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Lzt 123 7371 r5 a wcdma ran operation

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Lzt 123 7371 r5 a wcdma ran operation

  1. 1. WCDMA RAN Operation WCDMA RAN Operation STUDENT BOOK LZT 123 7371 R5A LZT 123 7371 R5A © Ericsson 2007 - 1 -
  2. 2. WCDMA RAN Operation DISCLAIMER This book is a training document and contains simplifications. Therefore, it must not be considered as a specification of the system. The contents of this document are subject to revision without notice due to ongoing progress in methodology, design and manufacturing. Ericsson assumes no legal responsibility for any error or damage resulting from the usage of this document. This document is not intended to replace the technical documentation that was shipped with your system. Always refer to that technical documentation during operation and maintenance. © Ericsson 2007 This document was produced by Ericsson. • It is used for training purposes only and may not be copied or reproduced in any manner without the express written consent of Ericsson. This Student Book, LZT 123 7371, R5A supports course number LZU 108 5920 . - 2 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  3. 3. 1 WCDMA RAN System Overview Table of Contents 1 WCDMA RAN SYSTEM OVERVIEW............................................7 OBJECTIVES....................................................................................................7 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................9 WCDMA RAN ARCHITECTURE..........................................................10 WCDMA RAN CHARACTERISTICS....................................................11 GENERAL FEATURES OF WCDMA RAN .....................................................11 COVERAGE AND DATA RATES....................................................................12 MACRO DIVERSITY.......................................................................................13 WCDMA RAN FUNCTIONALITY.........................................................14 MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONALITY.................................................................14 SERVICES AND RABS FUNCTIONALITY .....................................................15 RADIO NETWORK FUNCTIONALITY............................................................16 TRANSPORT NETWORK FUNCTIONALITY .................................................16 O&M INFRASTRUCTURE FUNCTIONALITY ................................................17 OSS-RC FUNCTIONALITY.............................................................................18 TEMS FUNCTIONALITY.................................................................................19 2 WCDMA RAN SYSTEM DESCRIPTION.....................................21 OBJECTIVES..................................................................................................21 OVERVIEW ..........................................................................................23 RADIO NETWORK SUBSYSTEM.......................................................23 SERVICES AND RABS...................................................................................24 IU INTERFACE ...............................................................................................24 IUR INTERFACE.............................................................................................25 RNC-RBS SUBSYSTEM......................................................................25 ARCHITECTURE............................................................................................26 LOCAL CELLS................................................................................................27 UTRAN CELL..................................................................................................27 IUB INTERFACE.............................................................................................29 WCDMA RAN NODES.........................................................................32 RNC ................................................................................................................32 LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 3 -
  4. 4. WCDMA RAN Operation RBS.................................................................................................................46 RXI ..................................................................................................................48 CPP.................................................................................................................49 3 CUSTOMER PRODUCT INFORMATION....................................53 OBJECTIVES..................................................................................................53 OVERVIEW ..........................................................................................55 CPI STRUCTURE ................................................................................56 WCDMA RAN LIBRARY .................................................................................58 RNC LIBRARY................................................................................................59 RBS LIBRARY ................................................................................................60 GETTING INFORMATION FROM CPI .................................................60 OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS.............................................................62 4 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE APPLICATIONS................63 OBJECTIVES..................................................................................................63 OVERVIEW ..........................................................................................65 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE CATEGORIES............................65 CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT ...............................................................65 FAULT MANAGEMENT..................................................................................66 PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT .................................................................66 SECURITY MANAGEMENT ...........................................................................66 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE NETWORK.................................66 LOCAL ACCESS.............................................................................................67 O&M INTRANET.............................................................................................68 O&M INFRASTRUCTURE..............................................................................69 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE APPLICATIONS .........................72 MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE .................................................73 OPERATION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR RADIO AND CORE (OSS-RC).......74 WCDMA RAN SYSTEM LEVEL MANAGEMENT...........................................75 RADIO NETWORK SUBSYSTEM LEVEL MANAGEMENT ...........................87 RNC-RBS SUBSYSTEM LEVEL MANAGEMENT..........................................87 WCDMA RAN NODE LEVEL MANAGEMENT ...............................................90 - 4 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  5. 5. 1 WCDMA RAN System Overview 5 CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT............................................99 OBJECTIVES..................................................................................................99 OVERVIEW........................................................................................101 EQUIPMENT HANDLING ..................................................................101 HARDWARE CONFIGURATION..................................................................101 HARDWARE MANAGEMENT APPLICATIONS ...........................................105 SOFTWARE CONFIGURATION...................................................................114 MANAGEMENT TOOLS ...............................................................................118 SOFTWARE MANAGEMENT............................................................122 CONFIGURATION VERSION.......................................................................122 MANAGEMENT TOOLS ...............................................................................126 SYSTEM UPGRADE..........................................................................128 HARDWARE UPGRADE ..............................................................................129 SOFTWARE UPGRADE...............................................................................130 MANAGEMENT TOOLS ...............................................................................133 CONFIGURATION DATA HANDLING ...............................................135 FALLBACK....................................................................................................136 DATA CONSISTENCY..................................................................................137 6 FAULT MANAGEMENT ............................................................139 OBJECTIVES................................................................................................139 OVERVIEW........................................................................................141 WCDMA RAN FAULT MANAGEMENT FEATURES .........................141 FAULT CATEGORIES ..................................................................................141 FAULT MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS..........................................................142 FAULT ESCALATION PROCESS ................................................................143 FAULT HANDLING ............................................................................144 FAULT HANDLING PROCESS.....................................................................144 WCDMA RAN COMMON FAULTS...............................................................148 WCDMA RAN KNOWN FAULTS AND DESCRIPTION................................150 7 PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT............................................153 OBJECTIVES................................................................................................153 LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 5 -
  6. 6. WCDMA RAN Operation OVERVIEW........................................................................................155 PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT DEFINITION ...............................155 SUBSCRIPTION PROFILE...........................................................................155 SUBSCRIPTION PROFILE MANAGEMENT TOOL .....................................158 DATA COLLECTION PROCESS .......................................................158 PERFORMANCE STATISTICS ....................................................................159 PERFORMANCE RECORDINGS.................................................................160 GPEH............................................................................................................162 DATA COLLECTION MANAGEMENT..........................................................163 8 SECURITY MANAGEMENT......................................................165 OBJECTIVES................................................................................................165 OVERVIEW........................................................................................167 SECURITY FEATURES .....................................................................167 SECURITY ZONES.......................................................................................167 TRAFFIC CONTROL ....................................................................................168 WCDMA RAN SECURE ACCESS.....................................................169 NMC ACCESS CONTROL............................................................................170 SITE LAN ACCESS CONTROL....................................................................171 DETECTION AND INVESTIGATION TOOLS ....................................172 - 6 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  7. 7. 1 WCDMA RAN System Overview 1 WCDMA RAN System Overview This module describes the WCDMA Radio Access Network System. OBJECTIVES After this chapter the participants will be able to: • List the applications and services provided by 3G networks, • Explain the role and position of the WCDMA RAN in 3G networks, • Explain the architecture of the WCDMA RAN, • Detail the characteristics of the WCDMA RAN, • Explain WCDMA RAN management functions, • List the services provided by WCDMA RAN, • Detail WCDMA RAN infrastructure. Figure 1-1: Objectives. LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 7 -
