• Many years and decades
have passed and we are
not taking action against
this problem of the
‘Endangered Species of
Tigers of India’.
Save the tigers with
full initiative and care then
only this mission of saving
the tigers will succeed.
Habitat of the Tigers
• Tigers are wild animals and they have to stay
in their original habitat that are jungles, hills
and many more natural and purely green
places in open jungles, evergreen forests
and mango grove swamps. The Indian tiger
lives in open jungles, evergreen forests and
mango grove swamps here they can have
their own privacy. Many tigers are dead
because of deforestation. Deforestation
leads to make tigers homeless. Many tigers
also enter villages and become man- eaters.
Everyone has a right to live
• Everyone has a right to live, now suppose
any human is dead or murdered we do so
many prayers and we have so many
emotional feelings in our heart for that
human. Like, the feelings which we have
for the human why don’t we have the
feelings for the tigers and other animals. If
humans have some sympathy and respect
for every being in this world we can make
this world a better place to live.
Associations to protect tigers
WWF is one example of the associations to
protect tigers. These type of associations
prepare the arrangement for saving tigers.
They also prevent deforestation as it
destroys the habitat of the tigers
Size, Features and Eating habits
• The females work hard to search for the prey the tiger
family eats. The tigress searches for the prey and bring it
home. The first bite is for the tiger.
• The regular diet of Indian/Bengal tiger consists mainly of
deer, gaurs, antelopes and wild pigs. Sometimes it feeds
itself on birds, lizards, turtles, fishes, crabs and frogs.
• 3 feet tall to the top of the shoulder, 7-10 feet long from
the head to the rear end, with an additional 3 foot long
• weight ranges from 175-650 pounds.
How many tigers are left in the
There is about 3200; around 1411 Bengal
tigers, about 450 Siberian and the same
with Sumatran, Indo-Chinese is anywhere
between 1100 and 1800, and the South
China tiger is close to none, to be precise,
less than 20.
How many tigers left in India?
• Just 1411, according to the latest
survey/census by the National Tiger
Conservation Authority formed to
implement the 'Project Tiger'.
The Magnificent Indian Tigers
• The Indian tiger, also called as the Royal Bengal
tiger, is one of the most fascinating animals
found in India. The tiger is the largest living
member of the cat family and has an elegant
built. The reddish yellow coat with black stripes
gives the tiger a magnificent look. The ears of
tigers are black on the outside and have a
prominent white spot on them. The Indian tiger/
Royal Bengal tiger is one of the most graceful
animals found in Sundarbans in Bengal.
Where did the tigers originate?
• The scientific name of tigers is 'Panthera
tigris'. It is believed that the cat family, to
which the tiger belongs, originated in
Siberia. From Siberia, the tigers are
believed to have migrated down south as
the climate became colder.
Acts by which the species of tigers are
• Increasing urbanization, developmental activities
and poaching have resulted into rapid decline in
the tiger population not only in India but also the
world. In the last millennium itself as many as
three sub-species of tigers lost their existence
while five other tiger species have become
endangered. The endangered tiger species
include Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris tigris),
Chinese Tiger (Panthera tigris amoyensis), Amur
Tiger (Panthera tigris attaica), Indonesian Tiger
(Panthera tigris sumatrae) and Indo-Chinese
Tiger (Panthera tigris corbetti).
• To save the dwindling number of tigers in India, Project
Tiger was started in the year 1973. Though there has
been increase in the number of tigers in India but the
increase does not commensurate the efforts made in this
field. Some of the important Project Tiger reserves in
India are the Corbett National Park, Kanha National
Park, Sariska National Park, Palamou Tiger Reserve,
Sunderbans National Park, Manas Sanctuary,
Namdapha National Park and Bandipur National Park.
Tiger Population in Orrisa
• The population of tiger in Orissa has increased
from 142 in 1972 to 192 in 2004. Though only
35% increase over 32-years, this is perhaps the
best that could happen to tiger in the wild. The
Elephant Reserve network comes in aid of the
objectives of Project Tiger as the former
encompasses tiger habitat also. Two additional
areas, Sunabeda and Satkoshia-Baisipalli
Sanctuaries, have come under the network of
Mission of Project Tiger
• Some of the field activities under the aegis of Project Tiger
cover the following:
· Enforcement of anti-poaching measures.
· Census and estimate of the numbers of carnivores, their prey
· Habitat improvement measures,
· Water and soil conservation measures
· Ecodevelopment programmes and organization of alternate
· Motivation and awareness of local people,
· Eliciting participation of students through nature camps and
· Capacity building of staff,
· Development of telecommunication and road network
· Development and maintenance of other infrastructure
· Research, planning and monitoring of wildlife population and
· Management of ecotourism
The tiger is one of the most
charismatic and evocativecharismatic and evocative
species on Earth-species on Earth- it is also
one of the most threatened.
Only 6000 or so remain in the
wild, most in isolated
pockets spread across
forests, stretching from India
to south-eastern china and
from the Russian far east to
Sumatra , Indonesia. Across
its range, this magnificent
animal is being prosecuted.
Today tigers are being
poisoned, shot, trapped and
snared to meet the demands
of illegal wildlife trade.
Life Expectancy, Birth, Mating
• A typical tiger's life expectancy in the wild is 15-
20 years; somewhat longer in captivity. The
oldest tiger on record was 26 years.
• Although there is no set mating season for tigers,
breeding often occurs in the spring. The male
may stay with the female for 20-80 days during
• Gestation period is typically about 15. The cubs
nurse for about 2 months, learn to hunt after
about 11 months, and spend the first two years
of their lives with their mother, before going out
on their own.
