HOKUSA                            BY               A. HYATT MAYOR     WITH AN ESSAY BY YASUKO BETCHAKU  ASSISTANT   CURATO...
The       Metropolitan Museum      of      Art                                        Bulletin         ,~, ~~       K:~j~!...
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inCOVER:Fujifrom Kajikazawa the provinceof Kai. FromThe                           -_ _~ ___                               ...
I    Additional magicaltalents. One magicianproducesa processionof small figuresfromhis sleeve; a second vanishes;a third ...
THE OLD MAN MAD ABOUT PAINTING                       Fewartistswould             at                                       ...
Japaneseand Chinese artistsareable to flingout lines writhinglike stringsin the wind becausethey do    not move their brus...
NOTES        ON HOKUSAIS              WOOD-BLOCK              PRINTS        iE J        sL,/y              Although Hokusa...
accentuated contour lines, whereas landscapesare shaded with angularstrokes and dots-a common                             ...
___   __ _   __I_ABOVE:   Landscapes:  trees in the rain;                                                                 ...
Irises.Froman untitled groupknown as                    flowerseries,"late 1820s.     the "large-sheet10
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__                       1^1al~     f   i                  ABOVE:   Rainbowat Mitakegura.A                  showerfalls at...
II    15
!"            !    *                    T        -                             11 t                                       ...
A gust of wind at Ejiri, in the province of                                                                               ...
ABOVE:   The maddeningwind. To     Hokusai, gesturesspoke louderthan     words.These studiescaricaturethe reac-     tion o...
1?3   -       -     -ICILI                     a&L?                       i          w                  0*114W.           ...
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ABOVE:OPPOSITE,    Caricatures of the              BELOW:    Variousunseemlysights. At thedescendantsof a noble family.One...
I             LEFT: Thin men and thin women. In             contrast to relaxedfat people (opposite),             thin peo...
g.                                                                       Randomsketches of fat men and                    ...
-X.             :.                  : .@ .                        *                                      i1.I             ...
Illustrationof a poem by Minamoto noMuneyuki.A winter scene in the moun-tains. Outside a snow-coveredhut, menwarmthemselve...
ABOVE:  Variousmodes of fencing. The     lances are tipped with protective     cushions. The helmeted figuresin the     ce...
IIi    27
"s,I28
OPPOSITE, ABOVE: At    the requestof the   ABOVE: Sun Wu-Kung, the legendaryemperor,Nitta no Tadatsune(d. 1203)        Bud...
ot.4~~~~~~~?(                                                                      .                                      ...
Yatsuhashi(The Eight-plankBridge), inthe province of Mikawa,a constructionof narrowplatformsbuilt out zigzagover aswamp.Th...
of  f        tA>                                                 -?                                                       ...
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Under Mannen Bridgeat Fukagawa.       Dis-                             tant Fujiis seen between the tall piersof          ...
Ushibori in the province of Hitachi. A     largejunk is mooredamong reeds. Two     herons take wing as a man leans out of ...
1-   4                                            ;, O.4      f41                                                 i   .I- ...
OMMUNNO:   :   :   ~~~~~~~~~~~
OPPOSITE, ABOVE: In     the Totomi Moun-    ABOVE:   Fuji-viewFieldsin the provincetains. A huge squarelog is supported   ...
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The greatwave off Kanagawa.The dark              blue watercrests above three fragile              boats, which speed like...
ABOVE:  Tatekawa Honj6. View of Fuji                     at     from a lumberyardin the Honj6 district.     FromThe Thirty...
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Rainstormbeneath the summit. A forked flash lights up the luridgloom, and snow- streakedFujirisesred into a clear sky with...
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CREDITSUnlessotherwise  specified captions,all illustrations wood-                          in                         are...