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  9. 9. 1 WCDMA RAN System Overview OVERVIEW This chapter describes at a high level Ericsson’s WCDMA RAN System. The WCDMA RAN corresponds to the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) Terrestrial Radio Access Network (UTRAN) in 3GPP specifications. The use of 3rd Generation (3G) technology increases the capabilities compared to earlier mobile communication systems. Systems based on 3G technology integrate all present services, such as speech and future multimedia services, into one system. The circuit-switched and packet-switched traffic carries the necessary subscriber data. This adopts multimedia applications and saves spectrum resources. The very high data rates allow the transmission of different types of information simultaneously. These information types include graphics, photos, text and figures, video clips, sound tracks, and software applications. The figure below shows some examples of applications expected in a 3G system. Remote LAN & Intranet • File Transfer • Groupware • E-mail • Corporate Info Remote LAN & Intranet • File Transfer • Groupware • E-mail • Corporate Info Video / Audio • High-quality voice • Music Video / Audio • High-quality voice • Music Video conference Video conference Internet applications • WWW browsing • Video telephone • E-mail • News push • Network games • Electronic commerce Internet applications • WWW browsing • Video telephone • E-mail • News push • Network games • Electronic commerce 3G ISDN • Wireless postcard and electronic business card • Multimedia electronic mail • Wireless postcard and electronic business card • Multimedia electronic mail Specialized Application • Telemedicine • Remote security monitoring • Location services Video Terminal Application Server PSTN Internet Corporate LAN Application Server Internet Service Provider Figure 1-2: 3G Applications LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 9 -
  10. 10. WCDMA RAN Operation WCDMA RAN ARCHITECTURE WCDMA RAN connects the Core Network (CN) and the User Equipment (UE). The WCDMA RAN also comprises interfaces towards different external management systems. WCDMA RAN is made of several Radio Network Subsystems (RNS), each RNS connecting the CN to the UEs located over a geographical area. Radio Network Controller (RNC) and Radio Base Station (RBS) are the traffic handling nodes in a RNS. RNC-RBS Subsystem controls and carries traffic from and to an RBS coverage area. Radio Access Network Aggregator (RANAG) is a transport network node, implemented as RXI. Operation Support System Radio and Core (OSS-RC) manage the Operation and Maintenance in the network. The following diagram summarizes the WCDMA RAN architecture. Radio Access Network Core Network Iur Iub Iu Mub Mur Uu External Management System Mun External Management System OSS-RC Mun TEMS Network Management Environment RNC Radio Network Controller RBS Radio Base Station OSS-RC Operation Support System – Radio Core TEMS TEMS Optimization Solution RNC RXI RNC RBS RBS RBS User Equipment RXI Radio Access Network Aggregator Figure 1-3: WCDMA RAN Architecture - 10 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  11. 11. 1 WCDMA RAN System Overview WCDMA RAN CHARACTERISTICS GENERAL FEATURES OF WCDMA RAN All WCDMA systems have built-in support for multimedia services and high spectrum efficiency. WCDMA RAN supports the following features: Wide Bandwidth The chip rate of 3.84 Mcps is used to provide a carrier bandwidth of approximately 5 MHz. The wide bandwidth reduces sensitivity to multi-path fading. Power Control Power is the common shared resource that makes WCDMA RAN flexible in handling mixed services and services with variable bit rate demand. Radio resource management allocates power to each subscriber and ensures that each user and service creates the minimum of interference. One-cell Frequency Reuse WCDMA RAN uses one-cell frequency reuse. This flexibility is supported in WCDMA RAN by the use of Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) Codes for channelization of different subscribers. These codes have the ability to maintain orthogonality between subscribers even if they operate at different bit rates. One physical resource can therefore carry multiple services with variable bit rates. The power allocated to this physical resource is adjusted as the bit rate demand changes so that Quality of Service is guaranteed at any instant of the connection. Coherent Detection WCDMA RAN employs coherent detection on the radio uplink and downlink. LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 11 -
  12. 12. WCDMA RAN Operation Frequency Division Duplex FDD is a duplex method when radio uplink and downlink transmissions uses two separated radio frequencies. This is the most common technology used currently. In the FDD mode of operation, each operator is allocated one or several pairs of radio frequencies. A pair of radio frequencies consists in a 5Mhz radio frequency band for the uplink and a 5 Mhz radio frequency band on the downlink. A pair of radio frequencies is commonly called a carrier. Spectrum Allocation for WCDMA The spectrum allocation in Europe, Japan, and the USA is shown in the figure below. In Europe and in most of Asia, the IMT-2000 bands of 2x60 MHz (1920-1980 MHz and 2110-2170 MHz) are available for WCDMA Frequency Division Duplex (FDD). In the USA, no new spectrum bandwidth has yet been made available for 3G systems. Third-generation services can be implemented by reallocating the spectrum for 3G systems within the existing spectrum for 2G systems. Figure 1-4: WCDMA Spectrum Allocations COVERAGE AND DATA RATES The WCDMA RAN transmits data from multiple subscribers across the 5 MHz spectrum using multiple frequencies with data rates up to 14 Mbps (downlink) and 1.46 Mbps (uplink) using the High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) radio technology. - 12 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  13. 13. 1 WCDMA RAN System Overview RAN Release 99 vs HSPA With the RAN release 99 radio technology data rates of up to 384 kbps, downlink and uplink, can be achieved. However, the actual rates available to a subscriber will vary depending on position in a cell, interference from other users and neighboring cells. Other factors that influence the data rates are the speed at which the subscriber is traveling and the number of subscribers accessing the same cell. At low traffic load, the radio coverage is higher because the subscriber interference in a cell is lower. At high traffic load, the power-controlled interference from the subscribers constitutes the main part of the total interference. This reduces the maximum radio coverage. The HSPA technology increases the available bandwidth by implementing HSDPA on the downlink and E-UL on the Uplink. With HSDPA all the downlink power not used by R99 traffic can be allocated to HSDPA users. Users connected using HSDPA are sharing a common channel, which is not power controlled. HSDPA is based on fast adaptation to radio propagation conditions using short TTI, fast rate adaptation, fast scheduling, dynamic power allocation, fast Hybrid HARQ with soft combining, Higher-Order modulation and shared channel transmission. With E-UL all the RBS sensitivity not used by R99 traffic can be allocated to E-UL users. E-UL is based on fast adaptation to radio propagation conditions, using fast link adaptation (both rate and power), scheduling, shared resources and fast Hybrid HARQ with soft combining. MACRO DIVERSITY The WCDMA RAN uses macro diversity for the transmission of dedicated data between the UE and the RBS. This technique allows simultaneous use of links between the UE and two or more cells. This provides a smooth transition as the UE moves from one RBS to another (Soft Handover) or between cells of the same RBS (Softer Handover). LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 13 -
  14. 14. WCDMA RAN Operation WCDMA RAN FUNCTIONALITY Figure 1-5: WCDMA RAN Functionality MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONALITY • Customer Product Information: All WCDMA RAN Customer Product Information (CPI) is accessible on-line through an information browser accessing an ALEX server. The CPI contains descriptive information and procedural instructions on an overall RAN level, and on a more detailed level for all system nodes such as OSS-RC, RNC, RBS subsystems, and RANAG. • Accessibility: This feature allows the operator to access the Element Management Application and Support (EMAS) in the node and to remotely access all nodes connected to the O&M Intranet. • Site LAN: This feature allows the operator to connect to any External Auxiliary Units (EAUs), as long as the EAUs provide an IP connection for management purpose to the O&M Intranet at RBS, RNC or RANAG sites. • Equipment Handling: This feature allows getting information and operating over hardware and software in the WCDMA RAN. The Ericsson management tools support GUI-based and command-based operations and reports. • Backup: This feature provides the operator with all necessary tools to backup and restore a node’s software and configuration. The Ericsson management tools support backup procedures. - 14 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  15. 15. 1 WCDMA RAN System Overview • Software Management: This feature allows the operator to install new and changed software. The software is collected in an Upgrade Package, and can be installed on RNCs, RBSs, and RANAGs. Once installed, the RNCs, RBSs, and RANAGs can subsequently be upgraded with the new Upgrade Package. • Configuration management: This feature provides the operator the means to configure the Radio Network, the Transport Network and the equipment in the WCDMA RAN by controlling and collecting data from NEs. The applications used for Configuration Management are OSS-RC and EMAS. • Fault Management: This feature includes functionality for supervision, test, and alarm handling of the WCDMA RAN. Faulty equipment is detected by supervision functions or self-tests in equipment. The operator is notified about the fault and automatic actions are taken by the system to minimize the effect of a fault. The notification together with the associated documentation provides a guide for correcting a fault. • Performance management: This feature allows the operator to monitor the performance of the WCDMA RAN. Performance Statistics provides an overview of the WCDMA RAN status. Performance Recordings and General Performance Event Handling provide the means to analyze the traffic situation in detail. The feature provides the means for detailed trouble-shooting and data collection for the purpose of network optimization and tuning. • Security Management: This feature provides protection of Internet protocol (IP) based O&M applications. The main functions are: • Application Server (AS) • Single Logon Server (SLS) • Public Key Servers (PKS) • Firewall protection and authentication • Integrity protection • Encryption of CORBA traffic SERVICES AND RABS FUNCTIONALITY WCDMA RAN role is to provide and maintain positioning, emergency call and data transport services between the CN and UEs. • WCDMA RAN positioning services provide the UEs position at a certain resolution. These services can be used for network LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 15 -
