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Scalewatcher Presentation 2008


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The physics behind the magic box.

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Scalewatcher Presentation 2008

  1. 1. Mineral d Mi l deposit prevention and removal with an i i d l ih electric current By Scalewatcher™ Manufactured in the USA, United Kingdom, Thailand, The Netherlands and Vietnam. d d For pipe diameters up to 2.5 m 1
  2. 2. Scalewatcher™ Organization B & D Ingenieursburo, The Netherlands (1983), Manufacturing, Licensing, Research an Development Scalewatcher North America Inc. Pennsylvania, USA (1993) Scalewatcher Vietnam LTD Vietnam (March 2000) Scalewatcher (Thailand) Co., LTD. January 2002 2
  3. 3. The problems 3
  4. 4. Problem solving with the Lorenz Force • Scalewatcher: F=qE + q q qvxB) ) • F: Force on charge, q: Charged particle or charged ion, E: electric field, v: Velocity of vxB water, B: Magnetic field strength. • Magnet: F=q vxB Newton F=q.vxB v • Alloys: F=q.E Newton B 4
  5. 5. Charged particle surrounded by opposite charged ions pp g • A charged particle in the water will be h ill b surrounded by opposite charged ions ih di + + - - + - 5
  6. 6. Negatively charged particle with electric double layer Particle Electric double layer Untreated Water 6
  7. 7. Negatively charged particle with electric double layer • By nature particles in the water are negatively charged. Therefore they are surrounded by positive ions. The positive ions will attract negative ions creating the so called electric double layer. This is a stable situation and can be made instable by the action of Scalewatcher, initiating crystal growth Sl t h i iti ti tl th on the particle. • Therefore there will be less free mineral ions causing scaling on pipe walls or other surfaces. The crystals flow ith th fl with the water down the drain. td th d i 7
  8. 8. th ™ Scalewatcher™ promotes crystal forming in Sl t t lf ii the bulk of the water • When calcium and bicarbonate ions are combined, calcium carbonates and carbonic bi d l i b d bi acid are formed. • Ca + 2HCO3 CaCO3 + H2CO3 (solid) (carbonic acid) • The carbonic acid will further disassociate in H2CO3 H2O + CO2 (liquid) (gas) 8
  9. 9. Scalewatcher™ promotes crystal forming in the bulk of the water • These crystals have less or no surface charge and will therefore not adhere to pipe walls or other surfaces. If the flow of water is low the crystals may settle on the pipe wall but the nature is soft instead of rock hard. 9
  10. 10. Scalewatcher™ removes old scale layers • Old scale layers of carbonate scales will disappear because of the generation of carbon dioxide bubbles, being able to , g dissolve hard scale. This will temporarily increase the hardness of the liquid and is an indication that the treatment has effect. • H20 + CaC03 + CO2 Ca+ + 2HCO3-- Water Scale layer Gas Calcium ion Bi Carbonate ion 10
  11. 11. Drop of water as seen under a microscope. Not treated p • When the drop evaporates l l super local saturation at the interface will occur i f ill and dissolved minerals will precipitate, ill ii forming crystals. Interface Evaporated t drop E p t d water d p 11
  12. 12. Drop of water as seen under a microscope. Treated p • Near the edge of the drop less precipitation is seen due to the fact that less mineral ions are in solution. (Ions p precipitated out p already by the action of Scalewatcher and are distributed across the drop.) Interface shows less crystals (scaling) 12
  13. 13. Evidence of the theory E id fh h At the moment the Scalewatcher signal was applied to a super saturated solution of dissolved minerals, crystals were formed. 13
  14. 14. General equipment i I d G l i in Industry where h Scalewatcher can be used • Cooling towers – Chillers • Evaporators • Compressors • Condensers • Water boilers • Aerators • Fire tube steam boilers • Plate heat exchangers g • Shell and tube heat exchangers • Pipe lines 14
  15. 15. The Scalewatcher™ product • Installation at paper factory Varel in Germany 15
  16. 16. Oil installation example in Northern China 16
  17. 17. Scalewatcher coil • Two layers wrapped around the pipe with the same winding sense. Two layers will give a higher induction in the liquid to be treated. • Number of windings is usually 2x20 for liquids with low TDS. 17
  18. 18. Fire tube steam boiler 18
  19. 19. Fire b Fi tube steam b il bl d boiler blow down water of a F d f Food Corp. in Thailand Total dissolved solids 14,000.00 14 000 00 12,000.00 10,000.00 8,000.00 Total dissolved solids 6,000.00 4,000.00 2,000.00 - 1 2 3 4 1: Before installation, 2: After 15 days, 3: After 30 days, 4: After 60 days 19
  20. 20. Effect on fire tube steam boilers 1. First few weeks more blow down needed to keep the boiler within the recommended parameters of the boiler manufacturer. manufacturer 2. When the boiler is cleaned by the treatment less blow down is possible. 3. L 3 Less corrosion. i 4. Lower body temperature of the boiler (About 10 C less.) 5. Dryer steam 6. Less energy needed to operate the boiler. 7. In some cases boilers may be operated without the use of chemicals In short: Less maintenance, savings on chemicals, energy and water. “Scalewatcher fitted to boilers does not replace the need for regular monitoring of the boiler and feed water. Water chemistry should be maintained within manufacturers recommendations.” y 20
  21. 21. Water tube steam boilers • Scalewatcher cannot replace chemical water treatment of a water tube steam boiler. When there is still scaling despite the use of chemicals, Scalewatcher can be additionally installed. • The image shows the pre heater of a water tube steam boiler with Scalewatcher installed. Instead of cleaning each month cleaning was only necessary every two months. 21
