with Conrad TaylorISKO UK seminar on ‘The Shape of Knowledge’ at the London College of Communication, 4 September 2012    ...
Conrad Taylorwww.conradiator.comconradtaylorbcs.googlemail.com                                 2
3
4
5
6
Memories of theNew Maths, Scotland,1960s…‘All lipe shends are umpty’Draw a                  the set ofVenn Diagramin which...
the shapeof knowledge                8
Images via Wikipedia Commons: Wegmann (bushbaby), Nobu Tamura (Dienonychus, FireFly5 (Cuttlefish), Mpinedag (‘Lucy’)      ...
10
GraphicRepresentations  of Data  and Knowledge  a form of  information                  11
Teaching about heart disease                               12
13
Storyboarding Web interaction                                14
15
16
ACTION-REFLECT:Based on ParticipatoryRural Assessment…‘Lines in the Dust’with found-objectmarkers…a Freireian approach top...
www.youtube.com/watch?v=F5xzpuydxjA                                      18
graphic representations     and visualisations:a flying history                           19
Porphyry: diagramming ontologySupreme genus:                        Substance                         material            ...
Ibn al-NafisPictures ‘doctored’to assist with teaching,to assist memory                                     21
Ibn al-NafisAgricola De Re Metallica 1556                                               22
23
Drawings, but with:– artificial points of view– simplification– labelling of parts– measurements– sequence of operations  ...
25
Note —a ‘vocabulary’of line typesand line weightsshading andhighlighting(here exploiting tints and solids of two ink colou...
Ebstorfer‘Mappa Mundi’a flat earth,a surrounding ocean,centred on Jerusalem                       27
Ebstorfer ‘Mappa Mundi’                          28
Ebstorfer ‘Mappa Mundi’                          29
Tabula Rogeriana, drawn 1154by Mohammad Al-Idrissi, for King Roger II of Sicily                                           ...
Tabula Rogeriana, drawn 1154by Mohammad Al-Idrissi, for King Roger II of Sicily                                           ...
Astrolabe, an interactive diagram of the heavens                                                   32
Ortelius’ Atlas of 1570                          33
34
Joseph Priestley — 1760 — ‘Timelines’ of biography, engraved & printed                                 time as a line…    ...
William Playfair invented theline chart, bar chart, pie chart                                   36
Charles Joseph Minard, 1869:celebrated multivariable schematic map / timeline diagramabout Napoleon’s advance on and retre...
38
Charles Joseph Minard:‘From where in France does Paris get its supplies of different kinds & quantities of meat?’         ...
Charles Joseph Minard:‘From where in France does Paris get its supplies of different kinds & quantities of meat?’    – col...
Charles Dupin, 1826:First ever choropleth map,highlighting regions withproblems of illiteracy                             41
Dr John Snow:Dot-map of fatalitiesfrom cholera in the1854 outbreakin Soho.Clustering suggesteda link to the Broad Stwater-...
Detail of John Snow’s dot map: colour added                                              43
44
Florence Nightingale’s ‘Coxcomb’ charts:causes of mortality among British soldiers in the Crimean War                     ...
Areas are proportionateto death by cause of:RED: woundsBLUE-GREY: ‘Preventable or Mitigable Zymotic diseases’BLACK: all ot...
The ISOTYPE approach to educational quantitative graphics:Otto and Marie Neurath                                          ...
ISOTYPE multiplesof standardisedgraphics, largelydesigned byGerd Arntz                    48
ISOTYPE multiples                                                        of standardised                                  ...
Køpenhavnnetwork diagramfor the ‘S-Tog’urban rail service                     50
51
The ‘Linked and Open Data Graph’ — which just keeps getting more complicated…                                             ...
The ‘Linked and Open Data Graph’ — which just keeps getting more complicated…                                             ...
Where is the theory   about what makesgraphic representationsof knowledge and data        WORK?                          54
literature     review(& personalities)                    55
Jacques Bertin                                                   ‘La Semiologie                                           ...
Jacques Bertin                                                   ‘La Semiologie                                           ...