  16. 16. WCDMA RAN Operation purposes (roaming, emergency calls…) or for end-user purposes (yellow pages…). • WCDMA RAN emergency call service ensures that, at any time, emergency calls can be set up with an acceptable establishment rate. • WCDMA RAN data transport services are provided as Radio Access Bearers (RAB). Conversational RABs, Streaming RABs, Interactive RABs, Background RABs and combined RABs can be established over the WCDMA RAN with pre-defined traffic requirements. RADIO NETWORK FUNCTIONALITY Radio Network control provides functionality for connection control (initiating, maintaining, and terminating user connections for RAB services). It also includes functionality related to mobility, capacity optimization, synchronization, and functionality that relates to either common information or common resources. The Radio Network control functionality is divided into the following three subgroups: • Connection control functions-Establishes and releases RABs and associated functionality. • Mobility control functions-Tracks UE movement in the Radio Network. • Capacity control functions-Manages the capacity, admission and congestion control, as well as radio channel power control. TRANSPORT NETWORK FUNCTIONALITY The Transport Network connects the WCDMA RAN nodes, OMINF servers and OSS-RC. The Transport Network can be built either with: • External ATM and Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy (PDH) and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) equipment, • External DSL/Ethernet equipment. • Direct connections such as fiber lines, copper lines or microwave systems. Connections between NEs use either: • ATM-based transport protocols. • IP-based transport protocols, however only for some interfaces and types of traffic. - 16 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  17. 17. 1 WCDMA RAN System Overview The NEs can thus be interconnected either through direct physical layer transmission services, such as those provided by a PDH, SDH or DSL network, or through an intermediate ATM or Ethernet network. The RNC, RBS and RANAG products include ATM, AAL2 and Internet Protocol (IP) network node functions. ATM is used because of the efficiency of packet data technology and the built-in Quality-of-Service support. This enables the network to carry a combination of delay-sensitive traffic (such as voice) and best-effort data traffic. IP is used when concentration of traffic is possible, in order to reduce costs and simplify network management. Each node contains Internet Protocol (IP) routing functionality for the WCDMA RAN O&M Intranet. This means that all nodes are accessible from servers in OMINF and from OSS-RC. No separate management transport links are required because the IP network can be carried over the same physical link as the user data. The RNC, RBS and RANAG nodes can be configured with the following physical layer interfaces for connections between NEs: • E1: 2 Mbps • J1: 1.5 Mbps • T1: 1.5 Mbps • E3: 34 Mbps • T3: 45 Mbps • STM-1: 155 Mbps • Channelized STM-1: 155 Mbps (63/21xE1 or 84/24xT1/J1) • GigabitEthernet: 1000 Mbps O&M INFRASTRUCTURE FUNCTIONALITY The O&M Intranet interconnects all NEs in the WCDMA O&M system, using the IP technology. O&M traffic can use the same physical links as the traffic between the RNC, RBS and RANAG, or separate dedicated links. O&M Intranet is an IP network, which uses the TCP/IP protocol stack. As all IP networks, it requires a number of support functions. LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 17 -
  18. 18. WCDMA RAN Operation OMINF collects these support functions, which provide the software and hardware functionality together with a number of services for designing and implementing the complete O&M Intranet. The software part of OMINF is a mixture of third-party software and Ericsson-developed software. The figure below describes the Operation and Maintenance Infrastructure used to manage the WCDMA RAN. IP Network Services • DHCP • DNS • NTP • FTP IP Network Services • DHCP • DNS • NTP • FTP Security Solution • Application Server • PKS • SLS Security Solution • Application Server • PKS • SLS Alex Server • Web Server • ALEX Server Alex Server • Web Server • ALEX Server NNMMSS OOSSSS-R-RCC S Seervrveerr Backup Solution • Backup server • Backup robot Backup Solution • Backup server • Backup robot Network Infrastructure • O&M router • Network switch • Firewall Network Infrastructure • O&M router • Network switch • Firewall RBS RXI RNC Figure 1-6: O&M Infrastructure OSS-RC FUNCTIONALITY Operation Support System Radio Core (OSS-RC) is an extensive tool for supervision, configuration, deployment and optimization of 2G and/or 3G network infrastructures. It merges three sub-network management systems, GSM-OSS, RANOS and CN-OSS together. OSS-RC has constant and direct access to the WCDMA RAN Nodes via the O&M Intranet. It provides a solid view of WCDMA RAN information, such as alarms, configurations, and basic performance and it includes functionality to perform coordinated tasks over several Nodes in the WCDMA RAN, and repetitive tasks where the same or similar operations are performed on multiple Nodes. - 18 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  19. 19. 1 WCDMA RAN System Overview In addition, OSS-RC facilitates the integration of existing management systems with WCDMA RAN using a variety of standard interfaces and protocols. Its main functionalities for RAN are: • Configuration Management • Fault Management • Performance Management • Security Management TEMS FUNCTIONALITY Test Mobile System (TEMS) provides tools for the planning and prediction of the WCDMA Radio Network. The tools are suitable both for initial Radio Network, and support for expansion planning. The planning process generates radio configuration data that can be downloaded to the traffic nodes through OSS-RC. TEMS is a separate product offer from Ericsson, and not explicitly part of WCDMA RAN. The TEMS CellPlanner is used to provide common coverage maps, neighbor cell information, and transmission network plans. This makes the process of designing and deploying the WCDMA network in coordination with a GSM network straightforward. The TEMS CellPlanner runs on a PC (Windows NT). It can be used standalone to perform planning and design of the WCDMA RAN, as well as in coordination with OSS-RC. TEMS CellPlanner imports existing network data. It simulates, predicts and graphically displays coverage, capacity, and traffic quality. The tool supports GSM integration, including importing of a GSM site and cell data to enable GSM site reuse and GSM handover planning, including GSM neighboring cell generation. LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 19 -
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  21. 21. 2 WCDMA RAN System Description 2 WCDMA RAN System Description This module describes the WCDMA Radio Access Network System. OBJECTIVES After this chapter the participants will be able to: • Detail the WCDMA RAN System Architecture, and its partition in Radio Network Subsystems (RNS), • Explain the role and functions of a RNS, • Explain the role of the Iu interface, • Explain the inter-RNS mobility over the Iur interface, • Describe the role and architecture of the RNC-RBS subsystem, • Explain the role of the Iub interface, • List the structure and functions of WCDMA RAN nodes, RNC, RBS and RXI. Figure 2-1: Objectives LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 21 -
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  23. 23. 2 WCDMA RAN System Description OVERVIEW This module describes in details the WCDMA RAN System, with a top-bottom approach. WCDMA RAN contains several Radio Network Subsystems (RNS), each of which providing all the WCDMA RAN Services over a specific geographic area. An RNS contains one Radio Network Controller (RNC) and several RNC-RBS subsystems. The RNC-RBS subsystem is a critical part of an RNS. It ensures the working of the radio interface and implements the Iub interface. The RNC-RBS subsystem provides an adaptable, reliable solution, with easy management, for the very different radio interface configurations, transport conditions and geographical situations encountered on the WCDMA RAN. The WCDMA RAN node types are RNC, Radio Base Station (RBS) and RAN Aggregators (RXI), all based on the Ericsson Connectivity Packet Platform (CPP). They contain hardware and software resources needed to implement WCDMA RAN services. RADIO NETWORK SUBSYSTEM This section describes Radio Network Subsystems (RNS) in terms of position in WCDMA RAN, internal architecture and functions. WCDMA RAN is geographically partitioned into several RNSs. An RNS implements services and RABs between Core Network and User Equipments over a geographical area. All RNSs are meshed, in order to ensure mobility over the WCDMA RAN. The interface between two RNSs is called Iur. An RNS contains one RNC, the RBSs controlled by this RNC and may contain some RXIs. LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 23 -
  24. 24. WCDMA RAN Operation Core Network Iu Iu Iu WCDMA RAN RNS Uu Iur Iur Iur RNS RNS Uu Uu Figure 2-2: WCDMA RAN partition SERVICES AND RABS The role of the RNS is to provide services and carry Radio Access Bearers between the Core Network and the User Equipments. The types of services are Positioning, Emergency Calls, QoS profiling, Conversational RABs, Streaming RABs, Interactive RABs, background RABs and combined RABs. IU INTERFACE An RNS is connected to the Core Network through the Iu interface. The Iu interface is made of two parts: • The Iu Packet-Switched (IuPS) interface towards the Serving GPRS Service Node (SGSN) • The Iu Circuit-Switched (IuCS) interface towards Media Gateway (MGw) and Mobile Switch Centre (MSC). An RNS can be connected to various Core Network Nodes of the same type, via the feature called IuFlex. This feature allows implementing SGSN/MSC in pool and Multi-Operator Core Network (MOCN) features. Iu PS The IuPS interface carries: - 24 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  25. 25. 2 WCDMA RAN System Description • The Radio Access Network Application Part (RANAP) protocol towards the SGSN, • The User Plane for packet-switched traffic towards the SGSN. Iu CS The IuCS interface carries: • The Radio Access Network Application Part (RANAP) protocol towards the MSC, • The User Plane for circuit-switched traffic towards: o the MGw in a split/layered architecture. o The MSC in a monolithic architecture. IUR INTERFACE In WCDMA RAN, User Equipments can move from the coverage area of one RNS to the coverage area of another RNS. If the Iur Mobility feature has been implemented, traffic from User Equipments, which have an established dedicated connection (Cell_DCH state) towards the Core Network, and which are moving from one RNS to another RNS, is forwarded from the Drift RNS (DRNS) to the Serving RNS (SRNS) using the Iur interface. The Iur interface carries: • The Radio Network Subsystem Application Part (RNSAP) protocol between RNSs, • The User Plane traffic, for UEs in Cell_DCH state, between RNSs. If the Iur Mobility is not implemented, a Core Network Hard Handover (CNHH) is performed . RNC-RBS SUBSYSTEM This section describes the RNC-RBS subsystem, which is a critical part of WCDMA RAN. Indeed, because of the distance and propagation techniques used between RNC and RBS, it can be considered as the weakest link of the network. Moreover, because of cost issues, the bandwidth available is limited. Still, the link and the RBS have to carry the traffic, vital synchronization signals, and with the highest possible MTBF. On the following chapters, we will see that dedicated O&M applications are designed to provide quick and efficient localization of faults on this art of the network. LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 25 -
