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Linking words

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Linking words

  1. 1. Use of English Linking Words
  2. 2. What are linking words? <ul><li>Linking words are words that join clauses into sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>There are three main types of linking words: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conjunctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sentence connectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>subordinators. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Conjunctions <ul><ul><li>and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>so </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>yet. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conjunctions are the most common form of linking word. They are used to join two parts of a sentence together are generally in the middle of a sentence. There are seven co-ordinating conjunctions. These are: </li></ul>Example : Successful students work hard and they organise their time effectively. <ul><ul><li>or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for </li></ul></ul>Independent clause Independent clause Conjunction
  4. 4. Sentence connectors <ul><li>Sentence connectors are used to link ideas from one sentence to the next and to give paragraphs coherence. Sentence connectors perform different functions and are placed at the beginning of a sentence. They are used to introduce, order, contrast, sequence ideas, theory, data etc. The following table lists useful connectors. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Logical / sequential order <ul><li>Firstly, secondly, thirdly etc </li></ul><ul><li>Next, last, finally </li></ul><ul><li>In addition </li></ul><ul><li>Furthermore </li></ul><ul><li>Also </li></ul><ul><li>At present / presently </li></ul>
  6. 6. Order of importance <ul><li>Most / more importantly </li></ul><ul><li>Most significantly </li></ul><ul><li>Above all </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily </li></ul><ul><li>It is essential / essentially </li></ul><ul><li>However </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand </li></ul><ul><li>On the contrary </li></ul><ul><li>By (in) comparison </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast </li></ul>Contrast
  7. 7. <ul><li>As a result </li></ul><ul><li>As a consequence </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore </li></ul><ul><li>Thus </li></ul><ul><li>Consequently </li></ul><ul><li>Hence </li></ul><ul><li>Similarly </li></ul><ul><li>Likewise </li></ul><ul><li>Also </li></ul>Comparison Result Reason <ul><li>The cause of </li></ul><ul><li>The reason for </li></ul>
  8. 8. Activity 1 – Fill in the gaps <ul><li>Time management skills are essential for study success. ___________, there are several useful strategies that can be used to improve your time management skills. __________, have clear goals in mind. __________, plan your time by having a yearly and weekly planner. Careful planning will enable you to keep on the top of your work and avoid stress. __________, reward yourself when the job is done. </li></ul>In fact Firstly Secondly Finally
  9. 9. Subordinators <ul><li>Subordinators are linking words that are used to join clauses together. They are used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Comparison and contrast <ul><li>Although </li></ul><ul><li>Though </li></ul><ul><li>Even though </li></ul><ul><li>While </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas </li></ul><ul><li>Since </li></ul><ul><li>So that </li></ul><ul><li>Because </li></ul>Cause and effect
  11. 11. Time <ul><li>After </li></ul><ul><li>When </li></ul><ul><li>Until </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever </li></ul><ul><li>Before </li></ul><ul><li>if </li></ul><ul><li>as if </li></ul><ul><li>whether </li></ul><ul><li>unless </li></ul>Possibility
  12. 12. Place and manner <ul><li>Wherever </li></ul><ul><li>Where </li></ul><ul><li>How </li></ul>
  13. 13. Activity 2: Identify 4 linking words / phrases <ul><li>Do teams in organisations need leaders? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How and why the leader was selected also appears to affect the leader’s effectiveness. Addison (1996), for instance, asserts that if a leader is elected democratically by the team and from within the team, there is more likelihood of an effective work relationship between team members. However, Smith (1996) notes that more than 60% of 500 workplace teams studied operate with team leaders chosen by the middle or upper management. Furthermore, in more than half of these, the team leaders did not have the confidence of the team members to the extent that effectiveness and efficiency was compromised. </li></ul></ul>

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