Seija Kulkki - Human Habitat 2013


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Trabalhar em Conjunto para um Mundo Melhor?

Considerada por muitos como a “mãe” do modelo “Living Lab”, continua a explorar todas as potencialidades do modelo de colaboração nas diversas áreas das atividades humanas e a observar como está a ser aplicado e a surtir efeitos no mundo inteiro. O modelo “Living Lab” proporciona uma comunicação franca e aberta entre “stakeholders” de setores complexos e transdisciplinares, sempre com o objetivo de introduzir abordagens abertas e colaborativas para permitir ir mais longe no design e na inovação. O tema em palco irá assentar na forma como as empresas, as agências públicas e académicas, as comunidades, o empreendedorismo social, os designers, as redes sociais e os cidadãos no geral, poderão colaborar na resolução dos maiores e mais atuais desafios da sociedade. Seija Kulkki argumenta que a Europa tem a oportunidade única para transformar as suas fundações sociais e económicas. No entanto precisamos de aprender a nos organizarmos em torno da resolução de problemas – podendo desta abordagem nascer novos modelos e ecossistemas de inovação aberta que permitem a partilha de valores às escalas local, regional, nacional e global. Um desafio relevante é como gerir a investigação, o desenvolvimento e inovação colaborativa e estratégica em torno das alterações climáticas, do envelhecimento populacional, do bem-estar, da eficiência energética, da pobreza, da modernização do trânsito e de outros serviços e infraestruturas, garantindo sempre a segurança das nossas sociedades.

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Seija Kulkki - Human Habitat 2013

  1. 1. Making Together a BetterSociety and World?Dr. Seija KulkkiProfessorDepartment of Management and InternationalBusinessAalto University School of BusinessHuman Habitat Seija KulkkiLisbon, March 4, 2013
  2. 2. Johannes Vermeer, Astronomer, 1668 Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  3. 3. Era Transformations?• (1) ”New World” discoveries by Christopher Columbus (1451-1506) and Vasco Da Gama (1460 –1524).• (2)Jules Verne (1828-1905): ”I feel that the era of humanism is over. It is being conquered by the era of technology. I feel that literature, poetry, music and the arts will lose their important status as means to give meaning to life. Human beings may subordinate their lives to technology. This will change the premises of life fundamentally”.• (3) In 1900s: Industrial era: industrial work, industrial technologies and industrial efficiency Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  4. 4. Our transformation era?• Since 1990s, the globalization: global financial markets and industry with global competition, volumes of scale and cost and scale efficiency• Question: How to take care of the competitiveness of local economies, firms and nation states?• What about the lack of work; the issue of growth and job creation?• There is the well-justified argument about:• A1: The End of Work: The Decline of the Global Labor Force and the Dawn of the Post-Market Era (1995), Jeremy Rifkin Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  5. 5. What is the transformation we are living in?• A 2. Jeremy Rifkin (2011): The Third Industrial Revolution: How Lateral Power Is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World• The Internet has been a very powerful communication tool in the last 20 years.• Now we see the new convergence of ICT and energy technologies.• There is also a great transition to distributed renewable energy sources.• Interesting is the way how these technologies together may scale up.• We have grown up in the 20th century with centralized electricity and communication that scale vertically.• With the Internet, by contrast, as a distributed and collaborative means of communication, we may scale laterally. Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  6. 6. Rifkin on Third Industrial Revolution (2011)• As the new industrial revolution is based on convergence of ICT and energy technologies;• We may ‘go away from’ the ‘elite’ energies—coal, oil, gas, tar sands—that are only found in a few places and require significant military and geopolitical investments and massive finance capital, and that have to scale top down because they are so expensive.• The ‘old’ energies are clearly sun-setting.• We enter the long endgame of this paradigm of energy supply and consumption.• Distributed energies, by contrast, are found everywhere in the world: the sun, the wind, the geothermal heat under the ground, biomass— garbage, agricultural and forest waste—small hydro, ocean tides and waves.• However, the convergence of Internet with distributed forms of energy has to be managed collaboratively while it scales laterally! Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  7. 7. Carlota Perez (2002) argument:• The technological revolutions are ‘products’ of the industrial, infrastructural and capital market characteristics of the time.• The technological revolutions are driving forces for major social, institutional and economic changes and consequently frame the life of human beings.• The globalization is seen as mass production and mass consumption carried on by ICT.