58
59
Jacques Bertin                                                    ‘La Semiologie                                          ...
Yuri EngelhardtThe Language of Graphics        a framework for the analysis             of syntax and meaning       in map...
definitions,  analyses               62
Graphic representation:   a visible artifact   on a more or less flat surface   that was created in order   to express inf...
Graphic representation:   a visible artifact   on a more or less flat surface   that was created in order   to express inf...
Compositionality of meaning   Part of what a sentence means   depends upon its separate words,   and part depends on how  ...
Compositionality of meaning   Part of what a sentence means   depends upon its separate words,   and part depends on how  ...
Compositionality of meaning   A grammar is the set of rules   for combining symbols,   whether the symbols are   words or ...
Composite graphic objects:three samples   – a map with information overlay   – a graph of quantitative data   – a network ...
69
June 2012                                                                                            Daily blood glucose m...
PCT proposal to remove the Walk-in Centre service at Tollgate Lodge Healthcare Centre – an issues mapprepared by Conrad Ta...
a composite graphic object                    consists ofa graphic space    graphic objects    graphic relations          ...
a composite graphic object                    consists ofa graphic space    graphic objects    graphic relations          ...
a composite graphic object                            consists ofa graphic space           graphic objects          graphi...
75
June 2012                                                                                            Daily blood glucose m...
PCT proposal to remove the Walk-in Centre service at Tollgate Lodge Healthcare Centre – an issues mapprepared by Conrad Ta...
‘Symbology’   the search for the visual morpheme,   the ‘primitive graphic object’                                        ...
‘Symbology’   the search for the visual morpheme,   the ‘primitive graphic object’                                        ...
‘Symbology’   the search for the visual morpheme,   the ‘primitive graphic object’                                        ...
81
82
83
signification-     carrying    variables                 84
Jacques Bertin                               La Semiologie Graphique                               1967             Englis...
Jacques Bertin’sretinal variables2PD:  the two dimensions  of the graphic planeSi:  sizeV:  ‘value’ – tint, tone?T:  ‘grai...
Bertin’spositionalvariable             87
‘Colour’ and‘Value’…a distinction that isbehind the times?                        88
‘Value’ in the  world of print  is made of tints (dot patterns &c)  of the ink colour.This cartoon wasshaded with tintedad...
24-bit RGB= 16,777,216 coloursColour and valuereplaced by Hue andBrightness andSaturation…                       90
Linda Reynolds study for UK Air Traffic Control:Beyond the green vectorscope — how to make use of display colour?         ...
Contiguous zones:can use very small changes in colour   Backgrounds: desaturated   colour is best                         ...
Colour for identification offoreground objects:   few, well-differentiated colours                                      93
With computed transparency,we can overlay corridors on the mapwithout hiding borders underneath                           ...
It may be possible with today’sgraphic systems to modulatetransparency in real time                                  95
Optional display featurescan be called up or dismissedas the need requires                                96
Linda Reynolds :Colour Displays and how to makethe most of themhttp://www.ingenia.org.uk/ingenia/articles.aspx?Index=106  ...
‘Texture’ and                               ‘Orientation’…                               ‘Texture’ may be a               ...
Hachure: texture to indicate land relief                                           99
Hachure: texture to indicate land relief                                           100
Texture used in colour map printingusing ‘special’ colours  (not CMYK process)                     101
Colour and texture combineto give a range of relief heightsand depths                                    102
In print, you can                                                            use whatever                                 ...
Some reprographic systems                                    will represent Bertin’s Value and Colour                     ...
Coarse texturesuseful for coarseprint techniques!                    105
Adobe Illustrator let me create ameaningful symbolic texture andfill areas with it…                                    106
‘Size’…          107
Size as a signifier: not without its problems do we compare area or height? how to relate a large height-significant compo...
Size as a signifier: not without its problems do we compare area or height? how to relate a large height-significant compo...
Shapes are poor signifiersof value, but work wellas distinguishable symbolsSimmonds, et al.warn against symbols thatare ha...