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Notes on Hokusai's prints [MetMuseum]
Notes on Hokusai's prints [MetMuseum]
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Notes on Hokusai's prints [MetMuseum]

  1. 1. HOKUSA BY A. HYATT MAYOR WITH AN ESSAY BY YASUKO BETCHAKU ASSISTANT CURATOR, DEPARTMENT OF FAR EASTERN ARTTHE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART The Metropolitan Museum of Art is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin ® www.jstor.org
  2. 2. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin ,~, ~~ K:~j~! Summer1985I/~-
  3. 3. Ak^~~~~~~~I Wmo .0 -^2 0~- v -N ^^^^^ ~ ~~~~~~~~~~ I^i- --""i. 1 i CLI2P"P : tS:::: :l ) :J { s:r -_. f -__ - I ni ---l
  4. 4. inCOVER:Fujifrom Kajikazawa the provinceof Kai. FromThe -_ _~ ___ ~-------_ _ _ - 1 aThirty-sixViewsof Fuji, about 1831-33.INSIDE Fencers. Fromthe Manga,Vol. VI, 1817. COVERS: i PAGES 5, 7: Galloping horse and two archers.TITLEPAGE, 3,Fromthe Manga,Vol. VI, 1817.Man swallowinga sword.Fromthe Manga,Vol. X, 1819.ABOVE, RIGHT: Some prize-winning"talents" gluttony. A oftough-jawedeater bites greedilyinto a persimmonsuspendedby astring. One glutton racesthroughbowlsof noodles; another tosses Iwhole rice cakes into his mouth. Fromthe Manga,Vol. X. Variousmagicaltalents. A magicianturnsinto a RIGHT:BELOW, si -4 wfrog;another makes irisesbloom from the burningcharcoalin abrazier; third multiplieshimself;a fourthturnssheets of paper a " c0~~~~~into birds. Fromthe Manga,Vol. X. i^ HE i, ~~~~~~~~~~~~, _ y[;^ . ^. <^.. ? .. *a*h- I^ _ --~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~--- ---- JTHE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART BULLETIN Summer 1985VolumeXLIII,Number 1 (ISSN 0026-1521)Publishedquarterly? 1985 by The MetropolitanMuseumof Art,FifthAvenue and 82nd Street, New York,N.Y. 10028. Second-classpostage paid at New York,N.Y. and Additional Mailing Offices.The Metropolitan Museumof Art Bulletinis providedas a benefit toMuseum members and available by subscription. Subscriptions$18.00 a year. Single copies $4.75. Fourweeksnotice requiredforchange of address. POSTMASTER: Send addresschanges to Mem-bership Department, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, FifthAvenue and 82nd Street, New York, N.Y. 10028. Back issuesavailableon microfilm, from University Microfilms,313 N. FirstStreet, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Volumes I-XXVIII (1905-1942)availableas a clothbound reprintset or as individualyearlyvolumesfromThe Ayer Company,Publishers,Inc., 99 Main Street, Salem,N.H. 03079, or from the Museum, Box 700, Middle Village, N.Y11379.General Managerof Publications: John P. ONeill. EditorinChief of the Bulletin:Joan Holt. Editor:Joanna Ekman. Photog-raphy by Gene C. Herbert, Metropolitan Museum PhotographStudio. Design: Abby Goldstein. --- -- -r - -r-.-, -? --- ?
  5. 5. I Additional magicaltalents. One magicianproducesa processionof small figuresfromhis sleeve; a second vanishes;a third eats rice and exhales a swarmof bees; a fourthemergesfrom a vase; a fifth breathesout a saddledhorse;a sixth projectsa giant face in incense smoke;a seventh swallowsa sword;an eighth poursa gushingstreamof waterfromhis cuppedhands. From the Manga,Vol. X.4
  6. 6. THE OLD MAN MAD ABOUT PAINTING Fewartistswould at bearlooking every fora year; day theirwork doesnot have ICV^S^/f/K variety personality. is not enoughmerely be great,forthe great the and It to painter in mayimpound unendurably the singleness hisobsession. be us of To continuously interestingthrougha years worthof pictures,an artistmust , have eyes that gluttonizein everydirectionand an absolutecommand of hand.Sucha one wasHokusai. Hokusai bornin 1760in whatis nowTokyo.All his lifehe wasaspoor was who ashisfather, polished mirrors a subsistence. for Whenhe wasa smallboy drawing pictures,the Japanese in beganto printwoodcuts several colors.Inhis earlyteens, Hokusai cuttingwoodblocksforpublishers, at eighteenhe started draw was and to forother cuttersin the studio of Shunsho. He adoptedpartof his masters name, calling himself Shunro, toshow how completelyhe succumbedto Shunshosratherwearystyle in printsof sulky,silken courtesansand the actorswho impersonated them. If Hokusaihad died beforehe was forty, while still lingering inthis listless elegance, he wouldhave been forgotten. He developedlate in his eighty-nine yearsof life bydint of makingover 10,000 woodcutsand some 30,000 to 40,000 drawings.Thus he was not altogetherassuming humility "I whenhe said,at the ageof seventy-five: havedrawnthingssinceI wassix. All thatI the is Imadebefore ageof sixty-five not worthcounting.At seventy-threebeganto understand true the ofconstruction animals, plants,trees,birds,fishesand insects.