Air Barrier Paper Air barrier paper Air barrier paper increases air and water resistance and provides better protection against water and moisture intrusion. It also provides a water barrier between outer cladding of structure and the frame, insulation, etc.
Attic Ventilation 1 Soffit Vent Soffit vents are openings under the eave of a roof, used to allow air flow into the attic or the space below the roof sheathing.
Attic Ventilation 2 Ridge Vent Ridge vents are a long, open assembly that allows air to circulate in and out of a gable roof at the ridge.
Attic Ventilation 3 The gable vent is a screened, louvered opening in a gable, used for exhausting excess heat and humidity from the attic. Gable Vent
Attic Ventilation 3 Roof Turbine Turbine vents consist of a turbine mounted on a sheet metal cylinder. The turbine vent has fins in it that allow wind to blow across them which removes the heat from the attic.
Backhoe Backhoe A backhoe is an excavating machine for cutting trenches. A boom mounted bucket moves toward the machine, cutting the ground like a hoe; then the machine turns away from the cut to permit the operator to dump soil. Entire machine
Batter Boards A temporary frame built just outside the corner of an excavation to carry marks that lie on the surface planes of the basement that will be built in the excavation. Batter Boards
Brick Arches: Arch with a Keystone The keystone is the central voussoir of an arch. No true arch action occurs until the keystone is in place. Keystone
Brick Arches: Centering Centering is a temporary structure upon which the materials of a vault or arch are supported in position until the work become self supporting. Centering
Brick Bonds 1: Flemish The Flemish bond is created by alternately laying headers and stretchers in a single course. The next course is laid so that a header lies in the middle of the stretcher in the course below. Stretcher Header
Brick Bonds 2: Running Bond A bond in which the bricks or stones are laid lengthwise; all courses are laid as stretchers with vertical joints of one course falling midway between those of adjacent courses.
Brick Bonds 1 A brick laid on its long edge, with its end exposed in the face of the wall. Rowlock Header A brick or other masonry unit laid across two wythes with its end exposed in the face of the wall.
Brick Bonds 2 A brick laid on its end, with its narrow face toward the outside wall. Brick laid vertically on its end with the largest, broad face exposed. Soldier Sailor
Brick Bonds 3 Brick, or other masonry block, laid horizontally in the wall with the long, broad side of the brick exposed. Stretcher Rowlocks
Brick Sizes 1 The size of the brick shown is 3 ½ ”x11 ½ ”x 1 5/8” . The measurements given are not including the mortar thickness. The unit name for this size brick is Roman.
Brick Sizes 2 The size of the brick shown is 3 ½ ”x7 ½ ”x 2 ¼ ” . The measurements given are not including the mortar thickness. The unit name for this size brick is Modular.
Bulldozer A bulldozer is a tractor or other prime mover equipped with a blade attached by arms or brackets to its front end. It is used in pushing or piling earthwork.
Cladding 1 Brick clad structure Stone clad structure with coursed ashlar pattern
Cladding 2 EIFS stands for Exterior insulation and finish systems. It is a cladding system that consists of a thin layer of reinforced stucco applied directly to the surface of an insulating plastic foam board. The board, in turn, is adhered and fastened mechanically to the structural or backup wall of the building. EIFS
Cladding 4 A shingle is a small unit of water-resistant material nailed in overlapping fashion with many such units to render a wall or sloping roof watertight A shake is a shingle split from a block of wood. This building has wood shingles because the unit does not appear to be split from a piece of wood.
Code Requirements 1: Apartment Window The window that we studied was from a bedroom on the second floor of a house. The sill height from the finish floor was 42”. The open area of the window when open was 5.7 sq. in. The height and width of the window’s opening were 24” high and 34 ½” wide. The IBC code requirements for the open area of an opened window are 5.7 sq. in. The required width and height measurements are 34 ½” wide and 24” high. The IBC states that the sill height for a window must be less than or equal to 44” from the finish floor. The window we studied meets all of the required measurements of the IBC code.
