Industrial Hazards and Safety Training by KLE College of Pharmacy

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Industrial Hazards and Safety Training by KLE College of Pharmacy

  1. 1. INDUSTRIAL HAZARDS AND SAFETY Prof. Dr. Basavaraj K. Nanjwade M. Pharm., Ph. D Department of Pharmaceutics KLE University College of Pharmacy BELGAUM-590010, Karnataka, India Cell No: 00919742431000 E-mail : nanjwadebk@gmail.com 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 1
  2. 2. CONTENTS • • • • • Introduction Types of hazards Recommendations and Suggestions Industrial effluent testing and treatment Discussion on industrial accident case studies • Questions • References 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Industrial hazards: It can be defined as any condition produced by industries that may cause injury or death to personal or loss of product or property. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 3
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  5. 5. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 5
  6. 6. Heat and Cold Burns Foot sore Heat stroke Immersion foot Heat cramps Frost bite Preventive Measures A reasonable temp. of 20-250C must be maintained 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 6
  7. 7. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 7
  8. 8. Noise have two type of effects  Auditory  Non auditory effects  Preventive measures a. At source: • Source of noise can be enclosed with an insulation material or concrete wall. • Proper maintenance of machinery b. By distance c. Personal protection against noise. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 8
  9. 9. Equipment noise sources ,level & potential control solutions Equipment Sound level in dBA at 3 feet Possible noise control treatments Air coolers 87-94 Aerodynamic fun blades,↓ revolutions/min ↑ pitch,↓ pressure drop Compressors 90-120 Install mufflers on intake,& exhaust, enclosure the machine with casing, vibration isolation & lagging of piping system Electric motors 90-110 Acoustically lined fun covers, enclosure 7 motor mutes 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 9
  10. 10. Equipment noise sources ,level & potential control solutions Heater & furnaces 95-110 Acoustic plenums, intake mufflers, lined & damped ducts Valves <80-108 Avoid sonic velocities, limit pressure drop & mass flow, replace with special low noise valves Piping 9-105 Inline silencers, vibration isolation 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 10
  11. 11. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 11
  12. 12. Radiation Radiation are divided into two groups Natural Man made Cosmic rays Medical /dental x-rays isotopes Environmental (radioactive elements e.g. uranium) Occupational exposure Internal (potassium,) Nuclear radioactive fallout Approx 0.1 rad/yr Miscellaneous Use of radio active substances by different industries 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 12
  13. 13. Effect of hazards   Somatic Genetic i. Preventive measures ii. Radiation source should be housed in a building that shields any surrounding area. iii. Radiation badges should be worn. iv. Periodical medical examination. v. Proper use of lead shields & lead rubber aprons. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 13
  14. 14. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 14
  15. 15. Fire & explosion hazards Causes Smoking in the factory Defective heating equipment, electrical equipment & wiring. Explosive gas leakage. Inadequate protection of electric motors Sparking of electric wires & equipment Protection & prevention Types of fire 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 15
  16. 16. Fire & explosion hazards Preventive measures • Prohibition of smoking in manufacturing areas. • Oxygen present in the inflammable atmosphere may be ↓by dilution with gases such as nitrogen, co2,steam or combination of these. • Hazardous operation should be isolated • Eliminating the ignition sources • Using fire resistant material in construction • Suitable emergency exits • Adequate venting 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 16
  17. 17. Fire & explosion hazards • Automatic sprinklers • Equipment should design to meet the specifications & code of recognized authorities, such as ISA, API &ASME • The design & construction of pressure vessels & storage tanks should follow API & ASME codes. • Inspection 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 17
  18. 18. Inhalation Local – Dermatitis – Gas Poisoning – Eczema – Ulcers – Cancer Chemical Hazards Ingestion Living tissue may be destroyed by chemical reactions such as Dehydration Digestion Oxidation 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 18