Bengal (subspecies tigris)
The Bengal tiger is the most populous
type, with between 2500 and 4700
remaining in the wild.
Most live in the mangrove forests of themangrove forests of the
Sundarbans in eastern India andSundarbans in eastern India and
BangladeshBangladesh. Some also live in the
neighboring countries Bhutan, Myanmar,
and Nepal .
There are about 333 Bengal tigers in
captivity. Males typically weigh around 500
pounds; the females about 300.
All white tigers are male Bengals and have
a double recessive gene that causes the
Official status: ENDANGERED.
Indochinese (subspecies corbett)
• Indochinese tigers are centered
in Thailand, but also in
surrounding countries -
Myanmar, southern China,
Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and
• They are smaller and darker
than Bengal tigers, averaging
around 400 pounds for males
and 300 for females.
• Males average about 9 feet long
and females about 8 feet in
length (not counting the tail).
• Numbers in the wild are
estimated to be in the range
1227-1785. There are about 60 in
Official status: ENDANGERED.
Sumatran (subspecies corbett)
The smallest and darkest
tigers are reddish and
have closely spaced
The males average 250
About 400-500 remain in
the wild, exclusively on
the Indonesian island of
About 210 of this
subspecies are captive
around the world.
Official status: ENDANGERED
Amur/Siberian (subspecies altaica)
These guys are the largest
of the big cats.
weighing in at 675 pounds
and stretching a full 11
The heaviest Siberian Tiger
on record was 1025 pounds
(Guiness Book of World
Only about 360-470 exist in
the wild and there are
roughly 490 captive.
Their habitat is mostly
Despite their size, they
have been known to jump
as far as 33 feet.
Official status: ENDANGERED
South Chinese (subspecies
o Unfortunately, there are
perhaps only 20-30 South
Chinese tigers left in the
wild and 47 in Chinese
o They are found in central
and eastern China. China
joined CITES in 1981 and
passed the Wild Animal
Protection Law of the
People's Republic of China
The Javan tiger once roamed the Indonesian
island of Java. The last one was seen in
1972 and is now believed to be extinct.
The Caspian tiger once ranged from Turkey
to Central Asia, including Iran, Mongolia,
and Central Russia. They went extinct in the
The Bali tiger existed on the island of Bali.
The last one was killed in 1937. There are no
existing photos of a live Bali tiger.
Already extinct!Already extinct!
Figure shows how the range of tigers has changed over the past 100 years.
Once ranging all throughout India, southeast Asia, central Asia, and eastern
China, only small pockets of natural habitat remain.
• In early 1900's, world tiger population was estimated at around
100,000. By 1950, this number had dropped to 40,000.
• The lowest point of tiger population was about 4000 in the
1970s. Due to conservation efforts, the total number of tigers in
the wild has increased modestly since then to around 5000-
7000 today. At least twice that number exist in captivity.
• The tiger is officially classified as an Endangered Species, as
are all of the remaining subspecies. They have been on the
Endangered Species list since 1970.
• The tiger population dropped over the past 100 years by a
factor of 25 - from an estimated 100,000 in 1900 to only 4000 in
the 1970's. A concerted effort by wildlife protection groups in
the 1970's halted their rapid demise and the global population
of tigers in the wild has grown modestly to around 6000 at the
turn of the century).
TIGER TIGERTIGER TIGER
It’s official-India has just 1,411 tigers. the 2002 census
figure of 3500 tigers was clearly an effort to cover up
the sarkari failure to protect the glorious cat. This is
the stark finding of the NATIONAL TIGERNATIONAL TIGER
CONSERVATION AUTHORITYCONSERVATION AUTHORITY estimation report.
Safe havens dark holes
Kaziranga,Assam Nagarjun Srisailam,Andhra Pradesh
BIG CATS IN PERILBIG CATS IN PERIL
• JAN 2, 2008 : One tiger seized at Bandipur,Karnataka
• Jan 6: A tiger poisoned to death at Wynad at Kerala.
• Jan 7: One tiger found dead at Kanha,MP.
• Jan 13: Three pieces of tiger bones seized at
• Jan 21: One tiger skin seized at Munnar,Kerala.
• Jan 28: Tigress found dead at Katerniaghat,Uttar
• Jan 29: One tiger found dead at Gudalur, Tamil Nadu
• Feb 8: A tiger killed in road accident South Kheri
• Feb11: One tiger found dead at Melghat,Maharashtra.
CAUSES FOR TIGER DEMISECAUSES FOR TIGER DEMISE
1) UNLIMITED POACHING
a) supplying underground black markets with its organs, pelts and
bones, which are used for fur, Chinese medicine. Dead tiger's parts
are worth as much as $200,000 on the black market. The trade
continues today in China, Taiwan, Korea, and Singapore, although
tiger medicine is a hoax and has been shown to have no curative
b) hunted for recreation.
2) Human expansion
3) deforestation (insecticides have reduced the danger of malarial
mosquitoes in India, making land habitable that was previously
home to tigers)
Can they be saved?Can they be saved?
1) Saving the forest patches.
2) Waging a war against poaching in tiger-breeding
zones. The strictest enforcement of anti-poaching
laws is a must-especially in the “hot spots”.
3) We need to make a national pledge-there will be no
further shrinkage. Instead of spending a few crores
thinly across the entire country, more can be
achieved by focusing money and effort on identified
“hot spots” like Corbett, Bandhavgarh, Kanha and
some parts of the northeast where tigers truly have a
chance to breed and grow.
• Que 1. Tell 4 ways by which the tigers can
• Que 2. Tell 3 causes for tiger demise.
• Que 3. Name the 4 subspecies of tigers.
• Que 4. When was the last Bali tiger killed?
• Que 5. Name all the features of the tigers.