Ergonomics for the 21st Century Training by Nicholls State University


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  • Take a minute and try an answer these questions.
  • The goal of today’s program and the science of ergonomics is to minimize injuries due to chronic physical and phychological stresses while maximizing productivity and efficiency. Reducing injuries thus reduces worker’s compensation claims in this area which in turn reduces the agency’s premiums. The visible cost is estimated to be 15 to 20 billion dollars a year in worker’s compensation costs. Reducing the injuries reduces those visible costs but also the invisible costs. These include absenteeism, loss of productivity, rework, lower morale, turnover, other employees having to complete absent employees tasks. Some have estimated that the invisible costs to be about $45 to 60 billion dollars each year. The invisible costs do not get much attention because they are difficult to quantify.
    The average direct cost savings is approximately $22,500 per each MSD prevented.
  • Ergonomics is the science of fitting the job to the worker, matching the physical requirements of the job with the physical capacity of the worker.
    Ergonomics is used to design an environment (layout, work methods, equipment, noise, etc) which is compatible with each individual’s physical and behavioral characteristics. Ergonomics looks at the behavior of the person performing the job. Good ergonomic design makes the most efficient use of worker capabilities while ensuring that job demands to not exceed those capabilities. Many years ago, equipment was built to do a job not to fit a person. Most factory jobs needed a tall person with long arms to work the equipment. Now factory equipment is adjustable to fit the different employees who work there. Another example is the old clerical chairs that were stationary. Now most chairs are adjustable.
  • To help understand ergonomics we need a basic understanding of a science called Biomechanics. Read the definition. Biomechanics basically helps in determining which positions make use of an individual’s muscular strength. A muscle’s ability to perform is affected by the way it is used or another way to say it is the activity the muscle is performing. The activity can be either Static or Dynamic.
  • Think about how tiring you get when you sit or stand in one position for a long period of time. In an office might be at the computer all day without a break, think about how tiring that feeling is. Or it could be standing in one position all day performing the same tasks or driving for several hours. Muscles fatigue faster when they are held in one position.
  • Dynamic work positions, that is positions that change, allow muscles to rest during the relaxation phase. Ask attendees to remember back to biology class and ask what do muscles do during the relaxation phase? Remove waste products from the body and then blood is supplied back to area.
    What job functions/duties are performed at your agency that involve dynamic muscle activity?
  • Bernardino Ramazzini wrote an article in 1713 that identified problems in different workers of the day.
    In Clerks they developed problems from constant sitting, the incessant movement of the hand and always in the same direction, and incessant driving of the pen over paper causes intense fatigue of the hand and whole are because of the continuous strain on the muscles and tendons.
    Cobblers & tailors were called chair-workers because they sit at their work all day and they became bent, hump-backed, and held their heads down like people looking for something on the ground. This is the effect of their sedentary life and the bent posture of the body as they sit and apply themselves all day to their tasks.
    Porters-whose work is loading and unloading merchandise from the cargo ships. All porters in time became round shouldered because the dorsal vertebral are constantly bent forward and become set in that position.
    These are three examples from this era but were other workers/tasks that created work related injuries.
  • Worker is anyone who performs the task: office workers, custodial, operator. Each brings his/her height, weight, reach, strength & ability
    Tool- layout, tool shape, biomechanics. Does it fit the worker? Does the tool apply pressure on tissues, muscles, tendons, nerves or blood vessels. Does the tool vibrate the body or part of the body.
  • Task- repetitive, physically demanding, “specialized”, new for the employees, software design, new technology, change, training, job satisfaction, support systems, rest breaks, management system, shift work, production quotas, size, speed. Etc.
    Poorly designed tasks such as those requiring personnel to repeatedly place their bodies or extremities in awkward positions can cause problems.
    Environment for the employee and the machine- machine design, furniture, work surfaces, heat, cold, noise, humidity, low light, bright light.
    The environment is not completely controlled. It is not a vacuum, but a complex environment that includes the work station, ambient conditions, and can include the relationship between management and employees.
