HPU NCS2200 chapter 17&18 structure and function part 2

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HPU NCS2200 earth science for elementary education majors summer 2014 online class function and structure of the atmosphere part 2

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HPU NCS2200 chapter 17&18 structure and function part 2

  1. 1. Heating the atmosphere • Solar energy (UV radiation) is absorbed – Darker objects absorb more radiation than lighter objects which reflect radiation • Albedo – ability to reflect light radiation • Absorbed radiation converted to heat (infrared radiation) • Heat radiates off object and warms surrounding air
  2. 2. Earth’s Warming Mechanism • Greenhouse effect – Natural and Essential Process – Global Warming is a DESIRED result of the greenhouse effect – Without this process the earth would be uninhabitable • An INCREASED RATE of Global Warming could cause global climate consequences
  3. 3. Greenhouse gases • Contained in the upper troposphere – Carbon dioxide (CO2) – Water Vapor (H2O) – Methane (CH4) – Nitrogen Oxide (N2O) • Form a barrier that reflects infrared radiation and traps it
  4. 4. Greenhouse Effect UV radiation (short-fast wavelengths) from sun penetrates atmosphere UV Radiation is absorbed by the earth surfaces UV Radiation is converted to heat (infrared radiation – long-slow wavelengths) Infrared radiation rises into the atmosphere Long slow wavelengths cannot penetrate the greenhouse gases in atmosphere Heat is trapped in troposphere warming the earth’s air and surface.
  5. 5. Circulation of air • Recall Convection – Transfer of heat through a fluid – Energy warms the air – density decreases – Warm air rises – As air rises it cools – density increases – Cool air falls – repeats
  6. 6. Atmospheric circulation • Uneven heating of the earth’s surface causes temperature differences • Temperature differences create pressure differences • Pressure differences cause air to move • High pressure air moves and pushes low pressure air – WIND is generated
  7. 7. Coriolis effect • Non Rotating Earth model – Winds would blow only from north pole to equator • Rotating Earth model – Rotation of earth creates Coriolis Effect • Deflection of actions due to earth’s rotation • Northern Hemisphere rotate to the right • Southern Hemisphere rotates to the left – Creates Atmospheric circulation cells and wind belts
  8. 8. Coriolis efffect
  9. 9. Wind Belts Three major wind belts created by Coriolis effect – 60 – 90 degrees latitude Polar Easterlies – winds blow FROM the east – 30 – 60 degrees latitude Westerlies – winds blow FROM the west – 0 – 30 degrees latitude (equator) Trade Winds – blow from east to west
  10. 10. The convection cells redistribute heat and moisture creating the climate regions north and south of the equator.

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