Charles Armstrong

Collective Intelligence,  indeterminacy
and the Illusion of Control

www.  tram polinesyslemscorn
Charles Armstrong Mike Stenhouse
Founder,  CEO Head of User Experience, 

Trampoline Systems Trampoline Systems
Enterprise software that

harnesses social behaviour

 

Gmnt Thornton 8 r‘. ;: %.
Collective intelligence
systems present unique
difficulties for usability and

adoption.  What approaches
will work?
1 /  Ethnographic Perspective

Charles Armstrong
CEO,  Trampoline Systems
First generation (1960-2000)

- Foundation technologies:  microprocessors, 
underlying network protocols,  core infrastruc...
Second generation (2000 onward)

- Realigning foundation technologies to mesh with
evolved social behaviour. 

- Productiv...
Tim O’Reil| y uses the term
“Bionic Software” to indicate

how these systems augment
human intelligence.
But “Sociomimetic” is more
accurate.  We’re augmenting

collective intelligence not
individual.
Craig McMi| _lan

o iomimeticsystems.  are complex! 

Charles Armstrong

‘. :r1lJv: r‘»~, cl

l -* ' Large,  widespread ne...
The challenge How to make
Sociomimetic systems easy

for users to understand, 
adopt and manage.
Usability focuses on the
interaction between an

individual and a machine.
But with a Sociomimetic
technology the user is

interacting with a complex
human system.
We need to think of the
software as a window onto

the human collective.
How do we design an
interface for something so

complex?
Let’s go back to the basics

of how we use tools.
Humans are not the only tool users.
.. .though animal examples can be baffling
But hominids are the

virtuosi.
Hand axe 350,000 BC
Bronze shears 1000 BC
We can intuit what these
tools do.  We could pick
them up and use them

without needing any
training.
What makes a tool easy to adopt? 

-I We understand how it works and how to operate it.
What makes a tool easy to adopt? 

- Grokability.
What makes a tool easy to adopt? 

F Grokability. 
-I We can predict what effect it will have.
What makes a tool easy to adopt? 

- Grokability. 
- Predictability.
What makes a tool easy to adopt? 

- Grokability. 
- Predictability. 
- We can imagine a situation where it would be useful.
What makes a tool easy to adopt? 

- Grokability. 
- Predictability. 
- Relevance.
If we want any tool to be
easy to adopt and use,  it

must satisfy these three
requirements.
Let’s rate two complex tools
against these requirements, 

from the perspective of the
times they were introduced.
Star Tourer automobile 1910 AD
Star Tourer automobile 1910 AD
Automobile:  Grokability

Looks like a carriage but no obvious way to attach a

horse. 
Multiple floor pedals,  dials,  a ...
Automobile:  Predictability

- Once the controls have been learned,  the same
input generally has the same effect. 

PASS
Automobile:  Relevance

- It carries people and luggage long distances at high
speed with no effort. 

PASS
Automobile:  scorecard

Grokability FAIL
Predictability PASS
Relevance PASS
Xerox 801 0 “Star” 1981 AD
PC:  Grokability

- A television,  half a typewriter,  a box with two buttons
and a wheel underneath (plus a fridge-sized ...
PC:  Predictability

- A conceptual universe of programs,  icons,  menus
and keyboard/ mouse control must be learned befor...
PC:  Relevance

The average person in 1981 didn’t see much need
for a PC. 
Why are there pictures on the screen instead of...
PC:  scorecard

Grokability FAIL
Predictability FAIL
Relevance FAIL
If Sociomimetic systems are
this hard to adopt,  it will take

a long time for them to
become popular.
Can we make it easier?
Let’s look for some clues. ..
., ... .. . .x. ..». .a. ... ,.. ,. ,1/1%, /.. ..». . c/ t. / ::. m.x.  7.2M 21. . /., .:/ I. / M / ..  .  /.  ,. 

.  . l...
London Underground Map (Henry Beck,  1933)
q -.  -. v.-'.  v .  ..  'A‘r. %‘&SbV-%'sKI- -s kwsuvsxxa-r. --.2. 'r. ' *. -.>.  -1. 2. 2 . v v

London Underground Map
Solution 1 Present a
simplified reality

- Present a distilled version of reality that users can
understand rapidly. 