  • When focusing on the tool, the task, and the environment you are trying to find the best combination for the worker(the user/operator). If the right combination is not achieved then ergonomic problems may arise when the workstation, equipment, tools, or environment do not fit the workers well. This stress can cause immediate or long-term damage to muscles, nerves, tendons, and joints. Most of these ergonomic problems/injuries are caused specifically by forceful or repetitive motion activities or because workers must assume awkward positions because the workplace does not fit the employee.
  • Resulting injuries, stresses, or strains from not fitting the people to the task are referred to as: Read list. We will refer to the injuries basically as MSD through the course. MSD do not include injuries caused by slips, trips, falls, or other similar accidents. They can differ in severity from mild periodic symptoms to severe chronic and debilitating conditions.
  • Common causes of MSD, CTD, or RSI are the following:
    Not all the listed risk factors will be present in every MSD producing task, nor is the existence of one of these factors necessarily sufficient to cause a MSD.
    Repetitive/prolonged activities -constant lifting, continuous pressing/pulling of a lever with same extremity, even prolonged sitting especially with poor posture.
    Awkward positions including reaching above the shoulders or behind the back, twisting the wrists & other joints, twisting at the waist.
    Vibration from power tools(jackhammer)-excessive vibration causes pain to muscles, joints, causes trauma to the hands, arms, feet & legs.
    Temperatures -Excessive heat and humidity effects the body’s blood circulation and causes cramps and general discomfort. Cold exposures effects the body’s blood circulation and causes hypothermia, loss of flexibility, distraction and poor dexterity. A general comfortable temperature range is 68-74 degrees F +/-10 degrees depending on work load with humidity between 20-60 percent.
    Forceful exertions – the greater the amount of force that is applied, the greater the degree of risk for a MSD to occur. Examples of Work Related MSD injuries that are associated with “High Force” are at the shoulder/neck, the low back, and fore arm/wrist/hand.
  • These are the body parts most affected. We will discuss problems associated with each body part, and solutions for the problems.
    The muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, cartilage, joints, including spinal discs are affected in these body parts.
  • Signs of MSD are objective physical findings.
  • Symptoms can vary in their severity depending on the amount of exposure the employee has had. Often the symptoms appear gradually as muscle fatigue or pain at work that disappears during rest. Usually the symptoms become more severe as exposure continues. An example is tingling continues when the employee is at rest, numbness or pain make it difficult to perform the job, and finally the pain is so severe the employee is unable to perform physical work activities.
  • Tendonitis- common examples are tennis elbow-usually indicated by pain or ache on along the outside of the elbow and golfer’s elbow-usually indicated by pain or ache along the inside of the elbow. Can affect the wrist which is the irritation of one of the tendons where is crosses the wrist. Tennis elbow case was a bank teller that developed the disease from the repetitious work. Other names associated with injuries of the wrist are DeQuervain’s Disease, and extensor tendonitis. Another is Rotator Cuff Tendonitis-is the set of muscles and tendons that secure the arm to the shoulder joint and permit rotation of the arm.
    Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is the pinching of the median nerve at the wrist. Have the symptoms/signs of numbness, tingling, pain and weakness in the thumb, index, middle and ring fingers. The pain etc may wake you up at night or worsen when do forceful or repetitive work.
  • Just shows the area where the median nerve runs through the wrist.
  • Trigger Finger is a disorder of the hand that causes a painful catching of the fingers or thumb. It is an inflammation and narrowing of the outer covering or sheath that surrounds the tendons that bend the fingers. The the enlarged tendons try to move through the constricted opening it may produce a catching or snapping sensation. Usually straightening the finger is the biggest problem. There are even occasions were the finger must pulled straight or is even totally locked and cannot be pulled straight. Physicians feel that repeated strain of the area might cause the problem. Also tasks that require repeated grasping or the prolonged use of tools (scissors, screwdrivers) that press on the tendon sheath at the base of the finger or thumb may also irritate the tendons and tendon sheath.