[Heomitsmen.]At ninetyI will enter Iintothe secretof things.At a hundred shallcertainlyhavereached magnificent a level;andwhenI amahundred ten, everything-everydot, everydash-will live." and Hokusaidied in 1849, fouryearsbeforeCommodorePerryintroducedforeignersinto Japaneselife. Forovertwocenturies fewDutchmerchants beentolerated a three-hundred-yard a had on rectangle earth ofdumped into Nagasaki harborfor the confinement of outsiders. Hokusai, observing everything, onceshowsa "highnose"peering of a window out beyond board a wall,andbeingpeeredat fromthe street.Eventhoughthe Dutchwereforbidden crossthe narrow to bridge the mainland, to theirclothes,theirguns, their magnifyingglasses,and their booksdid. Hokusai,living just when Japanese ideaswerebeginning ideasfromEurope, no longerquitebelievein the fairytaleestheticsof the to rubagainst canLadyMurasaki thousand a yearsbefore.Eventhe oldways representing world going,forin one of the areof his printsa Japanesestreetconvergesto a vanishingpoint, with figures diminishingin the distance, justlikea platein anywesternperspectivebook.Hisstudies fatpeopleandthinpeoplecouldwellbe Diirers ofanatomical comparisonsset to capering. Wheneverand wherever ideasbegin to be questioned,the unsettlinggenerates old energy.Thebreakupof ancient Japaneseideas suppliesthe motor that convulses Hokusaiswrestlers,fishermen,andjugglers. paceof changedrives to explore The him every doingandhappening Japanese of dailylifeas hesawit in his studio,the street.He is the onlyJapanese printmaker threw who himselfinto the turmoilofthe slumsrather thanthe high-flown shamof the stage. Hokusai traveled because traveled fast he little morethan his brushes his paper, light, carrying andchanging his abode ninety-three times, and as restlesslyadopting over thirty different names. As heflew, he absorbed every style that he saw, keeping consistently only the Japanese convention thatignores shadows. Shadows would have obstructed the racing of his line as it describes things withdisembodiedsubtlety. 5
  7. 7. Japaneseand Chinese artistsareable to flingout lines writhinglike stringsin the wind becausethey do not move their brusheswith the little muscleof their fingers,as we might do, but with the largemusclesof their arm and shoulder.Nothing touches the paperbut the brushtip that goes and goes, driven by the dread a pausethatmightdropa blot. Sucha wayof drawing its effortin outlineandsummarizes of puts inner detail. The Japaneseand Chinese see no interior logic of bone and muscle in their shadowless figures,and they escape our Greek abstractideal of the body-never realizedin nature to concentrate theirconvention the painted of the geishaandthe actor. on face InJapaneseprints cleanlinesbound transparent the the colorswithout and them- crossing obscuring sky tints that stain throughthe tough diaphanoustissue of the mulberrypaper.These air colors capture the out-of-doorsfor a people who live more at the mercy of nature than we do, the rain stinging their cheeks through the splits in their strawrain clothes, the chill in their paper houses disjointing their In scatter andbullypeople,the snowblinds prints,the wind-squalls fingers. Hokusais hats withawesome cold. We are far from the mild valleys of classic Chinese painting, where a philosopher pauses to contemplate the October mist on the cliffs, and time runs visibly in the rivers. Hokusai lived in the knockaboutstruggleof today.Like Daumier,he seemed a graphicbuffoonto his contemporaries,but has grownwiththe years a stature command. to of A. HYATT MAYOR Twowomen at leisure:one reads-a tobacco pipe is on the floorbehind herthe other lies proppedon her elbows flexingher leg and wrigglingher toes. Brushdrawingin ink.6
  8. 8. NOTES ON HOKUSAIS WOOD-BLOCK PRINTS iE J sL,/y Although Hokusai not liveto be one hundred did years the ageat which old, he expected reach"amagnificent to level,"the bulkof work left behindis he a testimonyto his remarkable achievement an artist. Even excluding as Hokusaispaintings, onecaneasilyseethescopeof hiswork fromhisdrawings .I 0 Jj^ilTO^! land in prints,as demonstrated the following pages. Hokusais surviving earlyworkis mainlybook illustration surimono, and printsprivatelyissuedforspecialoccasionsandfrequently accompanied by v -4^^^^P poems. In EhonSumidagawa Ryogan Ichiran(The PictureBookof theViews AlongBothBanks theSumida of River), about1801-2, Hokusaipresentsinpanoramaa continuous view of the river,beginning at the mouth and ending at the upperstream, andclosing with