What is Texture and what is Symbol?                                      111
The stuff that connects things!      Particularly important for qualifying      linkages in network diagrams:           Mi...
‘Retinal variables’ for lines? Line thickness and colour                             Shape, direction of line Duplication ...
CASE*Method data model, using Ellis-Barker notation      LINE ITEM       PURCHASE ORDER      PARTY                        ...
CASE*Method data model, using Ellis-Barker notation         LINE ITEM      PURCHASE ORDER         PARTY     # Line number ...
CASE*Method data model, using Ellis-Barker notation         LINE ITEM      PURCHASE ORDER         PARTY     # Line number ...
CASE*Method data model, using Ellis-Barker notation         LINE ITEM      part of                                        ...
CASE*Method data model, using Ellis-Barker notation                LINE ITEM                part of                       ...
CASE*Method data model, using Ellis-Barker notation              LINE ITEM              part of                           ...
120
Debategraph.org   121
Debategraph.org   122
animation, interaction,computation                123
Animated presentation…                         …to change the viewer’s focus                                              ...
Animated presentation…                         …to change the viewer’s focus                                              ...
Animated presentation…         …to build up layers of knowledge about a graphic                                           ...
World Health Organisation – interactive map, incidence by country ofdeath rate from Non Communicable Disease (males)See ht...
World Health Organisation – interactive map, incidence by country ofdeath rate from Non Communicable Disease (males)See ht...
Gapminder.org              Hans RoslingGapminder — see http://www.gapminder.org — download and install the desktop edition...
Gapminder — see http://www.gapminder.org — download and install the desktop edition                                       ...
Gapminder — see http://www.gapminder.org — download and install the desktop edition                                       ...
Gapminder — see http://www.gapminder.org — download and install the desktop edition                                       ...
Gapminder — see http://www.gapminder.org — download and install the desktop edition                                       ...
Gapminder — see http://www.gapminder.org — download and install the desktop edition                                       ...
Conrad Taylor               www.conradiator.com               conradtaylorbcs.googlemail.comthe endother talks from the IS...
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The Grammar of Graphics, for ISKO UK

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Final version of the slide set for my talk at the September 2012 meeting of the UK Chapter of the International Society for Knowledge Organization: ‘The Shape of Knowledge’. These slides are slightly different for the ones shown on the day, and have a re-recorded narrative.

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The Grammar of Graphics, for ISKO UK

  1. 1. with Conrad TaylorISKO UK seminar on ‘The Shape of Knowledge’ at the London College of Communication, 4 September 2012 1
  2. 2. Conrad Taylorwww.conradiator.comconradtaylorbcs.googlemail.com 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. 6
  7. 7. Memories of theNew Maths, Scotland,1960s…‘All lipe shends are umpty’Draw a the set ofVenn Diagramin which the shends the set ofabove statement things thatis true are umpty things that are lipe 7
  8. 8. the shapeof knowledge 8
  9. 9. Images via Wikipedia Commons: Wegmann (bushbaby), Nobu Tamura (Dienonychus, FireFly5 (Cuttlefish), Mpinedag (‘Lucy’) 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. GraphicRepresentations of Data and Knowledge a form of information 11
  12. 12. Teaching about heart disease 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. Storyboarding Web interaction 14
  15. 15. 15