    Eye Strain- can have visual discomfort, headaches, blurred vision, burning and/or dry eyes, slow refocusing, sensitivity to light, double vision, and after-images. Poor lighting in the work area, glare from windows, lights or other sources, viewing from awkward positions, extended viewing with no breaks. Computer Vision Syndrome is the name of the condition the American Optometric Association defines as the “complex of eye and vision problems related to near work, which are experienced during or related to computer use.”
  • 1. Blanching is the turning white of the fingers or parts of hand and arm. Condition is associated with exposure to vibration. Primarily a problem with chain sawyers, and workers using pneumatic tools for grinding, polishing, sanding, and riveting. The prolonged use of vibration hand tools can cause stress at the joints and muscles leading to the reduction of blood flow. The risk increases with forceful gripping of the hand-tools and with continuous exposure to vibration both nerves and blood vessels are affected. Pneumatic tools are generally worse than electrically powered tools. Heard of a case where a construction worker developed MSD in 5 days from the continuous use of a jackhammer.
    2. Muscle strains can occur in different parts of the body. The neck, shoulder, back, arm, leg, etc.
    These are just some of the MSD. There are others out there.
  • Can show a video
  • According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, medical expenses and worker’s compensation costs will continue to rise unless companies make a conscientious effort to implement ergonomic solutions. One of the greatest myths about ergonomic solutions is that it requires capital expense. Nothing could be farther from the truth. Most solutions are simple ones that do not require a lot of expense.
    The areas listed are broad areas that we can do something about concerning ergonomics. Let’s talk about these areas in more detail and give you ideas about what you can do in these areas. Remember solutions that work in one location may not work in another.
  • Administrative controls are modifications in the way work in a job is scheduled that decrease the duration, frequency, or magnitude of exposure to ergonomic risk factors. Another way to say-controls are procedures and methods, typically instituted by the employer, that significantly reduce daily exposure to MSD hazards by altering the way in which work is performed.
    Examples of administrative controls of MSD hazards include: Go through list
    Employee rotation/job task enlargement-if possible rotate employees between job tasks so that an employee is assigned to perform one task then moved to another. Or enlarge the employees tasks so the employees have the opportunity to perform a different task.
    Adjust work pace- hard to do. But if possible slow it down a little. Affects piece work more than an office situation. Make sure you work at a reasonable pace, don’t stress yourself.
    Redesign how the work is performed. Another procedure. Is there a better way to do the task with less stress, strain, is there a tool or piece of equipment that could be used to help perform the task.
    This ties in with the first control mentioned. Whenever possible have employees alternative their tasks frequently throughout the day. Rotate heavy and/or repetitive tasks with lighter, less repetitive tasks. Example is break up typing with filing. Break up use of a jackhammer with moving materials. Be aware that even tasks such as manual stapling, sorting through large volumes, and mail sorting were repetition and awkward positions may contribute to repetitive motion injuries (MSDs).
    Breaks-Encourage employees to change position, stand up or stretch whenever they start to feel tired. (We will talk about stretching exercises later in the program.) Remember the short discussion on biomechanics and the static vs the dynamic work positions and that muscles fatigue easier when held in the same position for extended periods of time. Encourage motion rather than static positions. It is recommended that you take 1 or 2 minute breaks every 30 minutes and 5 minute breaks every hour when performing stationary type work. But remember a “break” could be doing another activity rather than just “taking a break.” Make a phone call, file something, or other activity. It is also recommended that every few hours, you try to get up and move around.
  • Work Practice Controls are controls that reduce the likelihood of exposure to MSD hazards through alteration of the manner in which a job or physical work activities are performed. Work practice controls also act on the source of the hazard. However, instead of physical changes to the workstation or equipment, the protection work practice controls provide is based upon the behavior of managers, supervisors, and employees to follow proper work methods. Work practice controls include procedures for safe and proper work that are understood and followed by managers, supervisors, and employees. Examples of these are: Refer to the list in slide.
    Safe and proper work techniques and procedures for performing the job tasks that are understood and followed by managers, supervisors, and employees. The work techniques could include proper positions and angles when sitting at your computer station to standing and performing tasks.
