HPU NCS2200 Energy resources Lecture


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HPU NCS2200 Earth science for elementary education majors summer 2014 online course energy resources lecture

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HPU NCS2200 Energy resources Lecture

  1. 1. Energy resources: Coal ►Most relevant mineral resources to most Americans – ENERGY! ►Coal – a combustible rock composed mainly of carbon. Most coal formed 360 to 286 mya  Long use in human history – industrial revolution increased use tremendously  Forming much slower than consumption rate ►Peat – pre-coal in oxygen deprived bogs, swamps
  2. 2. Fig. 5.17, p.108
  3. 3. Table 5.3, p.108
  4. 4. World Coal Reserves http://www.worldenergy.org/data/resources/resource/coal/
  5. 5. Extracting Coal: Surface Mining ► Surface Mining  Open pit – large open holes dug to extract materials  Strip mining – earth above deposit (called overburden) is removed – ore is extracted – overburden in replaced  Mountaintop removal – involves the blasting and stripping of mountain tops to extract coal inside mountains
  6. 6. Mountain Top Removal
  7. 7. Strip Mining
  8. 8. Fig. 5.14, p.106
  9. 9. Open Pit Mining
  10. 10. Extracting coal: Subsurface Mining Shafts and tunnels lead to various “veins” of coal running through an area  Room and pillar – large deposits of coal are mined in sections with columns of coal left to support the “roof”  Longwall mining – similar to room and pillar but in this case all the coal is along one “wall” of the room.
  11. 11. Longwall
  12. 12. Fig. 5.12, p.106
  13. 13. Shaft Mining
  14. 14. Room and Pillar
  15. 15. Problems with Coal Mining ►Subsidence – sinking of ground surface due to extraction of subsoil and rock ►Acid Mine Drainage – water leaking into mine dissolves acids in soil and rock ►Habitat Destruction – surface mining removes habitat and disrupts ecosystems
  16. 16. Fig. 5.15, p.107
  17. 17. 5.5 Energy resources: Petroleum ► Petroleum – formed from organic residue of plants and animals.  Burial in mud, slow heating  Source rock – where it comes from  Oil traps – folds or other rock structures that trap rising petroleum
  18. 18. Mineral Extraction: Petroleum ►Extraction – companies drill wells into reservoirs of petroleum – on land or under the ocean
  19. 19. Problems with Petroleum ► Wells getting deeper ► Much oil too viscous (thick) to pump ►Secondary recovery – injection of water ►Tertiary recovery – use of superheated steam and/or surfactants ► Found in hostile / sensitive places ►Open sea floor, ANWR ► Foreign Dependency ► Needed for other products: plastics, fertilizers, chemicals
  20. 20. Petroleum Dilemma ►Modern Technology needs energy ►Reserves of coal and oil will run out – eventually  How quickly they run out depends ►On the level to which they are used by developed nations. ►The increasing energy demands of developing nations. ►Whether alternative energies are developed and widely distributed.
  21. 21. 5.5 Energy resources: natural gas ►Natural gas – forms as a by-product of coal and oil formation  Mainly methane, used as fuel without processing  Coal bed methane – associated with coal seams ►US produces 99% of its own natural gas energy needs. ►Most versatile of fossil fuels: can be used for heating, generating electricity and transportation
  22. 22. http://www.worldenergy.org/data/resources/resource/gas/
  23. 23. Natural Gas Extraction ►Extracted as a secondary process of oil and coal extraction – often burned off as “nuisance” gas. ►Hydraulic Fracturing – “fracking”  Method of extracting gas from previously unusable shale formations  Involves drilling into the ground vertically to the shale formation  Then drilling horizontally along the shale  Then fracturing the shale rock and injecting solution of sand and chemicals to flush out the natural gas
  24. 24. Hydraulic Fracturing “fracking”
  25. 25. Images of Fracking in US 22,000 active oil and gas wells – Weld County, CO. Each red dot represents up to 52 active wells Fracking Field
  26. 26. Problems with Fracking Problem #1 – Chemicals mixed in water/sand to promote gas release
  27. 27. Problems with Fracking ►“produced water”  Evaporation pits for Allow chemicals to escape into the atmosphere  Spills of produced water onto ground and into streams and rivers ► Drilling and storage sites emit toxic vapors into the air ► The list goes on…For more info just google “fracking problems” you’ll get an eyefull!!  As always I advocate looking at numerous sites and “vetting” the sites (i.e where do they get their information from, who supports their research, can the data they give be validated??)
  28. 28. summary ► Mineral Extractions impacts the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere ► Land issues include:  Habitat loss  Soil erosion  Spills & contamination  Subsidence ►Laws in place to prevent and repair damage  Resource Conservation Recovery Act  Surface Mining Control & Reclamation Act  Clean Water/Clean Air Act