• The ICT has turned to shape not only an industrial infrastructure but also the human, social, cultural, institutional and economic (infra)structures of life globally.• The Jules Verne argument that the life and human beings are subordinated to technology!• A 3: However, the role and nature of technology is changing: ICT, energy, bio, medicine, etc; are not only for products, or industrial and business-to- business use– they are today widely embedded in human, social and institutional life:• Should we better understand the new nature of ’infrastructural’, ’institutional’, or social technologies for everyday life, work, managing, housing…; i.e.technologies of life. Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  8. 8. A.4: The rise of civil society is a major force ofeconomic, social and political renewal?• (1) Power of people and social networks (Benkler, The Wealth of Networks - How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom, Yochai Benkler, 2006; OECD, 2007, 2008)• (2) Global Civil Society: An Overview by Lester M. Salamon, S. Wojciech Sokolowski, and Regina List, : Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies, Baltimore, Maryland, USA (2003).• From the Global Civil Society: Dimensions of the Nonprofit Sector, covers the civil society sector in each of the thirty-five countries in greater depth. December 2003.• Also EU, OECD studies on – Power of people and social networks – Role of modern information and communication technologies as an enabler, social media and Future Internet – Open, transparent and participative society development Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  9. 9. New dynamic and powerful role of the civilsociety?• ‘Global Civil Society’ study (Salamon et al), introduces the worldwide civil society sector, that gray area between the market and the state that combines cultural centers, healthcare providers, universities, environmental groups, human rights organizations, soccer clubs, soup kitchens, and much more.• The civil sector seems to serve contradictory aims: the desire of participants to act independently in order to make better their own lives, and to improve the greater community;• To solve together shared problems is often the only way to improve individual’s life situations. Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 2013
  10. 10. Global Civil Society: An OverviewSalamon; et. al (2003):• A civil-sector organization is an entity that is private, not-for-profit in orientation, self- governing, and voluntary in nature (employees of civil-sector organizations may be paid, of course, but participation or membership must not be mandatory).• The civil society efforts are to be found in developing, developed, and transitional countries.• The worldwide civil sector amounts to a $1.3 trillion industry that employs nearly 40 million people; if it were a country, it would have the seventh-largest GDP in the world.• There are different arrangements of how civil-sector organizations are funded, how extensively they rely on professional staffs as opposed to volunteers, and how NGOs in a given region are split between those that provide services and those that perform purely expressive functions.• The civil sector organizations belong to a variety of sociopolitical clusters, regional groupings, and developmental levels, and thereby illustrates how much civil society organizations differ even as they pursue the common goal of getting more people involved in their communities. Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  11. 11. A5: Europe on Global Innovation Map?• Innovation emergency: Europe in general is lacking in R&D (2% of GDP) in comparison to the US (2,8% of GDP) and Japan (3,4%). China will invest 2,5% of GDP (Innovation Mission 2020 of China)• US: corporate driven RDI and scientific excellence• China: RDI for transfer from sustained growth to sustainable growth; science and technology driven• Europe Horizon 2020: In addition to (1) science and technology and (2) corporate driven RDI, EU is aiming at (3) solving major societal challenges of our time.• How do we organize ourselves for solving societal challenges? Human Habitat Seija kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  12. 12. Horizon 2020EU H2020 is a flagship initiative and financial instrument forimplementing European Innovation Union for Europe’s globalcompetitiveness.The proposed H2020 budget was €80bn for years 2014-2020. Now it is under spending cuts and discussed inEuropean Parliament.Three pillars:(1) Excellence in science and technology (€25bn) forbecoming a world-class science performer by 2020.(2) Globally competitive corporate RDI (€18bn) forbringing new innovations quickly to marketplace.(3) Solving societal challenges (€32bn) that concerncitizens in Europe and globally. Human Habitat, Seija Kulkki Lisbpn, March 4, 2013
  13. 13. Societal Challenges are such as:Wellbeing, demographic change and health,Food security, sustainable agriculture,Marine and marinetime research,Bio-economy and new sources of energy,Secure, clean and efficient energy,Smart, green and integrated transprortation,Smart and green citiesInclusive and secure societies,Climate change, and climate action,Resource efficiency and new raw materials.A 6: Does this offer means for transforming the underlying socialand economic dynamism in Europe? Including the reform ofpublic services?