    Training recognition of hazards and work techniques that can reduce exposure or ease task demands and burdens. Use written procedures to train such as the JSA. Workers acquire certain behaviors over a long period of time. This affects the way they work, their posture, lifting techniques, etc and could create potentially hazardous situations. Regular ongoing training is an essential part of the program.
    Conditioning period for new or reassigned employees to learn the work techniques and procedures. Supervise the employees performing the tasks to ensure understood the training and are performing correctly. If not provide additional training.
  • What’s wrong with this picture??
    Incorrect lifting-Continuous lifting in this manner can lead to an injury.
  • What’s right with this picture??
    Train employees on proper lifting procedures. Bend knees and lift with legs, not with a straight back.
    What about back belts? Do they give you extra strength so you can lift more weight?? NO, can give a false sense of security. Should be used as a reminder to employees to use proper lifting procedures.
  • Posture is the position and carriage of the body as a whole.
    Let’s look at some of the correct and incorrect positions and angles. These are positions that the employees need to be informed of or trained on. They do not necessarily come to the employees naturally.
  • Head- Should be straight and balanced over the spine while looking forward. Eliminate the flexed-neck position. Center the monitor in front of you and position the top of the monitor 2” to 3” above seated eye level. Keep your neck in a neutral or aligned position.
    Shoulders- Keep level and straight and relaxed. If the chair has armrests make sure are adjusted correctly so are not hunching up your shoulders. Adjust chair so back is supported with proper lumbar curve.
    Elbows- Keep elbows is a slightly open angle (100-110 degrees) with your wrists is a straight position. A keyboard that tilts can help you keep the correct position if changing the position of the chair. Keep the mouse within close reach so do not have to stretch to use it. Adjust the height of the armrests so they allow the user to rest arms at their sides and relax their shoulders while keyboarding. Elbows and lower arms should rest lightly so as not to cause circulatory or nerve problems.
    Hands and wrists- Your hands should be slightly lower than your elbows. Keep wrists neutral. The safe zone of movement for your wrist is about 15 degrees in all directions.
    Waist- Straight and not twisted. Keep at 90-120 degree angle. Hips should be against the back of the chair.
    Legs- Thighs should be parallel to the floor and the knees at about the same level as the hips. If you feel pressure on the back of the thigh, lower the chair slightly. Back of knees 3” to 4” away from chair to prevent the seat from cutting off circulation to the lower legs. You should be able to easily slide your fingers under the front area of the thigh. The chair should be long enough and wide enough to support your hips and thighs. Not all ergonomic chairs are made the same.
    Feet- Place your feet flat on the floor. Use a foot rest if needed.
  • Point out the different positions. Ask if these are correct positions. Are all right, wrong, or mixed? All correct.
    The lower back is supported by the chair and the fits the curve of the spine. The back of the knees are 3-4 inches from the chair, the feet are flat on the floor, the elbows, arms, and wrists are at neutral positions. The monitor is kept at eye level. This individual is changing his position (not being static) without comprising the “correct” positions.
  • Center the monitor in front of you at least 20” to 30” (some individuals prefer 30-40”) away and position the top of the monitor 2” to 3” above seated eye level. You should be able to view the screen with a slight downward gaze without turning or tilting your head up or down. Standards require that the user’s viewing area should be located between 0 and 60 degrees below the horizontal plane. If you wear bifocals this could change your position. Bifocal users often tilt their necks and heads up to see through the bottom of their glasses, which can result in neck and backaches.
  • Shows positions from another angle. Notice the positions/angles of the monitor and work materials. Notice the position of the arms, hands, head, etc. The workstation and related items are all within a comfortable range to prevent extensive reaching, twisting, or awkward positions.
    To help maintain proper positions use tools and equipment such as headphones, document holders, etc.
  • What’s wrong with this picture?? What piece of equipment could be used instead??
  • What’s wrong here? Arms straight, elbows are not bent correctly.
  • Keyboard too low. Hands and wrists in praying mantis position.
  • What’s wrong. Back not supported by the chair completely, leaning forward. Good- feet are flat on the floor.
  • Legs crossed, feet not on floor, back not properly supported.