  26. 26. WCDMA RAN Operation The RNC-RBS subsystem implements and controls the radio network cells over the area covered by the RBS. Control and User Plane traffic is carried over the Iub interface in the RNC-RBS subsystem. ARCHITECTURE The RNC-RBS subsystem contains the followings: • Complete RBS hardware and software, • ATM transport resources in the RNC, • Hardware and software resources on the RNC used to control the RBS, • Hardware and software resources on the RNC used to control Radio Network Cells associated with the RNC-RBS subsystem, • Hardware and software resources on the RNC used to control UE connections and process UE data. In the RNC, RNC Modules are in charge of the above tasks for several RNC-RBS subsystems at a time. The use of RNC modules increases the robustness of the system, while providing pooled resources. RNS RNC RNC Module RNC-RBS Subsystem User Equipments RNC-RBS Subsystem RNC-RBS Subsystem Figure 2-3: RNC-RBS Subsystem - 26 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  27. 27. 2 WCDMA RAN System Description LOCAL CELLS A local cell consists in the hardware and software implementing one sector on one carrier within the RBS. Yet a local cell is not operational by itself; a UTRAN cell in the RNC is linked to the local cell in the RBS, to provide a fully operational Radio Cell. Local cells are defined and configured during RBS commissioning. Figure presents local cells for an RBS with 3 sectors and 1 carrier, which corresponds to 3 local cells in total. Figure 2-4: Local cells. UTRAN CELL In the RNC, logical cells are implemented for each local cell of the RBS, and are called UTRAN Cells. Parameters A UTRAN Cell contains several sets of parameters: LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 27 -
  28. 28. WCDMA RAN Operation • Cell position, • Capacity management parameters, • Common channel parameters, • Mobility parameters, • Congestion control parameters, • Admission control parameters. Channels Each UTRAN cell also implements common and dedicated channels, to control and carry UE connections: • Forward Access CHannel (FACH), is a downlink common channel, and carries Control and User Plane data. This is a mandatory common channel for every UTRAN Cell. • Random Access CHannel (RACH), is an uplink common channel, and carries Control and User Plane data. This is a mandatory common channel for every UTRAN Cell. • Paging CHannel (PCH), is carrying the paging messages towards the UEs. This is a mandatory common channel for every UTRAN Cell. • High-Speed Downlink Shared CHannel (HS DSCH) is a downlink shared channel carrying User Plane for HSDPA RABs. This channel is defined whenever HSDPA is implemented on the UTRAN Cell. • Enhanced Dedictaed Channel (E-DCH) is an uplink dedicated channel carrying User Plane for EUL RABs. This channel is used whenever EUL is implemented on the UTRAN Cell. Mobility UTRAN Cells also handle mobility; a UTRAN Cell can have: • UTRAN relations for handovers with adjacent UTRAN Cells, • GSM relations for handovers with GSM cells, • Coverage relations for HSPA to non-HSPA enabled UTRAN Cells on the same sector. - 28 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  29. 29. 2 WCDMA RAN System Description Figure 2-5: UTRAN Cells. IUB INTERFACE The Iub interface is the logical link between an RNC and an RBS. It practically implements the reference between one UTRAN and one local cell. The Iub interface transmits: • Synchronization data, • User Plane data, • Node B Application Part Common (NBAP-C) signaling messages, • Node B Application Part Dedicated (NBAP-D) signaling messages The Iub has several protocol layers: the Physical Layer, the ATM Layer, the ATM Adaptation Layers and the Radio Network Layer. LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 29 -
  30. 30. WCDMA RAN Operation Figure 2-6: Iub Interface. Radio Network Layer Synchronization Data Synchronization data is exchanged by the RNC and the RBS, in order to ensure synchronized transmission of data over the air interface, especially during handovers. Synchronization data is carried over an ATM VC using ATM Adaptation Layer 0 (AAL0). User Plane The User Plane carried by Iub corresponds to end-user traffic, RNC to UE signaling and CN to UE signaling. User Plane traffic is carried by AAL2 connections, defined over a number of AAL2 Paths. NBAP-C NBAP-C signaling protocol is used by the RNC to control RBS parameters that are not related to any particular UE, like the configuration of common transport channels or the creation of communication contexts. NBAP-C signaling is carried over ATM using User-to-Network Interface- Signaling ATM Adaptation Layer (UNI-SAAL) protocol. - 30 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  31. 31. 2 WCDMA RAN System Description NBAP-D NBAP-D signaling protocol is used for procedures that are related to a specific UE context in the RBS. NBAP-D signaling is carried over ATM using User-to-Network Interface- Signaling ATM Adaptation Layer (UNI-SAAL) protocol. ATM Transport The main transport technology used between RNC and RBS is ATM, implementing the concepts of Virtual paths (VP) and Virtual Channels (VC). The main interest in using the ATM technology, beside its reliability, its Quality of Service (QoS) features and its maturity, is that it isolates traffic at the Radio Network level from physical layer issues and transport network architecture. This major advantage of ATM is particularly interesting for Iub transport, as RBSs are spread over a geographical area, with all the constraints involved in terms of distance, propagation conditions and environment. It is also possible to carry Best Effort traffic between the RBS and the RNC over a DSL/Ethernet based transport network, while keeping delay-sensitive traffic over ATM. This solution can help reduce costs for highly loaded RBSs. LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 31 -
  32. 32. WCDMA RAN Operation WCDMA RAN NODES This section describes the WCDMA RAN nodes RNC, RBS and RXI, with a top bottom approach. Then the common CPP platform is described, highlighting the O&M features. RNC The RNC, as a radio network controller, handles the Iu interface towards the core network, the Iur interfaces towards the other RNCs for inter-RNS mobility, and the RNC-RBS subsystems via the RNC Modules. The implementation of these functions is described in details below. Layered architecture A layer represents a hierarchical level offering services to the layer(s) above through a well-defined interface. Each layer consists of a number of subsystems. The service layer provides the control services offered by the RNC, such as Radio Network Control, functions for paging of UEs, signalling connection handling and Radio Access Bearer service handling. The following subsystems are included: RNH and UEH. It contains only software, no hardware. The encapsulation layer hides how the resources in the resource layer are implemented. The following subsystem is included: DRH. It contains only software, no hardware. The resource layer provides user and control plane resources administrated and controlled by the RNC. Examples of such resources are resources for Iu/Iub frame protocol handling, Uu L2 protocol handling. The following subsystems are included: DCS, CCS and PDR. It contains only software, no hardware. The platform layer provides basic support to the other layers, for example an operating system, necessary internal communication mechanisms, mechanics and power. The following parts are included: RLIB, TAS, MPE and CPP. It contains both software and hardware. - 32 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  33. 33. 2 WCDMA RAN System Description Figure 2-7: RNC layered architecture Service Layer Figure 2-8: RNC Service Layer Radio Network Handling (RNH) The main functions of this subsystem are as follows: Configuration management for logical radio resources: Enables the user of the Mur interface to configure the radio network areas (URA, RA and LA), cells, common channels and their relations and also to configure system resources (RNC ID, Core Network identities, scrambling code sets and so on). LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 33 -
  34. 34. WCDMA RAN Operation The user can also configure and establish, lock, unlock and remove signaling bearers through the Mur interface. Locking and unlocking can be performed on logical radio network resources, such as cells and common channels. Control and mobility functions on common channels: These include cell update, paging and system information distribution. Capacity management: These include power control on common channels, admission control and congestion control. Handling of signaling bearers towards the Core Network: The following is provided for RBSs and other RNCs to carry control signaling specified by the NBAP, RANAP and RNSAP protocols: • Supervision, error and redundancy handling message distribution of: the RANAP protocol the NBAP protocol the RRC protocol. • Message termination of: the common part of the RANAP protocol the common part of the NBAP protocol the global part of the RRC protocol the RNSAP protocol. Enables traffic functions to allocate and de-allocate RNTI, uplink scrambling codes and downlink channelization codes. User Equipment Handling (UEH) The main functions of this subsystem are as follows: Configuration management: • Enables the user of the Mur interface to configure, for example, timer values that are to be used in RRC signaling and mapping from RABs to RBSs and vice versa. Provides termination and message distribution of the dedicated part of RRC protocol. • Termination of the dedicated part of the NBAP and RANAP protocols. - 34 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  35. 35. 2 WCDMA RAN System Description • Keeps track of the RRC State of each UE and the resources allocated to each UE in the RNC. • Handles the setup and release of a signaling connection from the Core Network to the UEs. • The signaling connection consists of an RRC connection from the RNC towards the UE and an Iu control plane connection from the RNC towards the Core Network. • Transparent Message Transfer. • Handling the setup and release of radio access bearers from the Core Network to the UE. Radio Connection Supervision: Supervise control and user plane connections between the UE and the UTRAN. • Handover evaluation. • Soft/Softer handover execution and handover between RNCs are also supported. • Inter-Radio Access Technology Handover. • Inter-Radio Access Technology Cell Change. • UE Security Handling. • Channel Switching. • UE positioning. • Compressed Mode Control. • Inter Frequency handover. Encapsulation Layer Figure 2-9: RNC Encapsulation Layer. LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 35 -