- E...
Grokability PASS
Typhoon “Eurofighter” 2002 AD
Too complex to control

The aircraft is dynamically unstable. 

Human reflexes are too slow to control it (the plane
would...
Solution 2 Create an
illusion of control

Offer the user controls that are simple and relevant
to their experience. 

Thes...
Predictability PASS
W —n— G!  IIII IC GENE‘

UK election poster 1979 AD
Too abstract to be relevant

Democracy is a tool for governing a society in the
common interest. 

From the perspective of...
Solution 3 In-your-
face usefulness

-I Interface must relate to the user's experienced
needs. 

- The first time a user e...
Relevance PASS
2/ Software & Web Perspective

Mike Stenhouse

Head of User Experience,  Trampoline Systems
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Charles Armstrong

Thanks!  Let us have your feedback. 

www.  1 ram polinesyslemscom
Collective Intelligence Indeterminacy and the Illusion of Control
Collective Intelligence Indeterminacy and the Illusion of Control
Collective Intelligence Indeterminacy and the Illusion of Control
Collective Intelligence Indeterminacy and the Illusion of Control
Collective Intelligence Indeterminacy and the Illusion of Control
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Collective Intelligence Indeterminacy and the Illusion of Control

  1. 1. Charles Armstrong Collective Intelligence, indeterminacy and the Illusion of Control www. tram polinesyslemscorn
  2. 2. Charles Armstrong Mike Stenhouse Founder, CEO Head of User Experience, Trampoline Systems Trampoline Systems
  3. 3. Enterprise software that harnesses social behaviour Gmnt Thornton 8 r‘. ;: %.
  4. 4. Collective intelligence systems present unique difficulties for usability and adoption. What approaches will work?
  5. 5. 1 / Ethnographic Perspective Charles Armstrong CEO, Trampoline Systems
  6. 6. First generation (1960-2000) - Foundation technologies: microprocessors, underlying network protocols, core infrastructure software, personal productivity software. Productivity gains achieved by training humans to fit into mechanical processes. Social behaviour marginalised (eg water cooler networking).
  7. 7. Second generation (2000 onward) - Realigning foundation technologies to mesh with evolved social behaviour. - Productivity gains achieved by leveraging collective intelligence. - “Social software”, “Web 2.0” and “Enterprise 2.0” are pointers to this generational shift.
  8. 8. Tim O’Reil| y uses the term “Bionic Software” to indicate how these systems augment human intelligence.
  9. 9. But “Sociomimetic” is more accurate. We’re augmenting collective intelligence not individual.
  10. 10. Craig McMi| _lan o iomimeticsystems. are complex! Charles Armstrong ‘. :r1lJv: r‘»~, cl l -* ' Large, widespread network ofusers. 5”‘ "‘ V __-‘Multiple ‘sourcesfof content and data. 1- Com’pl_ex; a‘lgorithms. . 2 SystemFfeedback - changing factor_X affects factor Y which chan‘ges_factor‘X4. -‘ Non-deterministic - ‘adjusting a parameter might ‘ ' have a difierenteffect from oneday to another. Warren Langley
  11. 11. The challenge How to make Sociomimetic systems easy for users to understand, adopt and manage.