  19. 19. Source, effect & precautions of chemical hazards Type/ source of chemical contaminant Effect/ organ affected Precautions to be taken Acridines, phenothiazines Dermatitis Cleanliness, removal of people from the areas as soon as first sign of skin reaction is observed. Solvents like chloroform, benzene Handle with care Vegetable drugs like capsicum & podophyllum Dust evolves, affects eye Goggles are to be worn Long term use of filter without cleaning Dust explosion Regular cleaning 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 19
  20. 20. Source, effect & precautions of chemical hazards Improper use of cleaning agents contamination Follow established cleaning procedures Working with radio pharmaceuticals Hazards due to emitted radiation Wearing lead coat, maintaining pressure of working area slightly less than atmospheric pressure Underground tanks Difficulty in Minimal use of monitoring underground tanks interior & exterior 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 20
  21. 21. PREVENTIVE MEASURES • Tolerance levels for toxic chemicals set by federal regulations have to be followed. • Strict observation of operations of all safety regulations 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 21
  22. 22. Biological hazards • Disease due to biological hazards  Brucellosis (dairy industry)  Byssinosis (textile industry)  Bagassosis (sugar-cane)  Loco motor disorder • Preventive measures Periodic health check up Personal protection The manufacturer should also provide First aid facilities Initial examination Facility for vaccination Routine sanitation programme 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 22
  23. 23. Mechanical hazards • Accidents usually take place by the combination of unsafe condition & carelessness. • Most of industrial accidents are due to  Faulty inspection  Inability of employee  Poor discipline  Lack of concentration  Unsafe practice  Mental & physical unfitness for job  Faulty equipment or improper working condition  Improper training regarding the safety aspects 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 23
  24. 24. Mechanical hazards •In order to prevent mechanical accidents factories act lay down certain requirements For cranes End buffers Indicating lamps Signals Proof loading upto20 tons 25% in excess 20 to 50 tons 5 tons in excess above 50 tons 10% in excess 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 24
  25. 25. Mechanical hazards 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 25
  26. 26. Building planning • Floors must be of unskid/non-slippery type. • Enough space for employees to work. • Passages between working places. • Proper arrangements of temperature control; like fans, A.C., heaters. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 26
  27. 27. Building planning 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 27
  28. 28. Safe material handling • Careless handling of heavy materials and components should be avoided. • Full use of mechanical material handling equipment. • All material handling equipments should be repaired and maintained properly. • Containers employed to transport liquids should not be defective or leaking. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 28
  29. 29. Personal protective devices • Protection of head by using hard hats/helmets. • Protection of ears by using earmufffs and plugs. • Protection of face by using face marks, face shields. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 29
  30. 30. Electrical hazards • • • • Shocks Sparking Fire Wiring faults Preventive measures  Proper maintenance of wiring & equipment  High voltage equipment should be properly enclosed  Good house keeping  Water should not be used for dousing electric fire  Worker should avoid working in electric circuits or equipment in wet clothing or shoes. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 30
  31. 31. Pollution hazards • a. b. c. d. Types Air pollution Water pollution Thermal pollution Sound pollution Air pollution • Sources  Automobiles  Industries  Domestic 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 31
  32. 32. Preventive measures i. Those suitable for removing particulate matter a. Ventilation  Exhaust ventilation  Plenum ventilation a. Air purifying equipment ii. Those associated with removing gaseous pollutants Water pollution 1. Types of water pollutants  Physical  Chemical  Physiological  Biological 32 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani
  33. 33. Preventive measures 2. 3. a. i.   ii. iii. b. Problems of water pollution Preventive measure Control of water pollution Physical treatment Storage Filtration Chemical treatment Biological treatment Treatment of industrial waste Primary treatment Secondary treatment Tertiary treatment 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 33