  36. 36. WCDMA RAN Operation Device and Resource Handling (DRH) This subsystem is used by the Service layer to reserve and release resources implemented in the resource Layer Resource Layer Figure 2-10: RNC Resource Layer. Dedicated Channel Support (DCS) The main functions of this subsystem are as follows: Iub Frame Transport for dedicated channel: Transfers data and control frames between the RNC and the RBS over the Iub interface. In DCS, this includes frame handling of the DCH frame protocol. Iu-c Frame Handling: Transfers user plane data between the circuit-switched CN and RNC over the Iu-c interface, including frame protocol termination. MAC-C - MAC-D Frame Transport: Transfers data and control frames between RNC nodes over the Iur interface. In the case of a single RNC node, this Iur protocol is used internally between DCS and CCS SP processors. Uu L1 Termination of Dedicated Channels: - 36 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  37. 37. 2 WCDMA RAN System Description Terminates the Uu L1 part that is handled by the RNC. This mainly includes the diversity handling of several legs in soft handover for dedicated channels. In the uplink, the function also extracts Uu L1 measurement information that is needed by other RNC functions. Uu L2 Termination: Specifies the configuration and termination of the RLC and MAC-D protocols within the RNC. The protocols terminate the layer 2 signaling between the UE and the RNC. RLC mainly handles segmentation, concatenation, buffering and ARQ. MAC mainly handles scheduling; including choosing the transport format and flow handling between MAC-C and MAC-D. The MAC-D and RLC protocols also handle ciphering when requested by the UE Security Handling function. Uu L3 Termination: Specifies the configuration and termination of the RRC protocol within the RNC. The protocol terminates the layer 3 control signaling between a UE and the RNC. Only RRC termination on SP is included in DCS. The rest of the RRC functionality is in UEH. RNH and CCS handle the termination of the global part of RRC. Frame synchronization: Provides synchronization of uplink and downlink frames. In the downlink, in order to be transmitted on the air interface at a particular transmission time frames are synchronized. The Connection Frame Number (CFN) and Transmission Time Instant (TTI) define the time at which the RNC has to send the frame to the RBS so that the frame is transmitted at the correct transmission time. In the uplink, frames are synchronized towards the CN and also form a base for the macro diversity function. Handover Evaluation: LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 37 -
  38. 38. WCDMA RAN Operation Handles the handover evaluation for a number of handover functions. This is applicable for UE on dedicated transport channels and will provide the best possible continuous radio environment for the UE and the radio network. Power Control, Dedicated Channels: The uplink outer-loop includes calculating a quality target, which is the signal to interference ratio that is used by the inner-loop in the RBS. Channel Switching Evaluation: Monitor the traffic volume and buffer sizes. Based on these values the RNC can suggest changes in used transport channels Common Channel Support (CCS) The main functions of this subsystem are as follows: Iub Frame Transport for common channel: Transfers data and control frames between the RNC and the RBS over the Iub interface. In CCS, this includes frame handling of the FACH, RACH and PCH frame protocol. Iur Frame Transport: This function transfers data and control frames between RNC nodes over the Iur interface. In the case of a single RNC node, the Iur protocol is used internally between DCS and CCS SP processors. MAC-C - MAC-D Frame Transport: Transfers data and control frames between RNC nodes over the Iur interface. In the case of a single RNC node, the Iur protocol is used internally between DCS and CCS SP processors. Uu L2 Termination: Specifies the configuration and termination of the RLC and MAC-C protocols within the RNC. The protocols terminate the layer 2 signaling between the UE and the RNC. RLC provides data segmentation/sequential sending from RNC to UE. - 38 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  39. 39. 2 WCDMA RAN System Description MAC-C maps the logical channels to transport channels. MAC-C schedules packets from the global part of RRC and QoS queues according to their priority, and selects suitable transport formats for each FACH from set transport format combinations. MAC-C also selects the transport formats for PCH. Uu L3 Termination: Specifies the configuration and termination of the global part of the RRC protocol within the RNC. The protocol terminates layer 3 control signaling (RRC) between the UE and the RNC. Only RRC termination on SPB is included in the CCS. The rest of the RRC functions are in RNH. UEH and DCS handle termination of other parts of RRC, excluding the global part. Paging: Specifies the configuration and data transport of UE paging within the RNC. Paging functions on SPB is included in CCS. The rest of the paging functions are in RNH. Frame Synchronization: This function provides synchronization of downlink frames be-tween the RNC and the RBS. The frames are synchronized for transmission on the air interface at a certain transmission time. The Connection Frame Number (CFN) and Transmission Time Interval (TTI) define the time at which the RNC needs to send the frame to the RBS. Configuration Control: The configuration data from RNH is sent through the control agent (in the RLIB subsystem on the MP) to the control agent in the CCS subsystem (on the SP) and then further to the SP processing entities (in the CCS). Packet Data Router (PDR) The main functions of this subsystem are as follows: UDP/IP termination: This protocol is terminated in the RNC and in the packet-switched Core Network. LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 39 -
  40. 40. WCDMA RAN Operation GTP-U termination: This protocol is terminated in the RNC and in the packet-switched Core Network. It acts as a multiplexing layer for user data packets that belong to different radio access bearers. LLC/SNAP termination: This protocol is terminated in the RNC and in the packet-switched Core Network. It indicates the protocol that is carried in an LLC/SNAP frame. (Both IP and the Inverse ATM Address Resolution Protocol (InATMARP) are used on top of AAL5). User data forwarding: In the downlink direction, this function forwards user data packets coming from GTP-U tunnels towards correct RLC connections. In the uplink direction, this function forwards user data packets coming from RLC connections to the correct GTP-U tunnels to be transported towards the packet-switched Core Network. Platform Layer RNC Component Library (RLIB) RLIB contains software only. Its main functions are as follows: Component Library: Packages used by other RNC subsystems containing common procedures, data classes and constants. Examples of procedures provided by RLIB are: common restart functionality and MP-SP signaling support. Application proxy: enables signaling between different OSE processes. Load Control: secures real time characteristics and avoids restarts due to overload situations Debug Support. Timing and Synchronization (TAS) TAS contains software only. It main functions are as follows: Distribution of timing information: This information is used for node synchronization by other subsystems in the RNC. - 40 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  41. 41. 2 WCDMA RAN System Description Mechanics, Power and Environment (MPE) MPE contains both hardware and software and its main functions are as follows: Building Practice: • Cabinet and sub-rack mechanics • Backplane • Cables • Fan External Processor (XP) • Interface Connection Field (ICF), which is used for connecting external cables. Power: Capacitor Unit (CU), used for smoothing out irregularities in the power supply. Software Architecture Overview Functions, which are common to the whole RNC, are centralised on the main sub rack MPs for example: • Configuration of RNC resources (O&M), • Circuit Switched, and Packet Switched, control plane Core Network termination (RANAP termination), • UE Register (a common table where the RNC module identity for a specific UE Context is stored) • Timing Distribution • Packet Switched User Plane Core Network termination • SCCP termination • Inter-RNS mobility control plane (RNSAP termination) RNC functionality, which is specific to Cell, NBAP and UE handling is distributed to MPs located in the extension sub-rack (or those specific MPs in the main sub-rack which deal with Cell, NBAP and UE handling). RNC applications with high real time requirements, such as user plane processing functions, are located on the Cello Special purpose Processor Boards (SPB). These applications are executed on the Support Processors (SP), which reside on the SPB boards. LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 41 -
  42. 42. WCDMA RAN Operation There are also RNC applications on Board Processors (BP). These BPs are located on SPBs and Timing Unit Boards (TUB). Figure 2-11: RNC Software Architecture Overview. Software languages and runtime environment The code used to implement applications in the RNC is produced in the form of Load Modules (LM). LMs consist of the code and all the necessary parameters and variables needed to enable the code to execute. SP applications SP applications are: • Dedicated Channel (DC), which deals with RRC, RLC, Ciphering, MAC-D for dedicated channels as well as Diversity Handling (DHO). This means that control signalling, circuit switched connections and packet switched data connections are handled by the same SP. This RNC application uses AAL2 and AAL5, which are terminated in Cello. • Common Channel (CC), which deals with RRC, RLC, MAC-C for Common Channels. This RNC application uses AAL2, which is terminated in Cello. - 42 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  43. 43. 2 WCDMA RAN System Description • Packet Data Router (PDR), which deals with UDP/IP, GTP-U. Packet Data is mapped in both directions between Iu and UE (GTP-U tunnel endpoint is mapped into RLC reference and vice versa). This RNC application uses AAL5, which is terminated in Cello. PDR is only implemented in the RNC modules of the main sub-rack. Only 5 PDRs are defined, irrespective of the size of the RNC. • Common Channels over the Iur interface (IurCC) is not used anymore in the RNC. Definition of RNC Module The RNC Module divides the RNC sub-rack into smaller manageable, logical modules. Each module is responsible for controlling a number of RBSs, the part of the radio network implemented on these RBSs, and the UeContext handling initiated in this part of the radio network. In terms of hardware an RNC Module consists of an MP (GPB) and a number of SPB-boards. This MP is called a “RNC Module MP". The number of SPB-boards is defined for each type of module, and can differ between different RNC Modules. The RNC Module MP is loaded with two main applications, the UE Context handling (RncLmUe) and the radio network handling (RncLmCell) application. The resources offered by these MP applications are pooled on RNC Module level only, i.e. the resources can’t be shared between the RNC Modules. The SPs on the SP Boards (SPB) are loaded with a free distribution of DC/CC/PDR application. The distribution can differ between different SPBs. An SPB type is an SPB with a specific distribution of SP applications. The resources offered by the SP applications are pooled on node level, i.e. the RNC Modules can share SP resources. The SPB21 contains 5 SPs (Hardware product number = ROJ 119 2103/41), whereas the SPB contains 3 SPs (Hardware product number = ROJ 119 2103/2). LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 43 -
