WOMEN AND CHILDDEVELOPMENTA step towards all round development…
NEED FOR WOMEN & CHILD WELFARE The world depends on women for existence. Its necessary for children to be bought up in asuitable environment for they are the future of thenation. Over the time they have been the most suppressedsection of the society.
WOMEN- SOURCE OF EXISTENCE “Women”, the entire world is dependent on themfor its existence. Women who is called as jannani in Vedas meansthe birth giver the mother of life all this soundsgreat and these words used for her clearly depictsthat she is the one who is to be given the highestrespect in the society, but the truth lies somewhere really far from thisstatement.
…CONT A Sanskrit phrase goes like, “ Yatra NariyastuPujyante, Ramante tatra Devah” It means, where women are respected, gods residethere, or good luck follows there. Some Important women:
WHAT HAS BEEN DONEoThe empowerment of women is one of the centralissues in the process of development of countries all overthe world.oThe Government of India had made Empowerment ofWomen as one of the principal objectives of the NinthFive Year Plan (1997-2002) and also declared 2001 asthe year of ‘Womens Empowerment’.o Also, Year 2003 was regarded as the Year ofAdolescent Girls’
POLICIES AND PROGRAMMES From the Fifth Five Year Plan (1974-78) onwardshas been a marked shift in the approach towomen’s issues from welfare to development. The National Commission for Women was set upby an Act of Parliament in 1990 to safeguard therights and legal entitlements of women. The 73rd and 74th Amendments (1993) to theConstitution of India have provided for reservationof seats in the local bodies of Panchayats andMunicipalities for women. National Policy for the Empowerment of Womenwas formulated 2001.
…CONTD This policy aims at: Gender equality, Genderjustice, Social security, Elimination of discriminationagainst women in all walks of life, Economicdevelopment and integration of women into main streamof economy. Women Health Volunteers (Accredited Social HealthActivitist (ASHA): started during 2005-06 with anobjective of providing health services in rural sector. Girl Child Protection Scheme (GCPS): launched in2005 by Child Welfare and Disabled Welfare (JJ)Department.
…CONTD State oriented policies like, in Delhi, by theDepartment of Women and Child Development: LADLI SCHEME (2008) STREE SHAKTI AND GENDER RESOURCECENTRES (2003) BALIKA SMRIDHI YOJNA (2001) SCHEME OF FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TOWIDOWS ( PENSION TO WIDOWS ) (2000) WORKING WOMEN HOSTELS (since 1999) PROTECTION OF WOMEN FROM DOMESTICVIOLENCE ACT (2005)
ROLE OF NGO’S AlarippuWorks on awareness generation, education and training, health andnutrition among women and youth JagoriA resource centre focussing on womens issues: violence againstwomen, alternative health systems, sexualviolence, communication, trafficking of women and children SaharaRuns a care home for HIV+ women UNIFEMThe UNs development fund for women; provides financial and technicalassistance to innovative programmes and strategies that promote womenshuman rights, political participation and economic security. Naz Foundation (India) TrustHas programmes on womens sexual health, clinical intervention (to controlSTDs and bring about behaviour change to check the spread ofHIV), research and a care home Institute of Social Studies Trust (ISST)Conducts research and action programmes to promote social justice andequity for the under-privileged with a focus on women
WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONEEvolving all round development strategies.
…CONTD Legal-judicial system should be made moreresponsive and gender sensitive to women’sneeds, especially in cases of domestic violence andpersonal assault. New laws should be enacted and existing lawsreviewed to ensure that justice is quick and aptpunishment is given. Mainstreaming of Gender Perspective in theDevelopment Process. Social Empowerment of Women . Need of psychological reforms of the people’sgeneral mind set. Awareness among people about their rights.
CHILDREN- CITIZENS OF TOMORROW Children are considered to be important assets fora country’s future. In India, a child is born in everyone second. In our country, a large number of children below theage of 6 live in economically and socially deprivedenvironment which hinders their physical andmental development. Poverty, poor sanitation, malnutrition and undernutrition, diseases and infections, lack of primaryhealth care, limited access to primary education aresome of the main factors which affect the childrenin India.