Code Requirements 2: Stairs The set of stairs that we studied belonged to a story house. The measurement of the tread and riser were 11 ½” for the tread and 7 ¾” for the riser. The IBC code says that the minimum measurements for the tread and riser are 10” for the tread and 7 ¾” for the riser. Both of our measurements meet the IBC requirements because they are not smaller than the measurements that the IBC states.
Concrete Joints 1 Crack near a control joint Control joint A control joint is an intentional, linear discontinuity in a structure or component, designed to form a plane of weakness where cracking can occur in response to various forces so as to minimize or eliminate cracking elsewhere in the structure.
Concrete Joints 2 Isolation joint Isolation joints are used to relieve flexural stresses due to vertical movement of slab-on-grade applications that adjoin fixed foundation elements such as columns, building or machinery foundations, etc. The concrete slab on grade is being isolated from the wall.
Concrete Masonry Unit 1 CMU is a block of hardened concrete formed into a block to be laid as a brick. CMU is primarily used for foundations, retaining walls, and fireplaces. The common dimensions of a CMU block are 8” x 8” x 16” nominally and 7-5/8” x 7-5/8” x 15-5/8” actually.
Doors 2 Panel Door Top Rail Stile Panel Lock Rail Bottom Rail
Doors 3 Transom A transom is a small window directly above a door. Sidelight A sidelight is a tall, narrow window alongside a door.
Electrical Components 1 Power pole with transformer The transformer's job is to reduce the voltage of the wires (usually 7,200 volts) down to the 240 volts that makes up normal household electrical service.
Electrical Components 2 Service head The service head is the entry point for above ground electrical wiring to enter the building.
Electrical Components 3 Meter The meter is a device that measures the amount of electricity energy to or produced by a building.
Electrical Components 4 Service panel The service panel is the control center for the electrical circuits in the house. It contains a main disconnect switch and circuit breakers that act as fuses for each electrical circuit.
Electrical Components 5 Duplex Receptacle The duplex receptacle is a connector used for the main electricity of a building. Duplex receptacles usually have break-away tabs to separate the top and bottom halves so that the two outlets can be placed on separate circuits. This may allow for one switched outlet for a lamp, or for two circuits to be used when heavy loads are anticipated. Two branch circuits may share a neutral terminating on duplex receptacles.
Framing Elements 1: Anchor Bolt A bolt embedded in concrete for the purpose of fastening a building frame to a concrete or masonry foundation.
Front End Loader The whole machine The front end loader is a type of tractor, usually wheeled, sometimes on tracks, that has a front mounted square wide bucket connected to the end of two booms (arms) to scoop up loose material from the ground, such as dirt, sand or gravel, and move it from one place to another without pushing the material across the ground. A loader is commonly used to move a stockpiled material from ground level and deposit it into an awaiting dump truck or into a open trench excavation.
Gypsum Board Gypsum board is an interior facing panel consisting of a gypsum core sandwiched between paper faces. It is also called dry wall, plaster board.
Heat Pump 1 Advantage of a heat pump : The ability to heat a house rapidly and the potential to integrate other climate control devices with it Disadvantage of a heat pump : The heat of the furnaces tends to dry out the air as it passes through, and the air passing through rooms can create a draft. It is also very noisy.
Heat Pump 2 Compressor is inside of air handling unit The air handling unit (often abbreviated to AHU), is a device used to condition and circulate air as part of a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. The compressor is the exterior component of the heat pump the fan moves outward air across coils containing refrigerant to change the temperature of the refrigerant. It works in reverse in summer months.
Insulation 1 Batt insulation is used as insulation in between framing members Batt Insulation
Insulation 2 Loose fill insulation is used to insulate attics to fill in around framing members, wiring, and vent pipes to minimize the voids that would be inevitable if batt insulation was used in the situation.
Insulation 3 Foam Insulation <ul><ul><li>Foam insulation is a two component mixture that comes together at the tip of a gun, and forms an expanding foam that is sprayed onto concrete slabs, into wall cavities of an unfinished wall, against the interior side of sheathing, or through holes drilled in sheathing or drywall into the wall cavity of a finished wall. </li></ul></ul>
Insulation 4 Rigid board insulation Rigid board insulation is installed at the perimeter of slabs or at the exterior of basement walls. It is installed at the time the foundation work is done, often by the foundation subcontractor or the general contractor because it has to be done before the foundation is backfilled.