  44. 44. WCDMA RAN Operation Redundancy and MP/SP type slot positions • General Redundancy is very important since if the RNC experiences disturbances it can impact several other nodes within the WCDMA RAN. Therefore the software has some redundancy features. There is no MP resource sharing between RNC Modules so from a robustness point of view this gives a simple resource handling. • Main sub-rack All executing MPs in the main sub-rack have a standby MP. A standby MP is normally not executing any program. It is only standby for a MP in case of hardware failure. The MP types of the main sub-rack are SSCP MP, RANAP/RNSAP MP, Central MP, O&M MP and Module MP. The main sub-rack includes two RNC Modules. The different SP types share the load within the RNC Module. E.g. there are three SPs in RNC Module 1 that will take care of the CC tasks and if the hardware of one of them fails there are still two left in the RNC Module that will share the load. - 44 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  45. 45. 2 WCDMA RAN System Description Main Subrack - SW Configuration 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 1 SB 2 1 1 1 2 2 MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP MP SCB3 ET ET ET ET Pdr SPB21 Dc Cc SPB21 SPB21 Cc Pdr Dc SPB21 Type 1 SPB21 Type 1 Dc SPB21 Type 1 SPB21 Dc SPB21 SPB21 Type 1 Cc Pdr Dc Pdr SPB21 Type 1 Dc Dc Cc Dc Pdr Dc Dc Dc Cc Dc Dc Dc Dc Type 1 Type 2 <-- RNC Module Type GPB52 GPB52 GPB52 GPB52 GPB52 GPB52 GPB52 GPB52 GPB52 GPB53 GPB53 TUB2 TUB2 ET ET SCB3 SXB3 SXB3 RNC Module MP Stand-by RNC Module MP RNC RanapRnsap MP RNC RanapRnsap MP RNC SCCP MP RNC SCCP MP Stand-by RNC Central MP RNC Central MP Stand-by RNC O&M MP RNC O&M MP Stand-by RNC Module MP Slot Figure 2-12: MP Types and SP Types in the Main sub-rack • Main sub-rack RNC Module Allocation The main sub-rack contains two RNC Modules of type 1 and 2. In the main sub-rack there is one dedicated MP that act as stand-by for the two RNC module MPs (2 +1 MP HW redundancy). PDR devices are only located in the Main sub-rack, 1 device per SPB board. This simplifies the connection to the Core Network, and reduces the reconfigurations during extension processes. • Extension sub-rack The extension sub-rack only has one type of MP, the RNC Module MP, refer figure on next page.. LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 45 -
  46. 46. WCDMA RAN Operation Figure 2-13: MP types and SP types in the Extension sub-rack. • Extension sub-rack RNC Module Allocation Each extension sub-rack contains five RNC modules. Within the extension sub-rack there is one dedicated MP to act as stand-by for the five RNC module MPs (5 +1 MP HW redundancy). RBS RBS 3000 family Main Functions The RBS is the implementation of the node denominated Node B in WCDMA system. The Node B is a logical node responsible for radio transmission/reception in one or more cells to/from the UE. The Node B terminates the Iub interface towards the RNC. The RBS functions are divided into the function groups listed below. • Platform Functions • Radio Transport Functions • Synchronization Functions • Bearer Functions - 46 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  47. 47. 2 WCDMA RAN System Description • Traffic Control Functions • Infrastructure Functions In this chapter, the RBS 3206 is highlighted. However, the exact same principles apply to other RBS types, with differences mainly concerning the hardware type used. Node Architecture The general RBS architecture is depicted in the figure below. Basically, the functionality is divided into two main parts. User plane functions this includes transport, base band, radio and antenna near parts. Control plane functions for both traffic and O&M. As a basis, there are infrastructure and platform functionalities that make all parts fit together. Figure 2-14: RBS architecture Function Allocation on Hardware In the figures below, depicts the main functional blocks in the user plane, matched to the hardware of an RBS 3206. LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 47 -
  48. 48. WCDMA RAN Operation Figure 2-15: Functional view of the user plane – RBS 3206. Software Architecture The RBS can be equipped with one or two MPs, implemented on the CBU board. In case of two MPs only one will be active and runs both the traffic application software and handles the node external O&M interface, the other MP will be in cold standby mode. RXI RXI is the Ericsson implementation of the 3GPP RANAG. It is a CPP node, without specific application, unlike RNC and RBS nodes. The RXI is a pure transport node, which is used to optimize the transport layer over the WCDMA RAN by aggregating traffic at ATM and AAL2 level. RXI Management is a reduced version of RBS or RNC management, limited to transport functionalities. - 48 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  49. 49. 2 WCDMA RAN System Description CPP Role and Structure The CPP platform consists in the hardware and software base required to host the specific RNC, RBS or RXI features. Distributed control system and management services: • Provides fundamental software execution platform services (based on OSE Delta) for application programs, such as a fault tolerant database, a Java Virtual Machine (JVM) and a fault tolerant file system. • Provides management of the operation and maintenance part of a RAN node, which is built with Java technology. • CPP implements loading, fundamental configuration and restart functions. ATM transport services: • Termination of the ATM based links, using AAL0, AAL1, AAL2 and AAL5 based user channels • Spatial switching of ATM cells within the node (the ATM switch is used to interconnect all types of processors). IP transport services: • Termination and control of the Ethernet based links Synchronization and timing services: • Network synchronization: • Real time clock • Clock distribution. Redundancy Redundancy in the CPP platform is implemented at various levels, in different ways, thus ensuring no single point of failure exist on the node. • Board redundancy. At board level, the CPP platform implements 1+1 redundancy: o 2 x SCBs in each subrack o Active/Standby pair of GPBs for CPP control o Active/Standby pair of TUBs for CPP synchronization o 2 x ET-MF4 or 2 x ET-MC41 using an MSPG cable LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 49 -
  50. 50. WCDMA RAN Operation • Link redundancy. At link level, the CPP platform can implement redundancy at the following levels o 1+1 or 2+2 redundancy on Inter-Subrack Links (ISL) o MSP 1+1 redundancy on STM-1 links, only for ET-MC41 and ET-MF4 boards. • Traffic-related program redundancy. o For programs in charge of the UTRAN traffic control, running on GPB boards, it is important not to lose parameters, states and status at GPB board failure. Reliable Program Uniters (RPU) ensure that traffic related programs are switched to a standby GPB board with no effect on the traffic. It does so by keeping an exact copy of the running program’s parameters, states and status on the standby GPB. o Non RPU protected programs are restarted on the standby GPB at board failure, thus losing all context data. • Moveable Connection End Point. The processor in charge of the full UTRAN Signaling protocol stack can be allocated directly by the CPP node, thus reducing the configuration of redundancy at higher layers. This is especially used for Iub links, reserving only once the bandwidth needed for signaling protocols. The redundancy features are described in the figure below. Figure 2-16: CPP Platform - Redundancy - 50 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  51. 51. 2 WCDMA RAN System Description Logical Architecture The figure below describes the CPP platform logical architecture. Figure 2-17: CPP Platform Logical Architecture Operating System The CPP operating system is called OSE Delta (Operating System Ericsson Delta), and supports operation of the CPP platform. Resources Accessible and visible resources in a CPP node are the Cello Database, the file system and the Management Information Base (MIB). • Cello Database (DB): The Cello DB is used for live data storage and retrieval. It is a real-time database stored in the primary MP of a CPP node. Fault tolerance is implemented via the mirroring of this Cello DB in a standby MP. • File System: The files system in CPP allows persistent storage of data, and is implemented on the flash disks of the various CPP boards. • MIB: The Management Information Base is a model of the hardware and software resources, enabling configuration, operation and statistics collection on CPP hardware and software resources. Adaptation Layer Several CPP entities in the adaptation layer allow access to CPP resources in a controlled fashion. LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 51 -
  52. 52. WCDMA RAN Operation • Configuration Service (CS) implements configuration functions towards the MIB. • Fault Manager (FM) implements fault handling and alarm notification towards the MIB. • Performance Manager (PM) implements performance recordings (scanner), collecting statistics from selected MIB entities. • Node Command Line Interface (NCLI) implements configuration and fault management access to the MIB. • Command Line Interface (CLI/COLI) implements basic access to the Cello DB and file system for management of basic CPP functions. Access Servers The CPP platform implements a number of support functions providing access to CPP resources via standard communication protocols: • ORB: Object Request Broker Server terminating CORBA requests. • HTTP: HTTP server used for EMAS/OE access. • FTP: FTP Server used for file transfer during software upgrades and ROP files collection. • SSH: Secure Shell Server to access a node in secured mode. • SFTP: Secure FTP Server for file transfer to/from a node in secured mode. • Telnet: telnet server. - 52 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  53. 53. 3 Customer Product Information 3 Customer Product Information This module describes the Customer Product Information (CPI) for WCDMA Radio Access Network. OBJECTIVES After this chapter the participants will be able to: • Use the Customer Product Information (CPI) • Explain the CPI Library structure of the node • Find information in the Library with use of regular expression • Find operational instructions (OPI) and maintain the node according to the OPI • Find additional information on an alarm and solve the problem with the help of the CPI and Element Manager Figure 3-1: Objectives. LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 53 -
  54. 54. WCDMA RAN Operation Intentionally Blank - 54 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  55. 55. 3 Customer Product Information OVERVIEW All Ericsson CPI can be accessed online and either browsed on screen using the Active Library Explorer (ALEX) or printed. CPI is accessed through the Ericsson e-business portal on the Ericsson Extranet https://ebusiness.ericsson.net. A user id and a password are required to access the CPI Extranet service. Access is provided by the Key Account Managers (KAMs) at the Ericsson Local companies. To be able to access the site you need to check the following: Your company allows access to secure sites (HTTPS) through its firewall. Your PC has either Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.01 or higher / Netscape navigator 4.73 or higher. Note: Netscape v6.x is not supported. The recommended browser is Internet Explorer 6.0. If you use older or newly released browsers, some interruptions may occur. Your browser has the plug-ins necessary to view or download PDF and Microsoft Office files. ALEX supports the retrieval of document files in both HTML and PDF format. For PDF files, the software application used for display is Acrobat Reader 3.1 or higher. The CPI library is viewed by using the Active Library Explorer (hosted by a web server or a stand alone PC) together with standard web browsers, such as Netscape Navigator 4.06 (or higher) and Internet Explorer version 4.01 SP1 (or higher). LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 55 -
