://www.rocksforkids.com/RFK/identificati on.html#Field

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