a scene of the Yoshiwara quarterof Edo (now Tokyo). The illustrationscontinue page bypage, in the samewaythat a scrollpainting is unrolledsection by section. Hokusainot only includes thepeople engagedin differentactivities on the near shore but also incorporates distant view acrossthe the depictionof the farshore,thoughlessprominent, alsoseen in a single-sheetriver(p. 14).A similar isprint,Imado River 23, below). (p. Hokusaissubjects ranged from animals, plants, landscapes, and human figures to historical andsupernaturalthemes. He producedvoluminoussketchescoveringall these subjectson a tripto Nagoya in1812, when he stayedwith one of his pupils, Gekkotei Bokusen. Fromthese drawings,craftsmenmade printsthatwerepublished Hokusaiwood-block as in Manga 1814(vol. 1). Further created volumes, fromother drawings,followedin 1815-19 (vols. 2-10), 1834 (vol. 12), 1849 (vol. 13), and 1878 (vol. 15). Thedatesof volumes and14arenot yetcertain.The fulltitle Denshin 11 Kaishu: Hokusai Manga, whichmay as manual transmitting trueimage: Hokusaibe translated "beginners for the as wascommonly pleases,"knownasHokusai Manga Manga. word or The manga denoted"amanual drawing," opposed then of as toits contemporary meaningof "comics satires." or Manypagesof the Mangaarerandomlyfilledwith smallfigures engagedin differentactivities, a varietyof birdsand plants probablydrawnfromnature, or landscapesin all kindsof weatherconditions. Othersare more thought-out designs that could easily have become pagesof an illustratedbook (pp. 19, aboveand below; 27, below; 29). The freely renderedbrushdrawingof a man riding a donkey (p. 48) showsa striking resemblance to the images in the Manga;this or a similar drawingcould have served as a (under-drawing) the Manga.hanshita-e for Among Hokusaisother instructionalbooks was HokusaiGashiki(Methodof Drawingby Hokusai),aselection of designs on a varietyof subjects, publishedin collaborationwith HokusaisOsaka pupils-Senkakutei Hokuyo, Sekkatei Hokushufi, Shunyosai Hokky6-in 1819. In contrast to the Manga, andwhose pagesarecrowdedwith smalldesigns, Hokusai Gashiki on each doublepage a single design that hasclearly a in demonstratesstyleof the master a larger format 12). (p. EhonMusashi Bookof theStirrups theBraves),1836 (p. 28, below) and EhonWakan Abumi(Picture of noHomare and Bookof theGloryof Japan China), (Picture 1850(pp. 27, above;28, above)-two of threebooksgenerallyknownas the WarriorTrilogy-displaythe linearstyleoften associated with Hokusaisworkof aroundthe 1830s. The blocks for EhonMusashiAbumiwereprobablymade about 1836 but werenot printed until after Hokusaisdeath. Figuresare executed with fine strokes in combination with 7
  9. 9. accentuated contour lines, whereas landscapesare shaded with angularstrokes and dots-a common painting wellas in Nanga,theJapanese conventionin Chineselandscape as literati painting by inspired Chinesepainting the samekind. of Hokusaisspontaneousbrushwork be seennot onlyin his printed may books,butalsoin his drawings. He captures playful hopping sparrows around oldhatwiththe utmost an simplicity economy line. and of The sparrows the hat are drawnwith dabsof brownwash and broadbrushstrokes and that are contoured withcontrasting lines (p. 13, above). thin for Countless imagesproducedfor the Mangamay have servedas a groundwork Hokusais best-known single-sheet prints, The Thirty-six Views of Fuji, about 1831-33, where landscapebecame the major theme for the first time in the history of Japaneseprints. Ten prints with black outlines, the so-called "rear-view weresubsequent Fuji," to withblueoutlines. additions the initialset of thirty-six, In Rainstorm BeneaththeSummit(pp. 46-47), Mt. Fujitowerspeacefullyabove the turbulentweather suggestedby the white rainclouds and the thunderbolt.Here the majesticFujidominatesan entire scene in whichhuman are whilein otherprints the set (pp.40-41; 44, below; eliminated, figures completely in for 45) the human element is unobtrusivelypresent. In The GreatWaveoff Kanagawa, example, huge anthropomorphicwavesappearto engulf the tiny people holding onto their wooden boats. The viewers eye is directed by the boats toward the left, swiftly taken upwardby the splashing waves, and then returnedto the center where Fujistandsundisturbed beyondthe roughwaves. Other prints in the series (pp. 33, above;34-35; 36-37; 38; 39; 42-43; 44, above)depictlandscapes activitiesof ordinary and people set against the familiarpresence of Mt. Fuji. Throughout the series, the viewersattention is alwaysdirectedto the gracefulview of this admiredmountain, no matterhow smallFujimaybe portrayed. In other genres, Hokusaiprovedthat