  22. 22. Shell and tube heat exchanger Process water inside tubes 180 ºC Cooling water outside tubes ambient temperature g p Completely clean after b i C ltl l ft being Scaling after six months without SW treated with SW during six 22 months
  23. 23. Plate heat exchanger • Plate heat exchangers are difficult to treat caused by the high heat y g transfer rate. On a circulation system Scalewatcher will have a better effect than on a one pass system. • If process allows 50 % more plates should be used to get a better g effect. 23
  24. 24. Tube T b evaporator as used in the sugar t d i th cane industryy • Scalewatcher needs a good flow of the liquid in order to remove and prevent scaling. • An evaporator evaporates p p the liquid in the tubes in order to concentrate the liquid and therefore not much flow can be expected. • Field experiments showed less scaling which was g easier to clean. 24
  25. 25. One pass cooling tower in Egypt Before treatment After two months of treatment 25
  26. 26. Cooling tower largest building in London One coil wrapped over two pipes Diam 1000 mm 26
  27. 27. Cooling t C li tower and chiller Conrad building in d hill C d b ildi i Brisbane Cooling tower internals after four months of Scalewatcher treatment running on 5.4 coc. No need to ever clean the tower again. again 27
  28. 28. Typical cooling tower installation 28
  29. 29. Agua 949 – Plaza la Silla Typical T i l cooling tower installaton li t i t ll t Evaporation and wind p Scalewatcher 8’’ Make up Cooling Tower Softener Heat Municipal TDS of 16 grains Exchanger per gallon, 2’’ Cooling Tower 8’’ Scalewatcher Main Problem Each cooling tower losses 1,500 liters per day because of evaporation. The evaporation leaves calcium on the cooling towers. The calcium rises the water TDS. This water goes directly to the Heat Exchanger.
  30. 30. Effect on water usage cooling tower 30
  31. 31. Effect on cooling towers • No chemicals needed to prevent scaling. • Slime will disappear, therefore the bacteria count will be less. It is not recommended to stop the chemical treatment completely. completely • Water saving between 50 to 90 % is possible. • The cooling tower can run on a higher TDS level. g g • Differential temperature will return to the value when the cooling tower was in use for the first time. •LLess corrosion. i In short: Savings on water, chemicals and maintenance. Example: A 500 tons cooling tower (Fort Fisher Aquarium in North Carolina, USA, reported a saving of $17,000 on water alone in one year. 31
  32. 32. Evaporative condenser E ti d 32
  33. 33. Evaporative condensers E ti d 33
  34. 34. Evaporative condenser E i d No treatment 34
  35. 35. Evaporative condenser No treatment 35
  36. 36. Evaporative condenser After three months of treatment 36
  37. 37. Test on flotation unit oil p production p platform 37
  38. 38. Test on flotation unit oil production platform Unit manually cleaned from hard Unit not cleaned and treated Flotation unit rock scale oc sca e wt with SW. Sca e so t and easy to Scale soft a d opened for remove cleaning Copright Scalewatcher North 38 America Inc.
  39. 39. Effect on corrosion • Heat Exchangers • ScaleWatcher has been installed on critical heat exchangers in Pure Gases Factory Pakistan with very g y good result. Previously the heavy scaling coupled with chloride y y g p pitting, caused downtime and expensive replacement of tube bundles almost every year. But no scaling or pitting has been observed in over 8 years since the installation of ScaleWatcher units. [User is a high tech organization run by engineers] • Application D A li i Data • Heat Exchangers type : Shell and Tube type • Material SS-316L • Media inside the tubes : Hot fluid 25oC Water • Cooling media in shell : • Problem : Excessive scaling and chloride pitting • Cracking of tubes due to stress chloride • cracking (SCC) • All fifteen units are working with excellent result since 1997 without any scaling, pitting or cracking. Performance last verified by user on 1st March 2005 • 39
  40. 40. Effect Eff t on corrosion i • Dutch water authorities tested our device to investigate whether the number of metal ions g increased when using the device on zinc and copper pipes. (Health concern) • Less metal ions were found, hence less corrosion. N objections anymore when i No bj i h consumers wanted to use the product. p 40
  41. 41. 41
  42. 42. Scalewatcher™ anti rust • Rust is common in iron pipes. With this treatment rust will disappear. 42
  43. 43. Scalewatcher™ anti rust • Within two to three weeks rust di k disappears and is replaced by a black i l i l bl k insulating layer, protecting the iron pipe. i 43
  44. 44. Scalewatcher™ My message to you… y g y Energy and water savings will be beyond imagination when Governments enforce by law to use this type of treatment for cooling towers, evaporative condensers and fire tube steam boilers. If every house uses this type y yp of treatment, energy savings will be tremendous. 44
  45. 45. The products Industrial economic model for pipes up to 200 mm, weatherproof. For small cooling towers, buildings, compressors. 45
  46. 46. The products Industrial unit for heavy Industry, indoor use. For pipes up to 400 mm. Industrial unit for heavy Industry, outdoor use. Weatherproof. Wh f For pipes up to 2500 mm. Cooling towers of power plants or large buildings. 46
  47. 47. Unit used for 2 x 2 m pipes at largest building in London 47
  48. 48. Unit for hazardous environments, such as oil , production platforms 48