Lintel Concrete Lintel over a door A lintel is a beam that carries the load of a wall across a window or door opening
Mortar 1 The mortar joint shown here is a flush joint that is about 3/8” thick. The joint is troweled. The mortar is used to hold bricks together on a load bearing exterior wall, therefore the mortar type used would be M.
Mortar 2 The mortar joint here belongs to an interior non load bearing wall. The type of mortar joint is extruded. It wouldn’t be either troweled or tooled. The size of the mortar joint is 3/8” thick. The type of mortar used would be O.
Oriented Strand Board (OSB) OSB is a building panel composed of long shreds of wood fiber oriented in specific directions and bonded together under pressure. This material is oriented in the same way as a veneered plywood but is a non-veneered material. The length and the control orientation of the strands is generally stronger and stiffer than other non-veneered types.
Plumbing 1 A lavatory is a washbowl or basin, especially one permanently installed with running water. The pipes used are usually 1 ½ inches in diameter. Lavatory
Plumbing 2 Piping used for water closets are 3” in diameter. Water Closet
Plumbing 4 A plumbing roof vent consists of pipes leading from fixtures to the outdoors, usually via the roof. Vents provide for relief of sewer gases, admission of oxygen for aerobic sewage digestion, and maintenance of the trap water seals which prevent sewer gases from entering the building. Plumbing Roof Vent
Plywood Plywood is a wood panel composed of an odd number of layers of wood veneer bonded together under pressure. Veneer is a thin layer, sheet, or facing.
Radiant Barrier Radiant barrier is a reflective foil placed adjacent to an airspace in roof or wall assemblies as a deterrent to the passage of infrared energy.
Rebar Deformations rolled into the surface of a reinforcing bar help it to bond together tightly to concrete The size of reinforcing bar shown is ½” making it a #4. Rebar
Steep Roof Drainage Gutter Downspout Splashblock <ul><ul><li>The gutter is a channel that collects rainwater and snowmelt at the eave of a roof </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The downspout is a vertical pipe for conducting water from a roof to a lower level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The splashblock is a small precast block of concrete or plastic used to divert water at the bottom of a downspout. </li></ul></ul>
Steep Roof Materials 1 Underlayment Underlayment is a panel laid between roof sheathing and roofing to serve as a layer of waterproofing to protect the roof from any weather contact.
Steep Roof Terms 1 Ridge Valley Eave The ridge is the level intersection of two roof planes. The valley is the trough formed by the intersection of two roof slopes. The eave is the horizontal edge at the low side of a sloping roof.
Steep Roof Terms 2 Rake Fascia Soffit The rake is the sloping edge of a roof. The fascia is the exposed vertical face of an eave. The soffit is the undersurface of a horizontal element of a building, especially the underside of a stair or a roof overhang
Steep Roof Terms 3 Roof without the fascia. This roof does not have the exposed vertical face of an eave known as the fascia.
Vapor Retarder Vapor Retarder is a layer of material intended to obstruct the passage of water vapor through a building assembly; also called, less accurately, vapor barrier. It is most commonly found on the warmer side of the insulation layer
Waterproofing Waterproofing is an impervious membrane applied to the outside of a foundation. The waterproofing shown here is liquid applied waterproofing.
Weep Hole The weep hole is a small opening whose purpose is to permit drainage of water that accumulates inside a building component or assembly
Welded Wire Fabric Welded wire fabric are grids of steel rods that are welded together, used to reinforce a concrete slab. The measurements of the WWF shown here are 6” deep, 6’ wide, and 22” long.
Windows 1 This is a projected window called a casement window. It is a casement window because the sash rotates outward form its frame.
Window This window is a sliding window. It is a sliding window because the sash moves left to right instead of up and down
Window The window pictured is a single hung window. It is single hung window because it only has one moving sash that slides up and down in the tracks of the window.