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. ACTION-REFLECT:Based on ParticipatoryRural Assessment…‘Lines in the Dust’with found-objectmarkers…a Freireian approach topromoting literacy withempowerment. 17
  18. 18. www.youtube.com/watch?v=F5xzpuydxjA 18
  19. 19. graphic representations and visualisations:a flying history 19
  20. 20. Porphyry: diagramming ontologySupreme genus: Substance material immaterialSubordinate genera: Body Spirit animate inanimateSubordinate genera: Living Mineral sensitive insensitiveProximate genera: Animal Plant rational irrationalSpecies: Human BeastIndividuals: Socrates Plato Aristotle etc 20
  21. 21. Ibn al-NafisPictures ‘doctored’to assist with teaching,to assist memory 21
  22. 22. Ibn al-NafisAgricola De Re Metallica 1556 22
  23. 23. 23
  24. 24. Drawings, but with:– artificial points of view– simplification– labelling of parts– measurements– sequence of operations 24
  25. 25. 25
  26. 26. Note —a ‘vocabulary’of line typesand line weightsshading andhighlighting(here exploiting tints and solids of two ink colours) 26
  27. 27. Ebstorfer‘Mappa Mundi’a flat earth,a surrounding ocean,centred on Jerusalem 27
  28. 28. Ebstorfer ‘Mappa Mundi’ 28
  29. 29. Ebstorfer ‘Mappa Mundi’ 29
  30. 30. Tabula Rogeriana, drawn 1154by Mohammad Al-Idrissi, for King Roger II of Sicily 30
  31. 31. Tabula Rogeriana, drawn 1154by Mohammad Al-Idrissi, for King Roger II of Sicily 31
  32. 32. Astrolabe, an interactive diagram of the heavens 32
  33. 33. Ortelius’ Atlas of 1570 33
  34. 34. 34
  35. 35. Joseph Priestley — 1760 — ‘Timelines’ of biography, engraved & printed time as a line… 35
  36. 36. William Playfair invented theline chart, bar chart, pie chart 36
  37. 37. Charles Joseph Minard, 1869:celebrated multivariable schematic map / timeline diagramabout Napoleon’s advance on and retreat from Moscowin the winter of 1812–1813 37
  38. 38. 38
  39. 39. Charles Joseph Minard:‘From where in France does Paris get its supplies of different kinds & quantities of meat?’ 39
  40. 40. Charles Joseph Minard:‘From where in France does Paris get its supplies of different kinds & quantities of meat?’ – colour identifies which Départements are involved in the trade – those involved have a ‘meat pie chart’ associated – colour divided the pies by proportion of types of meat – size of pies reflects quantity 40
  41. 41. Charles Dupin, 1826:First ever choropleth map,highlighting regions withproblems of illiteracy 41
  42. 42. Dr John Snow:Dot-map of fatalitiesfrom cholera in the1854 outbreakin Soho.Clustering suggesteda link to the Broad Stwater-pumpInvestigation ofoutliers & anomaliesconfirmed the link.Beginnings of scienceof epidemiology! 42
  43. 43. Detail of John Snow’s dot map: colour added 43
  44. 44. 44
  45. 45. Florence Nightingale’s ‘Coxcomb’ charts:causes of mortality among British soldiers in the Crimean War 45
  46. 46. Areas are proportionateto death by cause of:RED: woundsBLUE-GREY: ‘Preventable or Mitigable Zymotic diseases’BLACK: all other causes 46
  47. 47. The ISOTYPE approach to educational quantitative graphics:Otto and Marie Neurath 47
  48. 48. ISOTYPE multiplesof standardisedgraphics, largelydesigned byGerd Arntz 48
  49. 49. ISOTYPE multiples of standardised graphics, largely designed by Gerd ArntzSkuravy, c. 1932, cutting out linocut-printed symbols for paste-up assembly into chart artwork 49
  50. 50. Køpenhavnnetwork diagramfor the ‘S-Tog’urban rail service 50
  51. 51. 51
  52. 52. The ‘Linked and Open Data Graph’ — which just keeps getting more complicated… 52
  53. 53. The ‘Linked and Open Data Graph’ — which just keeps getting more complicated… 53
  54. 54. Where is the theory about what makesgraphic representationsof knowledge and data WORK? 54
  55. 55. literature review(& personalities) 55
  56. 56. Jacques Bertin ‘La Semiologie Graphique’ 1967 Michael Twyman ite ‘Schema for Stu dy of Jan V Wh Graphic Languages’ hs’‘Char ts an d Grap Doig Simmo 1980 n ds, Ed 1979 ‘Charts an d G Gene Zelaz raphs’ ny 1980 ‘Say it with C harts’ 1985 B Tversky ‘Cognitive Origins of fte Clive Richards Graphic Conventiions’ E dward Tu of ‘Diagrammatics’‘The Vis ual Display 1998 1995 e Quantitativ ’ Information 1998 56