Nutritious foods along with educational andrecreational facilities are basic child rights. A significant number of new born infants areabandoned every year due to socio-economicreasons. More than 12 million children below the age of 14years are working as child labours in hazardousoccupations. These include matchstickindustry, firework industry, diamond kilns etc. Government of India in August 1947 proclaimed anational policy on children declaring children as“supremely important assets”.
NEED FOR CHILD WELFARE Lack of nation-wide uniform practices in child welfare A need for a more child-oriented approach in childwelfare Practical operators Social work researchers New Child Welfare Act commenced on 1 January 2008- aims at early support, preventivework, child-oriented method, systematic workingapproach, uniform decision-making, increasedcooperation between authorities.
CHILD PROTECTION Set of usually government-run services designed toprotect children and young people who encouragefamily stability. These typically include foster care, adoptionservices, services aimed at supporting at-risk families sothey can remain intact, and investigation of alleged childabuse. Most children who come to the attention of the childwelfare system do so because of any of the followingsituations, which are often collectively termed childabuse: Child sexual abuse Neglect including the failure to take adequate measuresto safeguard a child from harm and/or gross negligencein providing for a childs basic needs: Physical abuse Psychological abuse
POLICIES AND PROGRAMMES Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) The first ICDS project was launched in India with 33Project in all over the country on 2nd October 1975. Setting up of Aanganwadi centers. JUVENILE JUSTICE (CARE AND PROTECTION OFCHILDREN) ACT 2000 SETTING UP OF JUVENILE SHELTER HOMES. State Commission for protection of Child rights. FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE SCHEMES Girl Child Protection Scheme
…CONTD National Crèche Fund (1994) National Charter for Children (2004) National Plan of Action for Children (2005) There are specific clauses in the Indianconstitution regarding children: ( Article 24) No child below the age of 14 years shall beemployed to work in any factory or mine or engaged inany other hazardous employment. (Article 45) Provision for free and compulsoryeducation for children. (Article 23) Right to being protected from beingtrafficked and forced into bonded labor.
…CONTD (Article 39) State shall, in particular, direct its policy towardssecuring: (a) that the citizen, men and women equally, have the right to anadequate means of livelihood (b) that the ownership and control of the material resources ofthe community are so distributed as best to sub serve thecommon good (c) that the operation of the economic system does not result inthe concentration of wealth and means of production to thecommon detriment (d) that there is equal pay for equal work for both men andwomen (e) that the health and strength of workers, men and women, andthe tender age of children are not abused and that citizens arenot forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited totheir age or strength (f) that children are given opportunities and facilities to develop ina healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity andthat childhood and youth are protected against exploitation andagainst moral and material abandonment.
o Since 2006, earlier - The Department of Women andChild Development.o The major policy initiatives undertaken by the Ministryin the recent past include nationalism of ICDS (TheIntegrated Child Development Services) and KishoriShakti Yojana, launching a nutrition programme foradolescent girls, establishment of the Commission forprotection of Child Rights and enactment of Protectionof Women from Domestic Violence Act.o The Ministry has 6 autonomous organizations:
…CONTD Central AdoptionResourceAuthority (CARA) Central SocialWelfare Board(CSWB)o Rashtriya Mahila Kosh (RMK)o NationalCommissionfor Protectionof ChildRights(NCPCR)
LAST NOTE It would be wrong to say that there are no steps beingtaken, but the effect due with them is gradual. In our country, women constitute 48.5% of thepopulation, with the sex ratio of 940 women per 1000males. (census 2011) But there is lot to be done. Among the crimes committed against women in2006, the crimes of torture and molestation togetherconstitute 60.53%. As per NFHS-3, (2005-06), at all India level, 52.5% ofcurrently married women participate in householddecisions.
…CONTD Till 2007, women members constitute only 9.07% of theNational Parliament. There prevail practices like- Devdasi, dowry, childmarriage, child labor etc which still exist even aftervarious laws made to curb them. Moreover there is a need for social reforms, the generalmind set of the people has to be changed to bringabout a relevant change.