  56. 56. WCDMA RAN Operation CPI STRUCTURE The generic CPI structure is the common high-level structure used for all Ericsson CPI. CPI is the technical information that the customer needs to handle Ericsson products throughout the product lifecycle. The CPI library contains the complete set of CPI needed to plan, install, operate, troubleshoot, repair, and maintain a WCDMA RAN system. This allows the users to recognize the structure of the CPI library regardless of which system node they access. Figure 3-2: CPI Structure. Note: The CPI library for each node only contains product information for the relevant information categories, therefore not all categories are covered for each separate CPI library. Example of the CPI information categories: • Safety and Environmental Issues • Presentation - for example Supplier's Declaration of Conformity • Description - for example Node Descriptions, Network Impact Report • Site Solution - for example Mounting Drawing - 56 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  57. 57. 3 Customer Product Information • Installation - for example Installation Instructions • Verification - for example Verification Instructions • Operation and Maintenance - for example Alarm Operating Instructions • Interface - for example Quick Guides • Spare Parts - for example Spare Parts Catalog • End-of-Life - for example End-of-Life Treatment Plan • Glossary of Terms LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 57 -
  58. 58. WCDMA RAN Operation WCDMA RAN LIBRARY This section describes the CPI library for the WCDMA RAN at the system-generic level (also called 'subsystem level' in the CPI) and the RAN Parameters library. Information is structured on an overview level intended for a general understanding of the WCDMA RAN system. The RAN library describes, on this system-generic level, all system nodes and interfaces, the WCDMA RAN features, functions and principles of operation. The WCDMA RAN libraries are comprised of documents grouped in folders and sub-folders as shown in the following figure: Figure 3-3: WCDMA RAN CPI Library - 58 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  59. 59. 3 Customer Product Information RNC LIBRARY The RNC CPI libraries are mainly for personnel working with planning, deploying, operating and maintaining RNC equipment. The RNC libraries are comprised of documents grouped in folders and sub-folders as described on the following figure: Figure 3-4: RNC 3810 CPI Library LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 59 -
  60. 60. WCDMA RAN Operation RBS LIBRARY The RBS CPI libraries are mainly for personnel working with planning, deploying, operating and maintaining RNC equipment. The RBS libraries are comprised of documents grouped in folders and sub-folders as described on the following figure: Figure 3-5: RBS 3206 CPI Library GETTING INFORMATION FROM CPI CPI implements searching tools in order to get relevant documentation from keywords. A simple Search window is always present at the top of CPI windows, and is pointed on the figure below by arrow 1. For more advanced searches, the Advanced Search window is accessible through the icon pointed by arrow 2 in figure below. - 60 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  61. 61. 3 Customer Product Information 1 2 Figure 3-6: Simple and Advanced Search windows. Figure 3-7: Result of “HSDPA” search on the RBS 3202 Library. LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 61 -
  62. 62. WCDMA RAN Operation OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS Each operation on WCDMA RAN has to follow a set of procedures in order to ensure safety of operators, standard working conditions for equipment, consistency of data… CPI libraries provide various Operating Instructions (OPI), describing particular procedures on the WCDMA RAN. These OPIs describe, step by step, the process to configure a node, fix a fault, and perform tests. Figure 3-8: BatteryChargingFailure OPI. - 62 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  63. 63. 4 Operation and Maintenance Applications 4 Operation and Maintenance Applications This module describes the Operation and Maintenance Applications for WCDMA Radio Access Network. OBJECTIVES After this chapter the participants will be able to: • Explain the 4 Operation and Maintenance Categories, • List Embedded Element Management Functions • Detail the O&M Intranet • Detail the O&M Infrastructure • Explain the principles of Operation Support System for Radio and Core • Use the tools adapted for WCDMA RAN level management • Use the tools adapted for RNS level management • Use the tools adapted for RNC-RBS Subsystem level management • Use the tools adapted for WCDMA RAN node level management Figure 4-1: Objectives. LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 63 -
  64. 64. WCDMA RAN Operation Intentionally Blank - 64 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  65. 65. 4 Operation and Maintenance Applications OVERVIEW In this module the main principles for operation and maintenance of the Ericsson WCDMA Radio Access Network are explained. Operation and Maintenance is divided in four categories: Configuration Management, Fault Management, Performance Management, and Security Management. Embedded Element Management functions are implemented on every WCDMA RAN node. They allow configuring the nodes, performing fault management, collecting performance data and implementing security features. In order to access and use these Embedded Element Management functions, an O&M network is needed. It provides reliable and secure communication between these functions and the several applications available for the operator. Applications are used by the operator to access, configure and manage, Element Management functions. Each application is adapted to manage one particular subsystem in WCDMA RAN, from the WCDMA RAN System itself down to the WCDMA RAN node level, via the RNS subsystem and the RNC-RBS subsystem levels. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE CATEGORIES The O&M activities performed in WCDMA RAN can be divided into the following categories: ƒ Configuration Management ƒ Fault Management ƒ Performance Management ƒ Security Management Figure 4-2: O&M Categories. CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT Configuration Management consists of Equipment handling, Software Management and Trans port/Radio Network configuration. LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 65 -
  66. 66. WCDMA RAN Operation Equipment Handling is the configuration of equipment (hardware and software) within an NE based on Ericsson's Connectivity Packet Platform (CPP). Configuration Management also comprises Software Management, that is, the handling of software in the NEs. This includes the installation, upgrade and backup of RNC, RANAG, and RBS node software and configuration data. One part of Configuration Management is not covered on this course. It deals with the setting of parameters in NEs in the Radio Network (RN), in the Transport Network (TN) and in the equipment in WCDMA RAN. FAULT MANAGEMENT Fault Management consists in: • WCDMA RAN Fault Management Features: detect and report failures in WCDMA RAN as soon as they occur and limit the effects. Fault Management brings additional or redundant equipment into operation, recovers the failure or reconfigures existing equipment, without human action. • Fault Handling: Triggered by alarm reports, fault handling is a process by which a system engineer fix faults, using available applications; OSS-RC and Element Managers. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Performance prfoile Functions within this area monitor the performance of WCDMA RAN and store the Performance Management data collected from WCDMA RAN in OSS-RC. This data can then be processed via Ericsson solutions or external solutions. SECURITY MANAGEMENT Functions within this area handle and administer security features for preventing unauthorized access to the management system. These functions for the administration of users and access privileges are included, for example, in Single-Logon Servers (SLS). OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE NETWORK Embedded Element Management is implemented in all NEs, which means that each node contains all functions for its management. - 66 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  67. 67. 4 Operation and Maintenance Applications The role of the Operation and Maintenance network is to give access to these Embedded Element Management functions to system engineers in charge of configuring, supervising and operating the WCDMA RAN. The Operation and Maintenance Network for WCDMA RAN is made of: • Local access facilities on each WCDMA RAN node. • An O&M intranet, which implements an IP network over all WCDMA RAN nodes, • An O&M Infrastructure which implements the tools for subnetwork management. It is also possible to access the O&M Intranet either over PSTN/ISDN cellular or over the public Internet. Access through dial in operation or over the public Internet has obvious and major security implications. This kind of access should only be deployed after due consideration of the risks incurred and then only using good Third Party Products (3PP) solutions for secured remote access that provide strong and satisfactory authentication of the remote user. However this is not a part of the Ericsson solution and is therefore not described any further in this document. LOCAL ACCESS Each WCDMA RAN node can be accessed locally via direct physical connections. Local access is required for node commissioning, troubleshooting of nodes in case of extreme failure and when remote connection is impossible due to transmission failure. Two types of connections are available for local access: • Serial access via an RS-232 connection • Site LAN access via an Ethernet connection LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 67 -
  68. 68. WCDMA RAN Operation Figure 4-3: Local Access Logging into the AS/SLS in the O&M infrastructure allows accessing remote WCDMA RAN nodes. O&M INTRANET The O&M Intranet is an IP-based intranet that connects all managing nodes (OSS-RC, EMs) with the managed nodes (like RBS, RNC and RANAG) and the central O&M services (like the DHCP, NTP, DNS, and FTP Servers). The O&M Intranet enables the NEs to be controlled remotely using OSS-RC and the RNC, RANAG, and RBS EMs. All O&M activities, such as Element Management of one or all the nodes in WCDMA RAN, can be performed anywhere on the O&M Intranet. Remote Access to RNC, RANAG, and RBS The O&M data is carried on the same physical links as the user data traffic, which means that a separate physical network is not required for O&M. In order to prevent un-authorized access in O&M Intranet, it is recommended to isolate the O&M Intranet with a firewall. Local access from a NEs site LAN towards OSS-RC or towards another NEs EM is always done via the security function in the OSS-RC Application Server (AS). The O&M Intranet makes it possible to contact any NE in the WCDMA RAN O&M system, independent of physical location, by logging in to the AS. - 68 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  69. 69. 4 Operation and Maintenance Applications The transport of O&M data to/from Network Elements from the Network Management Center is described in the figure below. It makes use of the traffic-carrying ATM transport network between Network Elements and the O&M Router. O&M O&M O&M IPoATM IPoATM IPoATM IPoATMIPoATMIPoATM AAL5 AAL5 AAL5 AAL5 AAL5 AAL5 ATM ATM ATM ATM ATM ATM VC for Mur VC for Mut VC for Mub RBS OSS Server LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 69 - IP Ethernet Ethernet RXI RNC O&M Router O&M IP IP IP IP Figure 4-4: Remote Access - Cross Connection Scenario O&M INFRASTRUCTURE To carry and route IP traffic, the O&M Intranet needs to be supported using equipment such as network routers, switches, and hubs. Furthermore, in order to provide a redundant, complete O&M solution, several servers are implemented to support documentation services, applications and backup. This is provided in the OSS-RC product through O&M INfrastructure (OMINF). The O&M Infrastructure consists of the following parts: • IP Network Applications, • Active Library EXplorer (ALEX). The Active Library Explorer (ALEX) lets the user browse Ericsson document libraries with a standard web browser, • Security Functions, • Network Infrastructure, • Backup Solution.