  57. 57. Jacques Bertin ‘La Semiologie Graphique’ 1967 Michael Twyman ite ‘Schema for Stu dy of Jan V Wh Graphic Languages’ hs’‘Char ts an d Grap Doig Simmo 1980 n ds, Ed 1979 ‘Charts an d G Gene Zelaz raphs’ ny 1980 ‘Say it with C harts’ 1985 B Tversky ‘Cognitive Origins of fte Clive Richards Graphic Conventiions’ E dward Tu of ‘Diagrammatics’‘The Vis ual Display 1998 1995 e Quantitativ Robert Horn ’ Information ‘Visual Language’ L Wilkinson 1998 1998 ‘The Grammar o f Graphics’ 1999 Card, Mackinlay, Schneidermann (Eds) ‘Information Visualization’ 1999 57
  58. 58. 58
  59. 59. 59
  60. 60. Jacques Bertin ‘La Semiologie Graphique’ 1967 Michael Twyman ite ‘Schema for Stu dy of Jan V Wh Graphic Languages’ hs’‘Char ts an d Grap Doig Simmo 1980 n ds, Ed 1979 ‘Charts an d G Gene Zelaz raphs’ ny 1980 ‘Say it with C harts’ 1985 B Tversky ‘Cognitive Origins of fte Clive Richards Graphic Conventiions’ E dward Tu of ‘Diagrammatics’‘The Vis ual Display 1998 1995 e Quantitativ Robert Horn ’ Information ‘Visual Language’ L Wilkinson 1998 1998 ‘The Grammar o f Graphics’ Alan MacEachren 1999 David McCandless ‘How Maps Work’ ‘Information Is 2000 Beautiful’ Card, Mackinlay, 200? Schneidermann (Eds) Colin Ware Yuri Engelhar ‘Information dt ‘Information ‘The Language o Visualization’ f Visualization’ Graphics’ 1999 2000 2002 60
  61. 61. Yuri EngelhardtThe Language of Graphics a framework for the analysis of syntax and meaning in maps, charts and diagrams University of Amsterdam Institute for Logic, Language and Computation 61
  62. 62. definitions, analyses 62
  63. 63. Graphic representation: a visible artifact on a more or less flat surface that was created in order to express information Yuri Engelhardt 63
  64. 64. Graphic representation: a visible artifact on a more or less flat surface that was created in order to express information Yuri Engelhardt 64
  65. 65. Compositionality of meaning Part of what a sentence means depends upon its separate words, and part depends on how those words are arranged Marvin Minsky 65
  66. 66. Compositionality of meaning Part of what a sentence means depends upon its separate words, and part depends on how those words are arranged Marvin Minsky ‘Frege’s Principle’   after the mathematician, logician & philosopher   Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege 66
  67. 67. Compositionality of meaning A grammar is the set of rules for combining symbols, whether the symbols are words or pictures. W K Horton (1994) The Icon Book: Visual Symbols for computer systems and documentation 67
  68. 68. Composite graphic objects:three samples – a map with information overlay – a graph of quantitative data – a network diagram 68
  69. 69. 69
  70. 70. June 2012 Daily blood glucose measurements20 a.m. — 34 a.m. — 42 Subject: Conrad Taylor p.m. — 32 p.m. — 40 millimoles per litre measured by portable monitor a.m. — 36 Early morning measurements p.m. — 34 Early evening measurements15 a.m. — x Onset of new targets for p.m. — y insulin injection10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 70
  71. 71. PCT proposal to remove the Walk-in Centre service at Tollgate Lodge Healthcare Centre – an issues mapprepared by Conrad Taylor to assist discussion BREAKDOWN OF TYPES OF USAGE OF WALK-IN SERVICES (incomplete) BREAKDOWN OF WALK-IN CENTRE USERS BY ORIGIN To be seen without Small casualties and Frontline services for Unregistered patients Visitors from afar Registered locally an appointment minor emergencies Health Protection e.g. in the community response vaccination Elsewhere in the UK At Tollgate Lodge Those who Homeless, To be seen in the could easily transient, evenings or at Paediatric ‘worry’ cases register hard-to-reach EU, other countries with City & Hackney surgeries weekends at short notice reciprocal arrangements Are WiC usage records coded, Other PCT surgeries such that reasons for use can Rest of the world For a second opinion Wound dressings be extracted