  14. 14. A6: Values of Transformative Innovation?:• Should we discuss underlying values and principles that we apply when solving societal challenges through RDI (research, development and innovation); for renewal of our social and economic foundations?• Should we discuss human-centricity and creative collaboration of firms, cities, regions and public agencies that engage citizens and people, for designing a better societies and world?• Open and participative design? – Not only pragmatic forms of public-private partnerships but also principles of engaing people and applying participative, all- inclusive methodologies for open society development? – Living Laboratories as means and methodology for participative RDI in open innovation ecosystems• Should we even discuss new firm-society collaboration for shared value creation and better societies? Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  15. 15. ”Participative Societal Design” for BetterSocieties, Economies and the Future?• What are our values and principles of urban, rural, and regional and national social and economic development; role of new technology, service and business development?• How do we discuss and co-create shared values?• How do we perceive and challenge the underlying usage, efficiency, productivity and scalability assumptions when creating new markets and industries?• Values of participative society, open society, and wider responsibilities with individual and collective entrepreneurial spirit?• Wider impact of social and economic dynamism; what is the good society for the future? Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  16. 16. Shared Value Creation?The shared value creation involves creating economic value in a way thatalso creates value for society by addressing its needs and challenges (1).Today, there is a cliff between economic and social development due tothe presumed trade-offs between economic efficiency and social progress(1).Conclusion: We should discuss what are the efficient ways andmeans for collaboration of firms, academia, public agencies, citiesand people in order to bridge over the economic and social cliffsthrough shared value creation.• 1. Michael Porter (with Kramer), Harvard Business Review HBR, January-February 2011) European Design Seija Kulkki Innovation Summit September 18, 2012
  17. 17. A. 7: Shared Value Creation throughCollaborative Open RDI?R&D for innovation (RDI) is not only about technologies orproducts but also about business models (Chesbrough,2003), service designs and systems and even wider socialor systemic ecosystem-based renewal and change (EC,Open Innovation, 2013, forthcoming, DG:Communications, Networks, Contents and Technology ).Open and inclusive innovation, ”democratizing” ofinnovation: co-creation with people: involving or engagingdemand-side, markets, customers; i.e people(Democratizing the Innovation, von Hippel 2005) Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon; March 4, 2013
  18. 18. A.8: Shared Value Creation has an impact onstrategy, structure and processes of RDI?• Von Hippel (2010): Consumer Innovations: Traditional division of labor between innovators and customers is breaking down; about 70% of innovations comes from markets and customers. (A survey with 1200 interviewees )• However, how does the shared value creation through open collaboration transform the strategy, structure and processes of RDI?• How to make this happen? Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  19. 19. ENoLL Values Trust and transparencyOpenness, Human- enabling centricitynetworking Co-creation Bottom-up, and enriching collaboration communication 12/09/2012
  20. 20. What kind of problems do we solve throughopen R&D for innovation (RDI)?Product or Service Business ModelInnovations InnovationsUser experience-based Economic and socialRDI for better usability validation with users, social networks and user communities for scalability of production, marketing and delivery around ”usage””Ecosystem”InnovationsWider human-centric ”systemicInnovations”, new market orusage creation, even industrycreation, solving majorsocietal challenges of our time Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2012
  21. 21. Human-centered design• May be about usability and user experience, human- computer interaction, augmented cognition, engineering psychology, cognitive ergonomics etc.• New technologies (basic research!) that make a difference: – the forever health monitor, where smart phone can monitor vital signs in real-time and thereby allerting you to the first signs of trouble (medicine) – A computer chip that ’thinks’ like brain, where neural computers will excel at all tasks that regular machines struggle with (computing) – A wallet inside a person’s skin; you just wave your hand to charge it, meaning that no cell-phone payment systems are needed any more, – Nano-sized germ killers against superbugs (medicine) – Crops that don’t need replanting and can stabilize soil and increase yields (agriculture), etc. Scientific American (December 2011)