  12. 12. Usability focuses on the interaction between an individual and a machine.
  13. 13. But with a Sociomimetic technology the user is interacting with a complex human system.
  14. 14. We need to think of the software as a window onto the human collective.
  15. 15. How do we design an interface for something so complex?
  16. 16. Let’s go back to the basics of how we use tools.
  17. 17. Humans are not the only tool users.
  18. 18. .. .though animal examples can be baffling
  19. 19. But hominids are the virtuosi.
  20. 20. Hand axe 350,000 BC
  21. 21. Bronze shears 1000 BC
  22. 22. We can intuit what these tools do. We could pick them up and use them without needing any training.
  23. 23. What makes a tool easy to adopt? -I We understand how it works and how to operate it.
  24. 24. What makes a tool easy to adopt? - Grokability.
  25. 25. What makes a tool easy to adopt? F Grokability. -I We can predict what effect it will have.
  26. 26. What makes a tool easy to adopt? - Grokability. - Predictability.
  27. 27. What makes a tool easy to adopt? - Grokability. - Predictability. - We can imagine a situation where it would be useful.
  28. 28. What makes a tool easy to adopt? - Grokability. - Predictability. - Relevance.
  29. 29. If we want any tool to be easy to adopt and use, it must satisfy these three requirements.
  30. 30. Let’s rate two complex tools against these requirements, from the perspective of the times they were introduced.
  31. 31. Star Tourer automobile 1910 AD
  32. 32. Star Tourer automobile 1910 AD
  33. 33. Automobile: Grokability Looks like a carriage but no obvious way to attach a horse. Multiple floor pedals, dials, a strange circular appendage, several switches. FAIL Consequences: - Users require intensive training.
  34. 34. Automobile: Predictability - Once the controls have been learned, the same input generally has the same effect. PASS
  35. 35. Automobile: Relevance - It carries people and luggage long distances at high speed with no effort. PASS
  36. 36. Automobile: scorecard Grokability FAIL Predictability PASS Relevance PASS
  37. 37. Xerox 801 0 “Star” 1981 AD
  38. 38. PC: Grokability - A television, half a typewriter, a box with two buttons and a wheel underneath (plus a fridge-sized cabinet which is strangely omitted from marketing images). - Function and operation are totally incomprehensible. FAIL Consequence: - Users require long training process.
  39. 39. PC: Predictability - A conceptual universe of programs, icons, menus and keyboard/ mouse control must be learned before the system’s behaviour becomes predictable. FAIL
  40. 40. PC: Relevance The average person in 1981 didn’t see much need for a PC. Why are there pictures on the screen instead of text? FAIL
  41. 41. PC: scorecard Grokability FAIL Predictability FAIL Relevance FAIL
  42. 42. If Sociomimetic systems are this hard to adopt, it will take a long time for them to become popular.
  43. 43. Can we make it easier?
  44. 44. Let’s look for some clues. ..
  45. 45. ., ... .. . .x. ..». .a. ... ,.. ,. ,1/1%, /.. ..». . c/ t. / ::. m.x. 7.2M 21. . /., .:/ I. / M / .. . /. ,. . . llllflflzillll . -. .-. -C I ' ! L.-. -.-. '.- . a-. - . -r. 2 . -.-----s. -. . _. .wII JIN-Illillifil . “ M . . , W . .- . ” _ I ; . I‘ ’.