  34. 34. Preventive measures c. •   Thermal pollution Effects Damage to aquatic environment Reduction in assimilative capacity of organic waste • Various off stream cooling systems i. Wet cooling towers ii. Dry cooling towers iii. Cooling ponds iv. Spray ponds 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 34
  35. 35. Recommendations & suggestions Proper treatment & disposal methods for effluents should be adopted An awareness program Measures for increase efficiency of the water use 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 35
  36. 36. Classification of signs according to use – (1) Danger signs. The DANGER header is used when there is a hazardous situation which has a high probability of death or severe injury. It should not be considered for property damage unless personal injury risk is present. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 36
  37. 37. 2) Caution signs. (i) The CAUTION header is used to indicate a hazardous situation which may result in minor or moderate injury. However, Caution should not be used when there is a possibility of death or serious injury. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 37
  38. 38. (3) Safety instruction signs General Safety Signs (SAFETY FIRST, BE CAREFUL, THINK) should indicate general instructions relative to safe work practices, reminders of proper safety procedures, and the location of safety equipment. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 38
  39. 39. (4) Biological hazard signs. The biological hazard warning shall be used to signify the actual or potential presence of a biohazard and to identify equipment, containers, rooms, materials, experimental animals, or combinations thereof, which contain, or are contaminated with, viable hazardous agents. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 39
  40. 40. Pictograph Pictograph means a pictorial representation used to identify a hazardous condition or to convey a safety instruction 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 40
  41. 41. Signal Word Signal word means that portion of a tag's inscription that contains the word or words that are intended to capture the employee's immediate attention. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 41
  42. 42. Tag Tag means a device usually made of card, paper, pasteboard, plastic or other material used to identify a hazardous condition. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 42
  43. 43. Danger Tags Danger tags shall be used in major hazard situations where an immediate hazard presents a threat of death or serious injury to employees. Danger tags shall be used only in these situations. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 43
  44. 44. Caution Tags Caution tags shall be used in minor hazard situations where a non-immediate or potential hazard or unsafe practice presents a lesser threat of employee injury. Caution tags shall be used only in these situations. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 44
  45. 45. Warning Tags Warning tags may be used to represent a hazard level between "Caution" and "Danger," instead of the required "Caution" tag, provided that they have a signal word of "Warning," an appropriate major message 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 45
  46. 46. Biological Hazard Tags The symbol design for biological hazard tags shall conform to the design shown below: 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 46
  47. 47. Color Coding-Danger Tag "DANGER" -- Red, or predominantly red, with lettering or symbols in a contrasting color. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 47
  48. 48. Color Coding-Caution Tag "CAUTION" -- Yellow, or predominantly yellow, with lettering or symbols in a contrasting color. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 48
  49. 49. Color Coding-Warning Tag "WARNING" -- Orange, or predominantly orange, with lettering or symbols in a contrasting color. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 49
  50. 50. Biological Hazard Tag BIOLOGICAL HAZARD -- Fluorescent orange or orange-red, or predominantly so, with lettering or symbols in a contrasting color. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 50
  51. 51. Industrial effluent testing and treatment • Effluent is an outflowing of water from a natural body of water, or from a man-made structure. • Water pollution or waste water discharge from the industrial facilities. REASON OF TESTING • To find out -Pollution load -Presence of toxic ingredients -Color, turbidity, odour and quality of water -pH and acidity / alkalinity -Suspended solids and dissolved solids -Phenolic compounds and oily materials 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 51