  22. 22. User-experience-based product, serviceand business development…. – (1) Idea collection and generation – (2) Opportunity Assessment – (3) Concept Creation – (4) Product and Services Development – (5) Implementation (for value creation)• Create, capture, evaluate, innovate! Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  23. 23. Economic and social validation of newbusiness and service models!• Crowdsourcing with potential users in order to learn to know about customer needs and solutions around mobility in a way that the service offering can be scaled up.• Crowdsourcing is the practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people, and especially from an online community, rather than from traditional employees or suppliers.• Often used to subdivide tedious work or to fund-raise startup companies and charities, this process can occur both online and offline.[1]• The general concept is to combine the efforts of crowds of volunteers or part-time workers, where each one could contribute a small portion, which adds into a relatively large or significant result. Crowdsourcing is different from an ordinary outsourcing since it is a task or problem that is outsourced to an undefined public rather than to a specific, named group. Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  24. 24. Value Creation and Business Models• (1) Wide Idea Collection in Interaction with Potential Users• (2) Wide Economic and Social Validation around Value Propositions• (3) Wide Commitment through Users´ Learning and Co-Creation; Market Creation• (4) Understanding the Sources of Scalability through Pre-Market Experimentation and Piloting – experimentative RDI with users for behavioral changes and functionalities and for changes in market dynamism; new demand and market creation• (5) Experimentation for Implementation for Value Creation Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  25. 25. Transformative innovation for solvingsocietal challenges?• Dialogue for shared value creation in collaboration may evolve around inquiry such as:• What are the new production, delivery and consumptions patterns for sustainable development?• How do we design cities for green growth?• How do we design welfare systems that are efficient not only as service production systems, but also from the viewpoint of ’customers’ or, rather, human beings?• How do we improve traffic and transportation systems to become environmentally sustainable, intelligent and user-friendly?• How do we develop distributed co-production systems of energy?• How do we change energy consumption behaviour of people? Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  26. 26. Process for solving societal challenges?• (1) Mission, vision and strategy creation with a wide collection of ideas about future issues and scenarios, including experimentation and piloting around a set of potential hypotheses and pre-concepts for solution,• (2) Experimentation around selected sets of hypotheses and properties of pre-concepts as service or business models, or specifications for architectural or ecosystem designs.• This includes economic and social validation of new concepts with firms, public agencies, and people; this is a wide, interactive dialogue with future ‘markets’ of emerging innovations. This broadens the understanding about the sources of the economic, social and environmental sustainability of value propositions.• (3) We may commit partners, developer communities and people to the co-creation of features of usage and sources of economic and social scalability. This pre-market prototyping, experimentation and piloting is designed to capture the new market dynamism and customer behavior and the personalized and generic functionalities of future usages, amongst other things. Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  27. 27. Process for solving societal challenges?• (4) Wide-scale experimentation and piloting that brings about understanding of how to implement new solutions: how to produce and to deliver.• (5) We may even experiment for new forms of entrepreneurial activities – and firms!• We argue that there is an opportunity to create foundational elements of new value creation ‘formula’ for firms – non-profit or profit based – to emerge.• All the steps involve – in different ways and combinations – own people, customers, collaborative firms, experts and others. Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  28. 28. Open Innovation Ecosystems for SharedValue Creation• Open ecosystems for research and innovation incorporate all the relevant players in ”a nutshell”.• They include partners of both ”supply and demand side”; it is like a ”prototype” of new business or service system or even of a new emerging industry or industry under reformation.• They can be consciously constructed: Ecosystem joint ventures, consortiums and companies! They seems to have a Life Cycle of their Own! European Design Seija Kulkki Innovation Summit September 18, 2012
  29. 29. A. 9: Nature of Transformative Challenge?• (1) Transformation from ”industrial logic” to ”services logic” or even to shared value creation/ecosystem logic: issue of productivity, efficiency and scalability? – The role of users in developing new sources of and mechanism for productivity, scalability and value creation• (2) Transformation from vertical approach to a more horizontal approach? – The demand and market dynamism may determine the collaborative structure for value creation? – A rich collection of user cases, user communities, social webs and networks may be needed.• (3) The opportunity to learn from users about the functionalities of service business models and service systems – What are the functionalities and how to design an internationally competitive value constellation that brings about personalization, safety, security and interoperability, etc.• (4) Critical role of social and economic activities and services and businesses where we act in RDI for tackling even wider societal challenges such as Green Growth, Wellbeing, Environment and Energy Efficiency, eDemocracy – The demand-driven and human-centric as well as user driven RDI may include private and public services, and people and social networks! Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  30. 30. A 10: Nature of Leadership Challenge!• Distributed leadership where wisdom is embedded in every individual and collective practice and action (Nonaka and Takeuchi, 2011).• Competence of grasping the essence of a problem and knowing how to draw conclusions from random observations and acting on them immediately.• ’Hands-on’ leadership in touch with the reality.• This implies that we consciously act based on aesthetic and ethical values such as goodness, beauty and truth;• They are applied, tested and recreated with other people in every action.• Nonaka, Ikujiro and Takeuchi, Hirotaka (2011): The Wise Leader: How CEOs can learn practical wisdom to help them do what is right for their companies - and society. HBR, May 2011 European Design Seija kulkki Innovation Challenge September 18, 2012