and analysed? Which of these user-types can be satisfied by expanding local GP services? Which of these can be replaced adequately by expanding local GP services? Which types would suffer disproportionately if walk-in service withdrawn? How can the other usages be met, while not overloading Homerton Hospital or causing discomfort, travel problems and distress to patients? What alternative forms of provision can ensure the vulnerable are looked after? Do WiC usage records clearly identify where patients are ALTERNATIVE MINOR ACUTE CARE SOLUTIONS IN THE COMMUNITY? registered with a GP? What are benefits/demerits How to expand North Hackney Adequate alternative provision (see yellow boxes below) of NHS Direct? GP services? must be in place BEFORE WiC services are withdrawn; even then, some WiC provision may still be justified. What benefits/demerits of Quicker appointments GP/nurse teleconsultations? By what strategy, methods What is the PCT strategy for It is probable that a GP-led Evening appointments and incentives will the PCT meeting those health needs walk-in local service at the GUARANTEE the expansion of Walk-in Centre users which point of community need is of North Hackney GP services CANNOT adequately be met still the best way to meet Weekend appointments to satisfy registered patients by expanding North Hackney certain kinds of minor but seeking consultations at short GP services? acute health needs. notice, evenings or weekends? What access do out-of-hours and locum GP services have Where do out-of-hours and to the patient medical record? locum GP services fit in? (and how will the unmet need in other-PCT GP services be met?) 71
  72. 72. a composite graphic object consists ofa graphic space graphic objects graphic relations 72
  73. 73. a composite graphic object consists ofa graphic space graphic objects graphic relations object-to-object relations object-to-space relations 73
  74. 74. a composite graphic object consists ofa graphic space graphic objects graphic relations object-to-object relations object-to-space relationsRelations are achieved (represented) visually using ‘gestalt principles’and techniques such as proximity, similarity, common region (enclosure),connectedness, good continuation (alignment), assumed closure 74
  75. 75. 75
  76. 76. June 2012 Daily blood glucose measurements20 a.m. — 34 a.m. — 42 Subject: Conrad Taylor p.m. — 32 p.m. — 40 millimoles per litre measured by portable monitor a.m. — 36 Early morning measurements p.m. — 34 Early evening measurements15 a.m. — x Onset of new targets for p.m. — y insulin injection10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa 76
  77. 77. PCT proposal to remove the Walk-in Centre service at Tollgate Lodge Healthcare Centre – an issues mapprepared by Conrad Taylor to assist discussion BREAKDOWN OF TYPES OF USAGE OF WALK-IN SERVICES (incomplete) BREAKDOWN OF WALK-IN CENTRE USERS BY ORIGIN To be seen without Small casualties and Frontline services for Unregistered patients Visitors from afar Registered locally an appointment minor emergencies Health Protection e.g. in the community response vaccination Elsewhere in the UK At Tollgate Lodge Those who Homeless, To be seen in the could easily transient, evenings or at Paediatric ‘worry’ cases register hard-to-reach EU, other countries with City & Hackney surgeries weekends at short notice reciprocal arrangements Are WiC usage records coded, Other PCT surgeries such that reasons for use can Rest of the world For a second opinion Wound dressings be extracted and analysed? Which of these user-types can be satisfied by expanding local GP services? Which of these can be replaced adequately by expanding local GP services? Which types would suffer disproportionately if walk-in service withdrawn? How can the other usages be met, while not overloading Homerton Hospital or causing discomfort, travel problems and distress to patients? What alternative forms of provision can ensure the vulnerable are looked after? Do WiC usage records clearly identify where patients are ALTERNATIVE MINOR ACUTE CARE SOLUTIONS