  46. 46. London Underground Map (Henry Beck, 1933)
  47. 47. q -. -. v.-'. v . .. 'A‘r. %‘&SbV-%'sKI- -s kwsuvsxxa-r. --.2. 'r. ' *. -.>. -1. 2. 2 . v v London Underground Map
  48. 48. Solution 1 Present a simplified reality - Present a distilled version of reality that users can understand rapidly. - Emphasise underlying structure. - Optimise the reality you present to help users make informed choices.
  49. 49. Grokability PASS
  50. 50. Typhoon “Eurofighter” 2002 AD
  51. 51. Too complex to control The aircraft is dynamically unstable. Human reflexes are too slow to control it (the plane would crash). Computers control all flight surfaces. But the pilot is provided with conventional cockpit controls which feed input to the computers.
  52. 52. Solution 2 Create an illusion of control Offer the user controls that are simple and relevant to their experience. These controls may appear to do something direct and straightfon/ vard but this will be an illusion.
  53. 53. Predictability PASS
  54. 54. W —n— G! IIII IC GENE‘ UK election poster 1979 AD
  55. 55. Too abstract to be relevant Democracy is a tool for governing a society in the common interest. From the perspective of an individual user it’s insanely complex, non-deterministic and abstract. Successful politicians articulate issues in terms of simple choices relevant to the ordinary voter.
  56. 56. Solution 3 In-your- face usefulness -I Interface must relate to the user's experienced needs. - The first time a user engages with a system it should be filled with information specifically relevant to them.
  57. 57. Relevance PASS
  58. 58. 2/ Software & Web Perspective Mike Stenhouse Head of User Experience, Trampoline Systems
  59. 59. Shh, quiet—Fuckin' loud
  60. 60. Nick Drake — Jimi Hendrix
  61. 61. Action Five . ,;. =' : / 7" . .‘_ I‘ . (g ' . I-J’ VF? ’ . ,.a--1.‘ j
  62. 62. 52 cu lwlv. " View Wrduw >*v: 'D - 1 ‘: Mulu: Stenhouse Q ' _‘ | r._. .-n 3,. .. M .1vr' : l~: ~, ‘ , ,.. .- "mu yum. g--. -. , -.. ~. , ~-, .-. . . .., —. . ~<. -~ yn, --. ,. ,.. . P. .. Yv1~, < v-¢-. - | Vv| -rv nu-n y—-u-- new-w lrr «. .. -. —~ . b 3a‘ . _J 004-: 1 L 1 "l. I—l 7.. .?
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  66. 66. Junk I mall (Ipnoir. (at. -nllar Uplmm ‘ “' ; 'r~ tr *rrl-I iL"I’4'{4"I‘. "- II: V 1., -1 "I1 I , .-. 'L — 4.2‘ ‘I — ~ . :_-. —, ‘ll: . ,. . Al|1p4 v Llyrlv '~"**‘—'r"W“ . . . . ,1. I v (min- I u v _ r __ M t. .‘: .. L-ml: -.l Opuom . ,.. ,. _s, . -, 4_l_t'_l V g . ¢'- '. . . ;.-r: I. ‘ -*'1'> I_]J(IrI r . .~; . an-. w«; i~~a» c -. ... r. --«, ,_. ., , r-Ir-’VI‘r ; c:. ~i rm»-. .A: .r. :-. Il. ..- Mu. » mu. » . .._ . (.v, ..r. .- (at . ., —.—l‘. l «. ..v. l v 11.» . ,.~ : =tn_ .11.. ‘ my r. .; '-L31. V‘ '-. . ‘rm: U. -.: i;, .._. to-rpm, -.4—. ' . . . ; -r. I‘, -'r' M : Ni-1l: - roar. ’ -. . ». .~ "r! .-n “ . .. r. . , - , »-. r , _ D ' j ’‘ ‘'3:‘-'‘-‘'’‘~' '3"-"' 7.n. .~x-, ;.‘n I . ,., . V _ 7- run 'h . 1 . r. -., x., , . r:. J“. W JUU_ ‘HR 7' Ii — 0 . . ‘ "J: -«iv» ~ee2._«. n . «. ~m ; : ‘fr t. .. . ' «— 101711 In‘. — Cl» n-. 3]. .». ; rm: MM H«~| I¢sy~. lu La| <>nI| «n -. ... ... .. c. .. . . . I }»—-4 7- , .j; 'u'ul , .