  31. 31. Assumptions about our challenges ofglobalized world:• A1: The end ’traditional’ industrial work! How to create new jobs? What kind of jobs and where?• A2: Ongoing ’New Industrial Revolution’ based on convergence of technologies and horizontalization of market and industry structures. How to create new firms and industries and/or renew the structures of our industries?• A3: The nature and role of technology is changing: from industrial technology towards the technology of life.• A4: The rise of civil sector to become the ’third major player’ along the private and public sertors? Democratization of Innovation? Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  32. 32. Assumptions:• A.5: We should understand our unique position in global innovation competition: We could be for human-centric open societies capable of solving societal challenges and transforming of our social and economic foundation?• A6: However, we should learn to organize ourselves around value-based social and economic transformation!• A.7: How do we organize ourselves for firm-society collaboration?• A.8: What would be the process for value-based social and economic transformation through solving major societal challenges? Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  33. 33. Assumptions:• A.9: What is the very nature of our economic transformative challenge?• A.10: What is the leadership challenge? Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  34. 34. Cases to discuss:• Industrial and/or regional renewal-driven RDI- collaboration in ecosystems that are concsciously in place for solving contemporary wicked problems (local, European, global) such as:• Renewal of the socio-economic structure of a city for growth and wellbeing (Aqueda City North from Lisbon, Portugal)• SAVE ENERGY for improving energy efficiency through changing consumption patterns of energy usage in cities (public buildings in Helsinki, Lisbon, Manchester, Leiden, Luleå)• Opening the Public Data for New Social and Economic Activities to Emerge (Helsinki)• Creating housing areas that activate citizens for new economic activities and Life Management (Arabianranta in Helsinki) Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  35. 35. More cases:• Creating and reforming an industry (building up the car industry in Portugal, close to Lisbon)• Reforming the fishery-industry in Spain (EU: IP: Collaboration@Rural)• Creating new ”AgroMarket” based on on-line real-time auction principle in Hungary with 3000 farmers, ICT- firms, academia and public agencies (Collaboration@Rural)• New forms of Social Banking, granting loans for businesses and other investments that do incorporate not only economic but also social value creation Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  36. 36. Corporate cases:• A global glass company (AGC) wanted to rethink its technology base and the role in marketplace? – What is the glass for? What can it be made of? How do we make this happen? – Includes wide use of specialists! – Includes wide social validation!• IBM wanted to redirect its service offering for the future in order to participate in solving global problems – IBM Jazz Jam: for wide dialogues with customers, experts and own personel – Results into strategic initiatives around Wellbeing, Socio- Economic Development, Smart City and Smart Planet (Global Outlook) Human Habitat Seija kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  37. 37. Corporate cases:• SAP develops in South Africa and in other emerging markets ICT- and wireless service infrastructures - even user-centric service architectures - for small businesses and start-ups• Cisco has a specific concept for developing information and communication infrasrtuctures for cities (technology as an enabler for reforming future cities)• Etc. Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  38. 38. Sources:• Kulkki Seija (2011): Europe on Global Innovation Map: Human-centric RDI for solving major societal challenges of our time, Public Service Review: European Science & Technology: issue 13• Kulkki, Seija (2012): Human-centric RDI: A post-industrial paradigm for solving major societal challenges, Public Service Review: European Science & Technology: issue 15• Kulkki Seija (2012): Getting Competitive, Pan European Networks: Science and Technology, 02;• Kulkki, Seija (2012): Towards a European socioeconomic model: Firm- society collaboration for shared value creation, Public Service Review: Europe: issue 24• Kulkki Seija (2013, March, forthcoming): Collaborative innovation ecosystems for solving societal challenges in Open Innovation 2013, EC DG: Communications, Networks, Contents and Technology Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013
  39. 39. Thank you!• Dr. Seija Kulkki• Professor• Department of Management and International Business• Aalto University School of Business Human Habitat Seija Kulkki Lisbon, March 4, 2013