IN THE COMMUNITY? registered with a GP? What are benefits/demerits How to expand North Hackney Adequate alternative provision (see yellow boxes below) of NHS Direct? GP services? must be in place BEFORE WiC services are withdrawn; even then, some WiC provision may still be justified. What benefits/demerits of Quicker appointments GP/nurse teleconsultations? By what strategy, methods What is the PCT strategy for It is probable that a GP-led Evening appointments and incentives will the PCT meeting those health needs walk-in local service at the GUARANTEE the expansion of Walk-in Centre users which point of community need is of North Hackney GP services CANNOT adequately be met still the best way to meet Weekend appointments to satisfy registered patients by expanding North Hackney certain kinds of minor but seeking consultations at short GP services? acute health needs. notice, evenings or weekends? What access do out-of-hours and locum GP services have Where do out-of-hours and to the patient medical record? locum GP services fit in? (and how will the unmet need in other-PCT GP services be met?) 77
  78. 78. ‘Symbology’ the search for the visual morpheme, the ‘primitive graphic object’ 78
  79. 79. ‘Symbology’ the search for the visual morpheme, the ‘primitive graphic object’ 79
  80. 80. ‘Symbology’ the search for the visual morpheme, the ‘primitive graphic object’ 80
  81. 81. 81
  82. 82. 82
  83. 83. 83
  84. 84. signification- carrying variables 84
  85. 85. Jacques Bertin La Semiologie Graphique 1967 English editionTranslated by William J BergUnivrsity of Wisconsin Press 1983 85
  86. 86. Jacques Bertin’sretinal variables2PD:  the two dimensions  of the graphic planeSi:  sizeV:  ‘value’ – tint, tone?T:  ‘grain’ or ‘texture’C:  colourOr:  orientationSh:  shape 86
  87. 87. Bertin’spositionalvariable 87
  88. 88. ‘Colour’ and‘Value’…a distinction that isbehind the times? 88
  89. 89. ‘Value’ in the world of print is made of tints (dot patterns &c) of the ink colour.This cartoon wasshaded with tintedadhesive ‘Letratone’films. 89
  90. 90. 24-bit RGB= 16,777,216 coloursColour and valuereplaced by Hue andBrightness andSaturation… 90
  91. 91. Linda Reynolds study for UK Air Traffic Control:Beyond the green vectorscope — how to make use of display colour? 91
  92. 92. Contiguous zones:can use very small changes in colour Backgrounds: desaturated colour is best 92
  93. 93. Colour for identification offoreground objects:   few, well-differentiated colours 93
  94. 94. With computed transparency,we can overlay corridors on the mapwithout hiding borders underneath 94
  95. 95. It may be possible with today’sgraphic systems to modulatetransparency in real time 95
  96. 96. Optional display featurescan be called up or dismissedas the need requires 96
  97. 97. Linda Reynolds :Colour Displays and how to makethe most of themhttp://www.ingenia.org.uk/ingenia/articles.aspx?Index=106 97
  98. 98. ‘Texture’ and ‘Orientation’… ‘Texture’ may be a mis-translation of Bertin’s ‘grain’ Orientation:more significant as symbols (e.g. for wind direction) than as shadings 98
  99. 99. Hachure: texture to indicate land relief 99
  100. 100. Hachure: texture to indicate land relief 100
  101. 101. Texture used in colour map printingusing ‘special’ colours (not CMYK process) 101
  102. 102. Colour and texture combineto give a range of relief heightsand depths 102
  103. 103. In print, you can use whatever colours you can mix!…in this example, Black plus a special Green defined as Pantone 363 103
  104. 104. Some reprographic systems will represent Bertin’s Value and Colour using overlaid dot-tints or ‘screens’ from component ink systems such as CMYKDisplaying solid colours, not tints, preserves the ability to render fine details 104
  105. 105. Coarse texturesuseful for coarseprint techniques! 105
  106. 106. Adobe Illustrator let me create ameaningful symbolic texture andfill areas with it… 106
  107. 107. ‘Size’… 107
  108. 108. Size as a signifier: not without its problems do we compare area or height? how to relate a large height-significant component to a small location? 108