  52. 52. GUIDELINES FOR TESTING EFFLUENTS • • • • • Samples may be collected at specific intervals and finally can be mixed before analysis. Containers made up of glass, polythene or any suitable plastic material may be used. Samples may also be refrigerated to avoid loss of volatile matter Samples could be preserved after adjusting the pH O2, CO2, CO may be estimated 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 52
  53. 53. THE RESULTS OF TESTING ARE REPORTED AS FOLLOWS: • Effluents may be expressed as mg/ltr, ppm, %/ltr, and mcg/ltr • Acidity / Alkalinity / Oil / Grease / CN / Phenol / Dyes content should be reported TESTING OF WASTE WATER (EFFLUENT) TEST pH TREATMENT METHOD Acidic Lime or NAOH Basic H2SO4 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 53
  54. 54. THE RESULTS OF TESTING ARE REPORTED AS FOLLOWS: Suspended Solids Sedimentation Oil and grease -grease taps -skimming Cyanide Chlorinated & complex with pyridine pyroxolene -Colourimetrically Phosphates -Convert to ammonium molybdatephosphates -extracted with benzene/ isobutyl alcohol mixture -organic phase treated with tin chloride (blue) Colourimetrically 24 August 2012 -alkaline chlorination -oxidation with ozone -oxidation with H2O2 -ppt with chalk or lime -coagulation with alum KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 54
  55. 55. THE RESULTS OF TESTING ARE REPORTED AS FOLLOWS: Mercury -treated with nitric acid and potassium dichromate soln- treared with tin chloride Vapour determined by spectrophotometry Phenolic compounds Steam distillation-acidify (pH<4)- add CuSO4 soln- -Coagulation -chelation with trimercaptotriazine Removal by polymeric adsorbents Add aminoantipyrine soln- extracted with chloroform calorimetrically 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 55
  56. 56. BIOLOGICAL OXYGEN DEMAND • It is the amounts of oxygen required by micro organisms to bio chemically oxidize carbonaceous organic matter at 20 0C in 5 days. • 10 mg/litre or less • Excess makes water toxic MEASUREMENT • Special designed bottle with flared cap • Incubated at 20 0C for 5 day measuring DO • Microorganism added if required 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 56
  57. 57. Dissol oxy in ppm (mg/ltr) V= N= V 1= = N(V) (8) (1000) V1 Volume of sodium thio sulphate required. Normality Volume of sample taken. CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND • Oxygen equivalent of organic matter present in waste water that is susceptible to oxidation • Waste water sample is refluxed with a known excess of pot. dichromate in a 50% sulphuric acid solution in presence of silver sulphate and mercuric sulphate 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 57
  58. 58. CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND • The organic matter of the sample is oxidised to water, carbon dioxide and ammonia • The excess of dichromate remaining untreated in the solution is titrated against standard ferrous ammonium sulphate • COD(mg/l) = (V1-V2) x N x 8 x100 X Where, V1 = Volume of ferrous ammonium sulphate solution consumed in blank V2 = Volume of ferrous ammonium sulphate solution consumed for test solution X= Volume of sample taken 24 August 2012 N= Normality of ferrous of Pharmacy, Nipani sulphate solution KLE College ammonium 58
  59. 59. Limit for Discharge into Systems Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 24 August 2012 Parameters pH Oil and grease Total suspended solid, mg/l BOD, mg/l COD, mg/l Mercury Arsenic, mg/l Cyanide, mg/l Sulphides, mg/l Phosphates, mg/l KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani Tolerance limits 5.5 – 9.0 10 100 30 50 0.01 0.20 0.10 2.00 5.00 59
  60. 60. Waste Water Treatment  Waste Water Pretreatment • Attempted to render the effluent suitable for further treatment • Equalization Concentrated waste is diluted if necessary -by mechanical mixing -by aeration mixing • Neutralization • Removal of Grease and Oils 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 60
  61. 61. Primary Treatment of Waste Water • Removal of large floating or suspended particle by physical and chemical treatment  Screening • Large particles are removed • Coarse screen of metal bars or heavy wires spaced 25-50 mm apart • Finer materials are separated by screening through 0.8-6 mm meshes  Grit Chambers • Removal of particles by centrifugal action and friction against tank walls • Diffused air used for mixing pattern 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 61
  62. 62. Primary Treatment of Waste Water • It is used To prevent any damage to equipment To avoid settling in pipe bends 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 62