birdsand flowers could be just as exciting subjectsforsingle-sheet printsas actorsand beauties,themesfavoredby the masses.His imagesof plantsare basedupon observation fromnature,but he goes farbeyondmorphological accuracy, his capturing subjects very in essence.In the printof irises(pp. 10-11),a senseof vibrantlife is suggested the flowers different by stagesof bloom, as well as by the torn leaf that mayhavebeen eaten by the grasshopper discreetly holdingonto it. In his lateryears,Hokusaifrequentlysought ideasfromthe classics. In one of the printsfromthe series FamousBridgesin VariousProvinces, about 1833-34, Hokusai adopts the theme of yatsuhashi (eight- The yatsuhashi Mikawa plankbridge). in nowAichi prefecture, a placecelebrated the province, was for lovely irises surroundingthe bridge and was one of the subjects favored by artists ever since it was mentioned in the tenth-centuryTalesof Ise, a collection of romanticepisodesin the life of a courtier.In print (pp. 30-31), the familiar Hokusais zigzagpatternof the yatsuhashi slightlyalteredto forma is trianglein the center that echoes the shape of the mountain. Irisflowers,usuallyshown filling the space, are reduced to scattered dots under the prominent bridge. Hokusai has replaced the Heian period (794-1185) ideal of yatsuhashi,usuallyassociatedwith elegant court nobles and largeiris flowers,with a genresceneof the Edoperiod(1615-1867)showing ordinary the to peoplecrossing bridge pursue their dailyactivities. Anotherseries,TheHundred Poems bytheNurse,about1835-36, derives Told of fromananthology one hundred poemsbyone hundred poetscompiledin 1235by the famous no Teika.Forsome poetFujiwara reason the serieswas never completed;twenty-eightdesignsare known to exist as prints-twenty-seven colorandone blackandwhite-and forty-one as are Gallery. title of designs hanshita-e in the Freer The the seriesalong with the poetsname and poem are presentedin a rectangleand a squarecartouche, the shapes the sheetsof paper of traditionally forwriting used poems.Whetherworkers roof repairing tiles, hunters warming bya fire,ormenrowing up 24-25; 33, below),the images boats(pp.22, below; depicted arenot thoseof the Heianperiod, thoseof Hokusais but own.A Winter Scene, wherestreaks smokeare of abstractsense of color, shape, and design, as set againsta flatmassof blackand gray,exemplifiesHokusais originality-someof the qualities havegivenhis artits universal wellas his inexhaustible that appeal. YASUKOBETCHAKU8
  10. 10. ___ __ _ __I_ABOVE: Landscapes: trees in the rain; iislands in the sea. Fromthe Manga,RIGHT:Assorted leaves. Fromthe ,Manga, Vol. III, 1815. .. 9
  11. 11. Irises.Froman untitled groupknown as flowerseries,"late 1820s. the "large-sheet10
  12. 12. =-as A>>tk _ * v /-- ^-^^ S hl^hOff^~~~~ N 1~~~~~~~~~~~~~"R I
  13. 13. 12
  14. 14. I; I :"I. W. L *14 1 OPPOSITE, ABOVE: Birdsin flight over reeds;cormorants,finches, and geese. FromHokusaiGashiki,1819. OPPOSITE, BELOW:Birdson a tree at the waters edge: thrushes,cranes, finches, and geese. FromHokusaiGashiki. ABOVE:Old hat and house sparrows. Brushdrawingin ink and color. RIGHT:Variousbirds. Fromthe Manga, Vol. III. 13
  15. 15. __ 1^1al~ f i ABOVE: Rainbowat Mitakegura.A showerfalls at the new YanagiBridgeover a canal joining the SumidaRiver. Way- farers,rushingacrossthe bridge, hastily raiseumbrellasand cover themselves with coats and rugs. In the backgroundis a panoramicview of the farbank of the Sumida. FromEhonSumidagawa Ryogan Ichiran,about 1801-2. OPPOSITE, ABOVE: Mount Harunain the rain. One of a seriesof views of famous places drawnin variousweathers.From the Manga,Vol. VII. OPPOSITE, BELOW: Bog rhubarb Akita of in the rain. Hokusaihas enlargedthe rhubarb Akita to preposterous of size with leaves largeenough to serve as umbrellas.This may be his comment on the boastfultales of the residents. From the Manga,Vol. VII.14
  16. 16. II 15
  17. 17. !" ! * T - 11 t Y W ^ ll 4 ---.lit 04 ,)l4 1 I , ,1 / :AMA4lAk, i ,- | M1AA 9A,,i I I... o- . .N - I I I - Ll I 1 , . 1 4 -t
  18. 18. A gust of wind at Ejiri, in the province of Suruga.Pale Fujiis seen from the plain. Travelers the raisedpath throughthe on rice fieldsstruggleagainstthe wind. w. Sheets of paperare swept into the air, . and one man has lost his hat. FromThe v V Thirty-sixViews of Fuji, about 1831-33. V ? 0%~~~~~~~~~~ <4 ": -,> _^~ v _* * " <* ^^^-* ... . . ij:t .1.. .t. I II. j .,^^"i ^:}I f 1* " rti Yl"/"Yw^^ rr/ ?, f-t- Ir /07///w -- ,,.,, /y^^ 1/^^ .. i 17
