First successful mill--Slater Mill Samuel Slater had served a 7 year mill apprenticeship in England. Came to the United States to make his fortune and made a partnership with a hardware merchant-- Moses Brown --in Pawtucket, RI Slater put up his expertise and his partners put up the money, and Slater got half ownership set up in an old fulling mill in 1790, then build a new mill in 1793. 100 spindles, spinning only, Arkwright water frames , little innovation. Metal parts made by local blacksmiths, relying on Slater's knowledge of critical dimensions, gearing, settings, surfaces. At first used almost entirely child labor --hired 7 boys and 2 girls between the ages of 7 and 12 in 1790. By 1800 he had more than 100 employees, and he relied on recruiting families and providing housing for them around the mill (fathers often worked as hand loom weavers, not in the mill). Slater owned or had an interest in 13 textile mills, and left an estate of $690,000 when he died in 1835. By 1810 there were 54 mills in Massachusetts, 26 in Rhode Island, 14 in Connecticut--all small mills without integration . The Lowell labor system: land was cheap in the United States and people wanted to own their own farms, not work in mills. Where to find a workforce for a large mill? hire young women from the countriside to work for a few years before they get married. Women lived in heavily supervised dormitories , were required to attend church, followed many factory rules , and made good wages for women at the time. The women averaged $3.60 a week in 1836, at which point they were paying $1.50 a week for room and board. This compared favorably to $1 a week for domestic work. until the mid 1840s the work was not stressful, although they worked 73 hours hours a week (a 12 to 14 hour day, six days a week, 309 days a year, with only three holidays). British immigrants made up about half the managers and machine-makers before 1830.
Lowell changes: Lowell population 1820--200 1830--6,000 1850--33,000 The Boston Manufacturing company returned an average annual dividend of 19% from 1816 to 1826. Even in the more competative 1850s the Merrimack Company (which operated some of the Lowell mills) averaged 12% annual return for most of the decade. Competition began to result in a worse deal for the workers as early as the 1830s--in 1836 there was a strike in reaction to a cut in wages of $1 a week. Speed-up made the work damaging to health immigrant workers began to be hired in the 1840s: immigrant workers in mills: 1845--8%, 1850--33%, 1860--60% (of those 47% were Irish--potato famine started in 1845).
Sectionalism Two Ways Of Life V2
Sectionalism Splits North & South <ul><li>Differing Ways of Life </li></ul><ul><li>and </li></ul><ul><li>Differing Worldviews </li></ul>
Northern Society: Urban & Rural <ul><li>Urban </li></ul><ul><li>Attracted immigrants in large numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Population increased from 7% to 20% by 1860 </li></ul><ul><li>Gap between rich & poor glaringly obvious – slums proliferated </li></ul><ul><li>Rich owned > $5,000; poorest<$100; middle in-between </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of municipal water, sewers, garbage collection, fire protection </li></ul><ul><li>Outdoor privies used & horse drawn vehicles created manure heaps, noise, & traffic jams </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of municipal services segregated neighborhoods by wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Middle class flight & urban decay </li></ul><ul><li>Rural </li></ul><ul><li>Family farms with hired labor, extended families, and community help provided labor </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse agriculture producing fruits & vegetables, beef & pork, grains, dairy products </li></ul><ul><li>Benefited from new agricultural equipment produced by the industry such as the McCormick reaper & John Deere plow. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefited from new roads, bridges, steamboats & canals </li></ul><ul><li>Also dependant on cash crops and were less self-sufficient </li></ul>
Factory System Replaces Domestic System Slater’s Mill Lowell girl at a weaving loom. One of the Lowell Mills
A Strict Schedule Girls, used to a relaxed schedule on the farm, found the rigid schedule difficult. Compare to a typical schedule in factories today. Why was the schedule so strict?
“ Old Immigration” to the USA: 1820-1860 <ul><li>Chief Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Irish potato Famine </li></ul><ul><li>1848 Revolution in German states </li></ul><ul><li>Promise of greater economic opportunities for Europe’s desperately poor </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><li>Poorer Irish settled in urban centers </li></ul><ul><li>Germans not as poor </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics </li></ul>
Why did relatively few immigrant live in the South?
Thomas Jefferson on slavery <ul><li>“ We have the wolf by the ears and we can neither hold him or safely let him go. Justice is on one scale, and self-preservation in the other.” </li></ul><ul><li>What did this mean to slave owners after the Nat Turner Rebellion in 1831? </li></ul>
Cotton Exports Cotton became king where it could be grown in the deep south. Southern wealth and status was tied up in land and slaves. Was this a money making operation? How did the South try to use this fact diplomatically?
Slaves concentrated in the deep south where cultivation of cotton increasing with the movement west
Antebellum Society: Status and Wealth linked to Slavery <ul><li>Planters </li></ul><ul><li>owning 20 or more slaves and dominated economics, social life and politics </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently self-made men </li></ul><ul><li>Small Slave Owners </li></ul><ul><li>Taking step from subsistence to commercial agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Most vulnerable to fluctuating prices and depressions </li></ul><ul><li>Yeoman Farmers- Tenant Farmers </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 of southerners did not own slaves –worked small farms with family labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Communal help performed intense labor jobs such as barn-building, harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 1/3 of poor white farmers were tenants </li></ul><ul><li>Poor whites seen as a potential danger by planters if opposed slavery </li></ul>
South Remained mostly rural and was divided loosely into the upper and lower regions. The Interstate trade in slaves shifted slaves from the upper to the lower region where expanding the cotton culture increased the demand for slaves. Natchez, MS was the wealthiest area in the USA in 1850
Cruelty to slaves such as scars on this slave’s back served as propaganda to spread anti-slavery sentiment. Relatively rare because it was not in the planter’s economic interest to damage his property, the dehumanizing life of the slave, without control over ordinary affairs, was worse. Despite hardships, slaves established a unique culture of their own. The South’s Peculiar Institution
African American Culture: A Response to the Institution of Slavery <ul><li>“ Grapevines” kept slave quarters informed </li></ul><ul><li>Strong matriarchs tended family ties. Search for lost family members a chief post-slavery concern </li></ul><ul><li>Churches, such as AME ,preferred that blended African & Christian traditions </li></ul><ul><li>. Families established & children taught to avoid confrontation </li></ul><ul><li>Music & dance provided relief and communication </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance respected </li></ul>
<ul><li>Economic Necessity </li></ul><ul><li>Slave could not manage if free (inferior race) </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery based on Biblical model </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery was a positive good (paternalism) </li></ul><ul><li>An attack on slavery was an attack of a way of life </li></ul>Defense of Slavery Northern factory workers referred to as wage slaves when were treated worse than the slaves.
How did the economic changes in technology and geographic differences contribute to the development of sectionalism? Was Civil War inevitable?