  109. 109. Size as a signifier: not without its problems do we compare area or height? how to relate a large height-significant component to a small location?‘Countable variants’: ISOTYPE-style array can also have problems of ‘fitting’ Might the ‘spread-out’ version be confused for a proper dot-map? 109
  110. 110. Shapes are poor signifiersof value, but work wellas distinguishable symbolsSimmonds, et al.warn against symbols thatare hard to distinguish innormal reading conditions 110
  111. 111. What is Texture and what is Symbol? 111
  112. 112. The stuff that connects things! Particularly important for qualifying linkages in network diagrams:    Mind maps    Organisation charts    File plans    Hierarchical taxonomies    Ontologies    Debate / argument maps    Entity–Relationship Diagrams    State diagrams … and more… 112
  113. 113. ‘Retinal variables’ for lines? Line thickness and colour Shape, direction of line Duplication ‘Terminals’ Various dot patterns 113
  114. 114. CASE*Method data model, using Ellis-Barker notation LINE ITEM PURCHASE ORDER PARTY 114
  115. 115. CASE*Method data model, using Ellis-Barker notation LINE ITEM PURCHASE ORDER PARTY # Line number # PO Number # Party ID ● Quantity ● Order date ● Name ● Actual price 115
  116. 116. CASE*Method data model, using Ellis-Barker notation LINE ITEM PURCHASE ORDER PARTY # Line number # PO Number # Party ID ● Quantity ● Order date ● Name ● Actual price PERSON ● Surname ❍ Qualification COMPANY ● Registration 116
  117. 117. CASE*Method data model, using Ellis-Barker notation LINE ITEM part of PURCHASE ORDER issued to PARTY # Line number # PO Number # Party ID ● Quantity ● Order date ● Name composed of vendor in ● Actual price PERSON ● Surname ❍ Qualification COMPANY ● Registration 117
  118. 118. CASE*Method data model, using Ellis-Barker notation LINE ITEM part of PURCHASE ORDER issued to PARTY # Line number # PO Number # Party ID ● Quantity ● Order date ● Name composed of vendor in ● Actual price PERSON ● Surname for for ❍ Qualification bought via bought via COMPANY ● Registration PRODUCT SERVICE # Product code # Service code ● Description ● Description ● Unit price ● Rate per hour 118
  119. 119. CASE*Method data model, using Ellis-Barker notation LINE ITEM part of PURCHASE ORDER # Line number # PO Number ● Quantity ● Order date composed of ● Actual price for for bought via bought via 119
  120. 120. 120
  121. 121. Debategraph.org 121
  122. 122. Debategraph.org 122
  123. 123. animation, interaction,computation 123
  124. 124. Animated presentation… …to change the viewer’s focus 124
  125. 125. Animated presentation… …to change the viewer’s focus 125
  126. 126. Animated presentation… …to build up layers of knowledge about a graphic 126
  127. 127. World Health Organisation – interactive map, incidence by country ofdeath rate from Non Communicable Disease (males)See http://www.who.int/gho/map_gallery/en/index.html for this and other Global Health Observatory maps 127
  128. 128. World Health Organisation – interactive map, incidence by country ofdeath rate from Non Communicable Disease (males)See http://www.who.int/gho/map_gallery/en/index.html for this and other Global Health Observatory maps 128
  129. 129. Gapminder.org Hans RoslingGapminder — see http://www.gapminder.org — download and install the desktop edition 129
  130. 130. Gapminder — see http://www.gapminder.org — download and install the desktop edition 130
  131. 131. Gapminder — see http://www.gapminder.org — download and install the desktop edition 131
  132. 132. Gapminder — see http://www.gapminder.org — download and install the desktop edition 132
  133. 133. Gapminder — see http://www.gapminder.org — download and install the desktop edition 133
  134. 134. Gapminder — see http://www.gapminder.org — download and install the desktop edition 134
  135. 135. Conrad Taylor www.conradiator.com conradtaylorbcs.googlemail.comthe endother talks from the ISKO UK eventsat http://www.iskouk.org 135

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