  19. 19. ABOVE: The maddeningwind. To Hokusai, gesturesspoke louderthan words.These studiescaricaturethe reac- tion of the harassedpedestriansto the unpredictablegustsof the wind. From the Manga,Vol. XII, 1834. OPPOSITE, ABOVE: A woman of remark- able strength. A rearingwild horse is held fast by the delicate high wooden clog of the womanssandalon the halter rope. The woman, oblivious of the plunginganimal, admiresa birdflying above the irisesin the lake. Fromthe Manga,Vol. IX, 1819. OPPOSITE, BELOW:Another woman of remarkable strength. A mighty and mus- cularwarrior pusheswith all his strength, but the womancontinues to walk at her relaxedand unhurriedpace. At the edge of the path an empty sake bottle has been stuck upsidedown on a bamboopole. Fromthe Manga,Vol. IX.18
  20. 20. 1?3 - - -ICILI a&L? i w 0*114W. 19
  21. 21. C)
  22. 22. ABOVE:OPPOSITE, Caricatures of the BELOW: Variousunseemlysights. At thedescendantsof a noble family.One figure top a man is about to commit hara-kiriat the top paints eyebrows his fore- on with a frog beside him. Below, a womanshead; the other paints his lips and teeth face is unflatteringlymagnified.Topwith the aid of a magnifyingmirror.At right, a famouswrestler,Goro of Matanothe bottom a posturingdandytreadson village, makesan ostentatiousdisplayofanothersrobe, and in the center a figure strengthby lifting a boulder.Below,aslumpslike a pile of discardedclothes. partiallyclad woman takes a pickledFromthe Manga,Vol. XII. radishfrom a barrel.Fromthe Manga, Vol. XII.OPPOSITE, BELOW:Talentsof the long-nosed. Long-nosedtengu(monsters,half-human, half-bird)displaytheir skillswhile an equallylong-nosedwomancom-petes with them by writingelegant cur-sive scripton a folding screen with an inkbrushtied to the end of her nose. Fromthe Manga,Vol. XII. 21
  23. 23. I LEFT: Thin men and thin women. In contrast to relaxedfat people (opposite), thin people are tense and active. They wrestle, carryloads, work, fight, break I crockery,and provoketrouble. Fromthe Manga,Vol. VIII, 1818. Twowomen in a house are look- BELOW: ing at the peach blossomsbelow their porch. A workmanis throwingtiles to another on the roof above, while a third is laying them in position. In the dis- tance is a well-traveledroad. FromThe HundredPoemsTold by the Nurse, about 1835-36. . , AX-t22
  24. 24. g. Randomsketches of fat men and LEFT: --~^?..--:. ./^r... fat women in various poses. The fat peo-A - <HSr ^BSS^ ^ ple, for the most part, relax and sleep, read, smoke, or amusethemselves in ai ?^" ,vj . ^^gl---L^^^^ -- icomfortable manner. Hokusaifinds their characterto be vastly differentfrom that of the thin people (opposite). Fromthe Manga,Vol. XIII, 1818. Pottersmakingroofingtiles on BELOW: yVt ^9^^. > ^iSB^Ts- ^^^^^^the bank of the ImadoRiver, a tributary of the SumidaRiver. Early1800s. _ i 23
  25. 25. -X. :. : .@ . * i1.I - *- II* . ;jkA. WI;;. I / r .I . I**< a*.,sV t ~~ ~ ~ " I F. I 4 - .4, I i , i ". .. ;!;,3.." i,. qed 1 It 11 ; i.p .H ., v X w. *
  26. 26. Illustrationof a poem by Minamoto noMuneyuki.A winter scene in the moun-tains. Outside a snow-coveredhut, menwarmthemselvesover a fire.Winter loneliness in a mountain hamletgrowsOnly deeperwhen guests are goneAnd leaves and grassare withered;So runsmy thought.FromThe HundredPoemsTold bythe Nurse. 25
  27. 27. ABOVE: Variousmodes of fencing. The lances are tipped with protective cushions. The helmeted figuresin the center weargauntletsand wield swordsof wood. Fromthe Manga,Vol. VI, 1817. ABOVE: OPPOSITE, General Nitta no Yoshisada prayingto the dragongod in the sea. In response, the god turned the sea wavesinto sand, so that the general could cross to the opposite shore. A wave of sand following the contour of a wave of watermay be seen in the foreground. FromEhonWakan Homare,1850. no BELOW: episode in the life OPPOSITE, An of the Chinese warlord,Liu Hsiian-te (A.D. 161-223). The warlord,bent low in his saddle, plungesdown a cliff into the foamingtorrentof the riveras he escapesfrom his enemies. Fromthe Manga,Vol. VI.26
  28. 28. IIi 27
  29. 29. "s,I28
  30. 30. OPPOSITE, ABOVE: At the requestof the ABOVE: Sun Wu-Kung, the legendaryemperor,Nitta no Tadatsune(d. 1203) Buddhist-follower monkey,performingset out to slay the monsterthat was said magic. Hairsthat the monkeyhasto inhabit the darkcavernsdeep under pluckedfromhis beardformthemselvesFuji. Tadatsuneis shown here apparently into other monkeyscarryingstaves. Onlighting a magic torch from raysof sun- the left is the double manifestationof Talight reflectedon the sea. FromEhon Fei, the famouscruel and beautifulcon-Wakan Homare. no cubine of the last emperorof the Shang dynasty.Her scatteredashes were said toOPPOSITE, BELOW: Vision of H6j6 no have turned into a many-tailedfox. FromTokimasa(1138-1215). According to the the Manga,Vol. X.legend, Tokimasaprayedto the GoddessBenzaitenfor her protection. After threeweeks of incessantprayer,Tokimasawas granteda vision of Benzaitenin theformof a serpent. As she disappeared,Benzaitenleft behind her three serpentscales, which were treasuredbyTokimasaas a pledge of divine protec-tion. FromEhonMusashi Abumi, 1836. 29