  70. 70. WCDMA RAN Operation Figure below shows a logical view of the O&M infrastructure. Figure 4-5: The O&M Infrastructure The O&M infrastructure consists of the functions described below: DHCP Server Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. Used only for equipment connected to Site Local Area Network (LAN) of NEs. By implementing DHCP client and servers, the individual addresses of O&M network nodes and their associated parameters can be established dynamically. DNS Server Domain Name System. A distributed database used by applications in WCDMA RAN to map between a domain name and IP addresses. NTP Server Network Time Protocol. - 70 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  71. 71. 4 Operation and Maintenance Applications NTP is used to synchronize computer clock times in a network of computers. In the WCDMA RAN, NTP servers are required to synchronize clocks for all Network Elements, OSS-RC and all OMINF servers. The NTP is used for logging and time-stamping alarms. GPS System Clock (GSC) is used as the NTP time source. UTRAN FTP Server File Transfer Protocol (FTP), a standard internet protocol, is the simplest way to exchange files between computers. An FTP server is required in WCDMA RAN O&M Intranet in order to support two functions: Upgrade Packages (UP) or software installation to networks elements in WCDMA RAN radio nodes (RBS). Backup or Configuration Version (CV) of the networks elements in WCDMA RAN radio nodes. ALEX Server The Active Library Explorer (ALEX) lets the user browse Ericsson document libraries with a standard www browser, for example Netscape Navigator. The Customer Product Information (CPI) Store holds the WCDMA RAN system documentation and ALEX allows a user to browse the CPI Store. The document libraries reside on a web server, so the documents are accessible from all workstations connected to the Web. PKS Server Public Key Server. A tool for generating and certifying asymmetric key pairs used for authentication purposes in the system. The PKS generates node credentials (key pairs and certificates) and creates and issues the root, PKS, and SLS key pair and the root, PKS, and SLS certificate. SLS Server Single Logon Server. LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 71 -
  72. 72. WCDMA RAN Operation The SLS generates user credentials (asymmetric key pairs and certificates) that are downloaded to the security support functions in the client environment. This allows users to perform Element Management on multiple WCDMA RAN nodes without entering a user name and password for each node. The functionality for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) is part of the SLS server. The SLS server runs on a web server. Application Server (AS) A central execution environment for OSS-RC client applications used in O&M of WCDMA RAN. The operator reaches the AS from workstations with help of a special client using the ICA protocol. Firewall The firewall function helps prevent attacks on the O&M Intranet. It does so by reducing the possibilities for an intruder to mount attacks on nodes in the O&M Intranet. The firewall shall be configured to allow wanted traffic and to deny all other traffic. O&M Router Provides the gateway to the IP over Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) connected NEs (RNCs, RANAGs, and RBSs). The O&M Router plays an important part in restricting IP connectivity in the O&M network for security purposes. Backup Server Used by WCDMA RAN nodes for automatic backup according to a configured schedule. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE APPLICATIONS - 72 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  73. 73. 4 Operation and Maintenance Applications MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE The Management System Architecture comprises three layers, presented in figure below: Figure 4-6: Management System Architecture. • The top layer is the Network Management Layer. This layer comprises applications covering specific aspects (for example, Alarm Handling or trouble ticketing) of all parts of a complete network, regardless of technology, or vendor of the managed NEs. The layer is responsible for the management of the complete network, which can consist of multiple systems, for example 3rd generation (3G) and 2nd generation (2G) systems. Applications at that level are typically interfacing with systems like OSS-RC for Ericsson equipments. In-house tools developed by operators, and interfacing with OSS-RC, also fall in this category. • The middle layer is the Sub network Management Layer. This layer controls and manages several nodes or subsystem at a time. OSS-RC is typically a Sub network Management System. On an Ericsson only WCDMA RAN network, OSS-RC implements also the Network Management Layer. Applications such as SMO and WCDMA RAN Explorer work at the sub-network level. • The lowest layer is the Element Management Layer. This layer manages individual RNC, RANAG, and RBS nodes. It is used to configure the Radio Network and the Transport Network, together with software and hardware attributes of the NEs. NCLI, OE and EMAS are examples of Element Management application. LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 73 -
  74. 74. WCDMA RAN Operation OPERATION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR RADIO AND CORE (OSS-RC) OSS-RC operates the WCDMA RAN including coordinated handling of tasks on multiple NEs and providing access for Network Management Systems. Although OSS-RC is not hosted by RNCs, RANAGs or RBSs like the Element Manager, the operator can access it from any location within the O&M Intranet. For activities that are technology and supplier independent, such as alarm presentation and statistics reports, OSS-RC offers integration to existing systems. OSS-RC Framework OSS-RC contains several tools, adapted for different management tasks: Software Management organizer (SMO) for Hardware and Software Management, Alarm viewers for Fault Management, WCDMA RAN Explorer for Radio and Transport Network Configuration and Management. These tools have a framework: a database in OSS-RC collects and/or receives information from the network elements in the WCDMA RAN. Then, a GUI-based, a Command-based, or an external application is used to access the database and/or send commands to the Network Elements. User Interfaces Standard Interfaces SSeerrvveerr Scripts Database RBS RXI RNC Figure 4-7: OSS-RC Framework. - 74 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  75. 75. 4 Operation and Maintenance Applications WCDMA RAN SYSTEM LEVEL MANAGEMENT Management at the WCDMA RAN System level is possible thanks to a set of tools contained in the OSS-RC application, and described below. OSS-RC Network Explorer OSS-RC Network Explorer (ONE) GUI is the starting tool for management on the WCDMA RAN System level. WCDMA RAN view ONE presents a complete view of WCDMA RAN System, in different manners: • Site-based view • RNS Sub network-based view, • Network Element-based view (For RANAG nodes only). Figure 4-8: OSS Network Explorer. Tools ONE provides access to tools, or range of tools, needed by the operator, at the WCDMA RAN level: • Configuration Menu LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 75 -
  76. 76. WCDMA RAN Operation o Add/Remove Network Element (ARNE) o Software Management Organizer (SMO) for equipment handling, o WCDMA RAN Explorer for Radio and Transport Configuration Management. It provides access to a range of tools for WCDMA RAN supervision and operation. o Transport Topology Viewer • Alarm Menu o Alarm Status Matrix, o Alarm List Viewer, • Performance Menu o Subscription Profile Manager, • Administration Menu o Log Viewer. Add/Remove Network Element (ARNE) ARNE is used to add, modify or remove a Network Element from OSS-RC. A WCDMA RAN node can operate by itself, without connection to OSS-RC. Yet, in order to manage, monitor and configure this node remotely, collect performance data and supervise it, most of the operators use OSS-RC. OSS-RC needs to be aware that the node exists in the WCDMA RAN. ARNE is used to define, in OSS-RC, where is the NE located, what type of NE it is, on which software and hardware version it runs, and how to access it. Figure below presents the ARNE tool; the last step, when using ARNE, provides a summary of parameters defined. - 76 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  77. 77. 4 Operation and Maintenance Applications Figure 4-9: ARNE. It is possible to later modify parameters for this NE, such as the IP address or the security level. ARNE also allows deletion of NEs in OSS-RC. Software Management Organizer (SMO) SMO is the application used for remote software handling and hardware listing activities towards WCDMA RAN nodes. NIO, for Network Inventory Organizer, is a subsystem of SMO in charge of hardware activities. Framework The SMO tool implements a server containing a database and a file store, and allows running commands towards the WCDMA RAN NEs. LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 77 -
  78. 78. WCDMA RAN Operation Figure 4-10: SMO Framework SMO Graphical User Interface SMO provides a process oriented working environment for the user, and uniform software handling for all CPP-based nodes. With the graphical user interface of SMO, the operator may supervise parallel activation jobs towards multiple network elements from a single terminal. SMO provides the following functions: • Software inventory, including compare between network elements • Software distribution from OSS to network elements • Remote software upgrade • Monitor upgrade jobs towards multiple network elements in parallel • NE Backup administration, including transfer of NE backups to OSS • Automatic Correction Deployment from Ericsson • Uniform handling of different network element types • Distribute license key files to CPP network elements - 78 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  79. 79. 4 Operation and Maintenance Applications Figure 4-11: Software Manager Organizer GUI SMO Command Line Interface A command Line interface is also available for SMO, providing the exact same functionalities than the GUI, plus the possibility to export software information in an XML file. Network Inventory Organizer The NIO functionality (hardware inventory) is also available from the SMO GUI. NIO is implemented over the SMO database, and can be used to perform hardware to software compliance checks during upgrade, hardware inventory reports and listings. NIO provides the following functions: • Collection of hardware data from the network. • Export of hardware data to external inventory management systems. NIO GUI The NIO GUI is embedded into the SMO GUI, on the Hardware tab. It can list the sub racks for a NE or a group of NEs, and the boards on a sub-rack. LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 79 -
  80. 80. WCDMA RAN Operation NIO CLI A command Line interface is also available for NIO, providing the exact same functionalities than the GUI, plus the possibility to export software information in an XML file. Figure below presents how NIO is started from a terminal window, as well as a few NIO commands. Figure 4-12: NIO CLI WCDMA RAN Explorer WCDMA RAN Explorer is the tool used for Radio and Transport Network Configuration Management, at the WCDMA RAN System level. - 80 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  81. 81. 4 Operation and Maintenance Applications Framework WCDMA RAN Explorer uses, for WCDMA RAN configuration, a dedicated framework called Configuration Service (CS), described in the figure below. Figure 4-13: Configuration Service Framework The Configuration Service Framework maintains an up-to-date image of the real WCDMA RAN network transport and radio configuration, in the Valid Configuration. Configuration procedures are performed on offline copies of this valid configuration, called planned configurations, using the Bulk Configuration manager (BCM) tool. For backup purpose, Fallback Areas are introduced, storing WCDMA RAN radio and/or transport configuration backups, that can be restored at a later stage in case of major network outage. User Interface WCDMA RAN explorer provides a batch configuration tool, called Bulk Configuration, for both Transport and Radio Network. It uses XML files to import or export configuration data. It is also the access point to WCDMA RAN specific tools such as Node Status Analyzer (NSA), Element Management Application and Support (EMAS) and Cell/Channel Manager. LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 81 -
  82. 82. WCDMA RAN Operation WCDMA RAN Explorer contains a range of applications helping supervising the WCDMA RAN status. Figure 4-14: WCDMA RAN Explorer. Alarm Viewers Alarms triggered on a WCDMA RAN Network Elements are forwarded to the Fault Manager in OSS-RC. Then, Alarm Status Matrix displays the alarms, and alarm details are available in Alarm List Viewer. Alarm List Viewer Alarm Status Matrix Alarm Log Browser Commands for FFMM KKeerrnneell Log of alarms RBS RXI RNC searching alarms Notification to NMS Figure 4-15: Alarm Notification Framework. - 82 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A
  83. 83. 4 Operation and Maintenance Applications Alarm Status Matrix The Alarm Status Matrix gives an overview of the current alarm situation in the network. The Alarm Status Matrix allows you to do the following: • Supervise several objects in a compressed view, • Configure the user interface to show certain severities, toggle compact view on and off and dynamically add or remove rows and columns to change the number of objects possible to view, • Access other applications: Start the Alarm List Viewer to view details about current alarms from a specific supervised object; Start the Alarm Log Browser to access all logged alarms for a specific supervised object. • Synchronize the alarm list in the Fault Manager with the alarm list in a supervised object. Figure 4-16: Alarm Status Matrix. Alarm List Viewer The Alarm List Viewer shows the complete alarm situation for one or more network elements in the network. To ensure a complete overview of the most important information the following features exist: • Each Alarm List Viewer window can consist of any number of individual alarm lists. LZT 123 7371 R5A © 2007 Ericsson - 83 -
  84. 84. WCDMA RAN Operation • Each Alarm List shows the alarms for one or several network elements divided into one or several lists, where the sorting and filtering can be set for each list. • The most important information for each alarm is shown in the alarm list, with one line per alarm. What information to show, in which width and in which order are defined for each list. To support prompt action on alarm situations, alarms can be selected and the user can perform various tasks. The following pre-defined actions are supported: • Acknowledge, clear, unacknowledge and attach comments to alarms • Distribute alarm information via printers, files and mailboxes • Access all available alarm information • View alarm handling instructions for an alarm in an external document viewing tool User-defined actions can also be added that provide integration with external applications. Such actions can be both alarm type dependent and alarm type independent. Examples of alarm type dependent actions are: • Send a certain sequence of commands via a command handling tool to rectify the problem An example of an alarm type independent action is: • Create a trouble ticket for one or several alarms in an external Trouble Ticket application A configurable toolbar ensures that the most frequently used actions are immediately accessible. - 84 - © Ericsson 2007 LZT 123 7371 R5A

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