  63. 63. Primary Treatment of Waste Water  Chemical Reaction • Involves agglomeration of tiny particles into large particles  Flocculation -by mechanical stirring and by chemical flocculants  Precipitation -Large amount of suspended solid formed  Coagulation -Formation of large and quick settling flocs by a) Reduction of charges and repulsive force b) Adsorption on long chain molecular structure 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 63
  64. 64. Secondary Treatment of Waste Water • It is a biological process • C, H, and O sources are available • Nitrogen should be 5% of the BOD • Phosphorus should be 20% of mass of nitrogen • Environmental conditions are provided Advantages • Continuous waste treatment is favored • Low cost system Disadvantages • Prior prediction of biological degradability is not possible • Solubility limits biodegradability 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 64
  65. 65. Secondary Treatment of Waste Water  Activated Sludge Process • Microbial Floc is suspended in tank • Air is continuously supplied • Biological degradation of waste into CO2 and H2O • Bacterial flora grows and remains suspended in the form of floc called as “activated sludge” • 20% of sludge is recycled • 6 to 24 hours aeration is required 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 65
  66. 66. Secondary Treatment of Waste Water • Advantages -Removal of soluble organic substance, colloidal matter, particulate matter, inorganic substance -Produce high quality effluent • Disadvantage -Maintenance cost is high -Growth of anaerobic bacteria fungi etc 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 66
  67. 67. Activated Sludge Process 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 67
  68. 68. Trickling filtration process • • • • • • • • Microorganisms are attached to fixed bed It acts as a filter Bed is maintained at height of 2.5 meter Gelatinous film is formed Effluent is sprayed over the surface Slots at the bottom for air inlet Aerobic metabolism occur on the surface Anaerobic metabolism occur at the bottom 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 68
  69. 69. Trickling Filtration Process 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 69
  70. 70. Trickling Filtration Process Advantages • Produce effluent of consistent quality • Aerobic and anaerobic digestion are achieved • More economical • Sludge can be removed quickly Disadvantage • Cost for ventilation duct for air supply is high • Efficiency decreases in the winter 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 70
  71. 71. Secondary Treatment of Waste Water  Oxidation Ponds • Depth should be 1 to 2 meters. • Bottom and sides are lined with polyethylene, cement. • Oxygen released by algae, carbon dioxide generate from biodegradative • Aerobic oxidation producing carbon dioxide and water. Advantage: • Operation is simple and economical. Disadvantages: • Required disinfections • Use for wastes having low BOD. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 71
  72. 72. Tertiary Treatment Of Waste Water • • • •  • • Meant for polishing the effluents. Bacteria are removed by keeping in maturation ponds. Chlorinated, if still contain bacteria. Methods are more expensive than biological treatment. Coagulation : Reaction take place upon addition of the coagulants. -Metal salts -Organic Polymers In water, form insoluble product with impurities. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 72
  73. 73.  •  • • • • Tertiary Treatment Of Waste Water Coprecipitation : Ions in solution phase precipitate with the carrier molecule by -Adsorption Process -Inclusion Process Filtration Most common type in addition to disinfection. Practiced prior to the chlorination. Should be done after coagulation. May be made up of sand, activated charcoal. 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 73
  74. 74. Tertiary Treatment Of Waste Water  Adsorption • Involves treatment with activated carbon. • Useful for removal of pesticides 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 74
  75. 75. REFRENCES • Pharmaceutical Production and Management By C. V. S. Subrahmanyam • www.geocities.com • www.britannica.com • http://nptel:iipm.ac.in • www.waste_management_world.com • Sewage and Industrial Effluent Treatment, 2 nd edition By John Arundel • The Theory & Practical of Industrial Pharmacy By Leon Lachman, Herbert A. Lieberman, Joseph Kiang, 3RD Edition Varghese Publishing House. • www.osha.gov 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 75
  76. 76. THANK YOU Cell No: 00919742431000 E-mail : nanjwadebk@gmail.com 24 August 2012 KLE College of Pharmacy, Nipani 76

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