~vq"«. L-I . . Nola’. (Jrihorr. ' I; II-Id-om; Upllun-. —1'W. “|". P xt- _ . u:»; rr. "“"" ’ V i_*un. .,, ,L: ..u_-_. o-rl. 'l, - ; ,p, ,-. .5n r-5‘P. ‘€'.3-2&1’: "' ‘I “ . : ‘H. 1/. ’ p--my-i. .-¢y . ,.-v. ,:, _n Ir‘, - 1 ‘_o( v_ ‘M - . -J4.-e. —- 3v_l A. ., .. . . .. 4.l'r »r—. .. . . . $’| mm-I Opli-. -In -. -.— . r: «'»''i': tr “ r‘. vu-4!Q_'>I~4Ir-' , , :1‘! ' - W — I I--. .,, ,,. . . ,., .i. .. ll» M . .. :., , , .,, <. . : -: >: «="r"'rA4'~n>’«~ 1*’ L’ -: =- V N __m" ____—_‘ mg , —n. «,. r. -~~—- ,4‘ . .‘. , ‘~ ‘3 . -.14 . — .1: 9-‘vi ‘v: .< . ‘ 3.. . . 3-'~l nit P-'3-iurcr Scheduling : .!. ... i ». « u: .». .-a; .. _ _ ’_ tn. ’ 1 _ ‘ ‘ »"- ' "I4 ' fl‘ ‘ ~ -r’-, in-«rh- _ ’ I y». "l‘l|1l r. .—o. ..r. ..n. g V” ‘ In »”" r. ;:r. a '4 . : ’-f-M ’ " ' “ ‘ ‘I ‘ . -.1; . . . .. . t, . —y«. ..A-. .,. ..; ..-I . »:; ... . . ... r1. 5.41:1.-¢ - >- .1l*. rf* . ‘I, ’ v- . ~.-. -ml r <». ,-, .. ,, , , , .
  67. 67. “An interface is about hiding complexity from the user. It's about guiding a process, without cognitive understanding of what goes on beneath. ” Kai Krause http: .Wen. wikipedia. org. “wikivKai Krause
  68. 68. I've been fooled!
  69. 69. Paris Hilton . I.. ... ... .. Listen NOV! nun. ‘ ‘l""Xl. |‘. | ‘! .‘. II? '.”5l ‘ I / )5 --4 Paris Hilton's Radio I-. ‘ . .I. ‘. ’1'lv. .
  70. 70. |<, st-fm' G) (D © 6) ® ll - Musnr II-. IIII '! I“ I'l'l‘I IlI~'I ma tr-rm 'nm«' ’. Vl')l7'V Popular Tags for This Artist all Ilinus . !1fl(NIl| II the mini [ll mqmhfl min one umul | !II II nlmruiwv . !Ill'l7|fl| Nl‘ mrk tn-sl umpl-I um III‘ wolhl IIIA1 I nwtd lntumn ll 11.91 -leallu rm-Cal Ilmsiu at trial a last i Imusuu-1 do-all: mudal ilumn nu-MI Met llu Mmllnmr t»-wrtlumtn mun o-mmuu- t‘l| i0lIlW'lI. H fwnalli Iovudi-vm mus lumttlu lullrlwml uw uwrnnn units spndrntn oanttvrnh. -.ysn| I»s lu= <Nvnx1.9I honor: luplmp horns: um rmlwpou lVItI(‘IO(| nnus1I| .slm(-val .109 Md: nlakv ma-Mlnw In-vv our vwvl vnwv Ml! n.1l| .ruI1 rig»-rm [It-um pus! “II puww nu-Ml | -nun-suw ', uN)rI-. I.lwrnI(aI | Irrn| r¢-sumvrruh unry uuru-(yarn unm-I xtuuywrlrr uluuflrmbu vwrllqnupi II-(nun llnaslnln-III two-r
  71. 71. 5’~—'I-vi I IIl ( QC] 1 '11 III Coogle Search I I'm Fulmg Lucky I s». In: vI I‘- lheweb ’ Daoeslrofnlr. -L'K
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  80. 80. ‘‘It is like you want us to think that there is a super computer that can see the pictures and deside. ” PictureThis1 http: s“. ='www. flickncomag roupsii nterestingness500w'dis cuss»*72057594074431059
  81. 81. “My guess it’s statistical-magical” Yolise http: s~'www. flickrcomsgroupsrihterestingness500s'dis cuss*72057594074431059
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  83. 83. 1Iao10of23 ! !|. ll! .l2 9.lJs. s1.zz Tune Discovery id that '? .a: :ial I-. el'wi: irl. distarice: f_1~aiI) . A.| .lti‘lC'sl'| ?.‘.4I (1~1IJ_I '3 ted T T ails. Distance to authority: (1~alI_i /19’ . »'«uth~: rr's €lTTl| i3rIt« to mu: (1.10) ha A i i ‘semanti-L cl«: «series. s' it! -1) 05 Email types‘ D All D Fijirwar-its D Penile‘; Cl Interests Eurosatory 2006 HE Synthetit Aperture lmooinq E 1% -‘.1. . p- _. :-A -s_. u-, _.-
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