  31. 31. ot.4~~~~~~~?( . 7 J 7 l 0 ~ ~ ~~~ ~ ~ ((;~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ! e r 74 rI , , . , .., - 4.-, ,v , , I I . - 11" - . - - - , ,, - .11-r-AL. . Ili mmumm -
  32. 32. Yatsuhashi(The Eight-plankBridge), inthe province of Mikawa,a constructionof narrowplatformsbuilt out zigzagover aswamp.The middle partof the bridgeisraisedin an arch, and men and womenon differentpartsof the bridgeadmirethe iris blossomsin the waterbelow.FromViewsof FamousBridgesin VariousProvinces, 1833-34. 31
  33. 33. of f tA> -? 4 ~~~~~ i -r, 1 j ik , 75 07 ^,a.<, ; U, .:) txI4 A .t 1 r 4 -O 4 l -r ,A ;l I ,I. n, -4 f ,. .0> _ , -fL /9 e ,I , t k >ii i I 0 * At* It tF 0- i ,+iw,&w~~~~~~~~~ crossingthe bay. ABOVE:A ferryboat Late 1790s-early 1800s. Viewing the sunset ABOVE: OPPOSITE, over Ry6gokuBridgefrom the bank of the SumidaRiver at Ommayagashi.The broadSumida is spannedby the great bridge. Beyond its farend Fujirisesdark and clear against the evening sky. From the near shore a ferryboat of men and full women is startingto cross the water. FromThe Thirty-six Viewsof Fuji. OPPOSITE, BELOW: Illustrationof a poem no by Kiyowara Fukayabu. The large prowof a pleasureboat is hung with lan- terns, and two other boats are mooredon the river.Silhouettes of houses are seen on the opposite bank. How quicklythe night flowsin summer And dawn breaks. Long I sought the cloud-coveredmoon. FromThe HundredPoemsTold by the Nurse.32
  34. 34. ___ wV -j
  35. 35. Under Mannen Bridgeat Fukagawa. Dis- tant Fujiis seen between the tall piersof the wide arch of Mannen Bridgeover the FukaRiver. People cross the bridge, a laden boat is poled upstreamin the fore- ground, and a man fishesfrom a rock in the stream. FromThe Thirty-sixViews of Fuji. * * 1 . I i . I . IP. 35
  36. 36. Ushibori in the province of Hitachi. A largejunk is mooredamong reeds. Two herons take wing as a man leans out of the cabin to pourawaywaterin which rice has been washed. In the distance acrossthe marshesis Fuji. FromThe Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji.36
  37. 37. 1- 4 ;, O.4 f41 i .I- I I ,, I I . 1., 4F6 - .1 ... ..,; .W- r 1,. t I i *.-. r. ?1 r . 1:I- - - 4f ."... - .. _t&- Z- im: lrw- .iwi : r" "Ill< - * 144 i1!9t .. 90 lff%., 0 "rr --- 1) , ;- r * 9 q . - , -i--.I ... . d i -t! . It _ lb .- "* a. lb 4. 4 *& d a.
  38. 38. OMMUNNO: : : ~~~~~~~~~~~
  39. 39. OPPOSITE, ABOVE: In the Totomi Moun- ABOVE: Fuji-viewFieldsin the provincetains. A huge squarelog is supported of Owari. The peak of the mountainaslant on tall trestles;between the poles appears the horizonthroughthe circle onis a view of the cloud-wreathedcone of of a greatunfinishedvat upon which aFuji. Twomen saw,one kneeling below, cooper is at work. FromThe Thirty-sixthe other standingon the log. A woman Viewsof Fuji.and a child watch. A workmansits by afire, which sends up a dense columnof smoke. FromThe Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji.OPPOSITE, BELOW:The waterwheelatOnden. A greatwaterwheelis turnedbya streamrunningunder it. In the fore-grounda boy drawsa tortoise by a string,a womancarriesa bucket, and anotherwomanwashesherbs in the stream.Beyondthe streamtwo men with bundlesappearover the hill. Fujirisesover fieldsand mists. FromThe Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji. 39
  40. 40. a *1k 1%y? 4r I K 3:Vfo I 25I 4 I I. - I V I^fL-^L m yfN _N r Nd
  41. 41. The greatwave off Kanagawa.The dark blue watercrests above three fragile boats, which speed like arrowsthrough ... the troughof the wave. Fujiappears, snow-capped,on the distant horizon. a * FromThe Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji._ . 41
  42. 42. ABOVE: Tatekawa Honj6. View of Fuji at from a lumberyardin the Honj6 district. FromThe Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji. ABOVE: OPPOSITE, Sazai Hall of the Tem- ple of the 500 Rakan. On a balcony adjoiningthe hall of the temple, men and women look out acrossa silver-gray lake to Fuji. The mountain risesbeyond a bank, which partlyhides the roofs of Edo and the stacksof a timberyard.A man and a woman sit on the floorof the bal- cony restingagainstboxes containing the imagesof Kannon, God of Mercy.From The Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji. BELOW: OPPOSITE, Yoshida on the Tokaido. A room in the Fujimitea- house. A waitressis pointing out Fujito two ladies seatedon the balcony of the wide window.Two workmenare resting. At the left are two litter bearers,one of them softening his sandalby beating it with a mallet. FromThe Thirty-sixViews of Fuji.42
  43. 43. r It I I . I ; 43
  44. 44. t (-W- cYOPPOSITE, ABOVE: Hodogayaon theTokaido. Fuji, blue and white, is seenbetween the trunksof pines fringingthehigh road. In the foreground man leads aa horse riddenby a woman, and thebearersof a litter rest. The crest of theprint publisher,Eijud6, appearson thehorse cloth. FromThe Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji. BELOW:OPPOSITE, Honganji Temple atAsakusain Edo. In the foregroundis thegable of the temple with workmenrepair-ing the tiles of the roof. Below are theroofs of Edo with the scaffoldingof a firestation risingabovethem. A kite is flyinghigh in the air, and over floatingmistappearsthe cone of Fuji. FromTheThirty-sixViewsof Fuji.ABOVE:The Mishima Passin theprovinceof Kai. A huge cyptomeriatreerises in the foreground,and travelersaremeasuringits girth with joined hands.FromThe Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji. 45
  45. 45. Rainstormbeneath the summit. A forked flash lights up the luridgloom, and snow- streakedFujirisesred into a clear sky with white clouds at the horizon. From The Thirty-sixViewsof Fuji. I 1 ? we _"46
  46. 46. /- C?? NR
  47. 47. CREDITSUnlessotherwise specified captions,all illustrations wood- in are pp. 10-11:FrederickCharles HewittFund,1911 (JP747)blockprints. pp. 13,above;40-41: Bequest Mrs. of H. 0. Havemeyer, The 1929. Captionsof the wood-block printsother than those fromthe H. 0. Havemeyer Collection(JP1859;Manga based descriptions Laurence are on by Binyon.The identi- 1847)ficationof the birds(pp. 12-13) was madeby John Bull of the pp. 14, 16-17, 36-37, 45: Purchase, Rogers Fund,1936(JP2580;American Museum Natural of History. 2553;2565;2556)Ehon MusashiAbumi: The Howard Mansfield Collection,Gift of 39: pp. 22, below; Purchase, Fund,1936(JP2548;19) RogersHoward Mansfield, 1936(Japanese illustrated no. 107) book p. 23, below: of Samuel Gift 1914(JP1013) Isham,Ehon Wakan Homare: Howard no The MansfieldCollection, of GiftHoward Mansfield, 1936(Japanese illustrated no. 110) book pp. 24-25; 33, above; below; 33, 34-35; 38, above; below; 38, 43,Manga, Vols.III,VII-X, XII.The Howard Mansfield Collection, above; 46-47: The HenryL. PhillipsCollection.Bequest 44; ofGiftof Howard 1936 Mansfield, (Japanese illustrated no. 111) book HenryL. Phillips, 1939 (JP2935;2997;2939;2983;2966;2967; 2984;2973;2961)Manga, VI:Purchase, Vol. Rogers Fund,1931(Japanese illustratedbookno. 81.6) pp. 30-31; 42; 43, below;44: RogersFund,1922 (JP1398;1285; 1324;1323)HokusaiGashiki:The HowardMansfieldCollection, Gift ofHoward 1936 Mansfield, (Japanese illustrated no. 120) book p. 32: Purchase, Fund,1919(JP1108) Rogersp. 6: CharlesStewartSmith Collection, Gift of Mrs. Charles p. 48: CharlesStewartSmith Collection,Gift of Mrs.CharlesStewart Smith, CharlesStewart Smith,Jr. and Howard Caswell Stewart Smith,Jr. and Howard Smith, CharlesStewart CaswellSmith;in memory Charles of Stewart Smith,1914(14.76.60[25]) Smith;in memory Charles of StewartSmith,1914(14.76.60[106]) THE PRINTING OF JAPANESE WOOD BLOCKSMulticolor prints,whichoriginated 1765,werethe collabora- in mentwasbrushed the raised on surface the blockanda sheetof of whotionof an artist,a carver, printer, a publisher, coordi- a and paper placed was with a overit. The paper rubbed a baren, circularnatedanddirected entireproduction. artist the The laid carefully padcovered withthe toughsheathof a bamboo shoot.Thispro-his slightlymoistened drawing downon the paste-cov- final face cesswasrepeated eachcolor.The colors for wereprinted the ineredsurface a woodblock.Whenthe blockanddrawing of were order lighter darker of to colors.The gradual shadingoftenseendry,the carver away cut parts the block,leaving linesto be of the in representations skyandwater achieved wiping of was by theprinted relief.The artist in madecolornoteson monochrome blockwitha wetclothandthengoingoverthe areawitha wetimpressions madefromthiskeyblock.The monochrome impres- brush in dipped pigment. Specialeffects,suchasembossing,sionswereusedforcuttingadditional blocks,usually foreach one weredonelast.color.On every blockkento, L andhorizontal-shape or guidemarks, werecut to register colorsin the correct the position.Pig- Y.B. Man ridinga donkey. Brushdrawingin ink.
  48. 48. 41-1 W-01 I . gLw. Z. , : w t I O/ y - k IwK
  49. 49. t

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