  • Engineering controls are the physical changes to jobs that control exposure to MSD hazards. Engineering controls act on the source of the hazard and control employee exposure to the hazard without relying on the employee to take self-protective action or intervention. Examples of engineering controls for MSD hazards include changing, modifying, or redesigning the following: Read list.
    Keep in mind that these areas are not clearly defined. The areas overlap each other.
  • Poor ergonomic design of workstations (not just computer stations) can increase MSD stresses in the body of employees. When we speak of workstations that means any place that an individual performs his/her tasks. As an example: Think of someone who drives a vehicle for a living. Used to have stationary steering wheels and seats that did not adjust much. Now have tilt steering in most vehicles and seats that adjust not only forward and back, but also up and down, and some even tilt slightly.
    What if can’t afford expensive computer workstation? There are still solutions you can implement.
    Awkward positions-Could be reaching for items. Keep supplies and frequently used items within a comfortable reach.
  • 1. Adjustable workstations-expensive, put in for ergonomic workstations when getting bids for new furniture. Consider the tallest and shortest employees. We can change the workstation, but not the employees’ heights or reach. Platforms can be used to raise shorter employees to proper work height or the workstation raised. As discussed earlier, the employees’ arms should rest at the employee’s sides and the employee’s back/neck should be kept straight.
    2. Adjustable chair-all kinds, the seat adjusts, the back may adjust, the arm rests, Make sure adjust to fit you correctly as we discussed previously. Ergonomic chairs are not all the same. Women generally have larger hips than men and need a chair with a higher lumbar back support and a wider seat area. Men frequently have longer legs and need a deeper seat area. When selecting a chair, consider your individual needs. Again adjust the back of the seat to support the natural inward curve of the lower back, A rolled towel or a lumbar pad may be useful to support the lower back.
    3. Footrests can be purchased and are adjustable to different angles etc.
    4. Some monitors are adjustable
    5. Document holder-Position the document holder close to screen and at the same level and distance from the eye to avoid constant changes of focus. Rotate the position of the holder to opposite sides of the screen periodically. places the documents you are typing from in the correct position if you use it correctly. This helps minimize twisting and bending motions. Keeps you from bending neck forward for prolonged periods of time.
    Innovative Way- Cut legs off the desks or add blocks under the workstation to raise the height. Build a foot rest or use a large book for a foot rest. Put a book under the monitor to raise it to the proper height. Build a platform to stand on so get to proper height.
  • This slide just shows all the different adjustments that can be made to an adjustable office type workstation. Notice the chair adjusts in different ways, the foot rest up and down and at angles,, the monitor, the workstation height, the keyboard height etc.
  • Fully adjustable workstation, table height fully adjustable which adjust the height of the monitor, the keyboard adjusts from level to 45 degrees. In case wondering this is a 911 station.
  • This is workstation height fully down. The foot rest adjust from level to 45 degrees. This station allows employees to adjust the height of the workstation so monitors at correct level, the keyboard can be positioned correctly, the foot rest is there if needed so feet can touch the “floor”. The chair is also adjustable so correct positions can be obtained all the way around.
  • We have mentioned these items before, now we will discuss them in relation to tools we use and how we can decrease or minimize these areas. Use the correct tool for the task. These principles apply to all types of hand tools- shop, kitchen, garden are just examples to get you to think.
    The greater the effort to maintain control of a tool the higher the potential for injury. Tools with a longer handle allows the user to generate more leverage by applying a smaller force at a greater distance whereas a thicker tool handle allows more surface for grasping, or in the case of a standard screw driver, increase the torque thereby reducing the overall required force. In some situations, a hand tool with a pistol grip may require less gripping force than an in-line tool handle. Conventional hand tools such as pliers and wrenches are designed with slightly wider handles that allow the grip force, and resultant contact stress, to be distributed over a larger surface and thus decrease the grip strength. Keep in mind that no one tool is perfect or every user. For example, choosing a hand tool with a large diameter handle to allow for decreased grip strength may in fact cause a problem when a person with a small hand uses the tool. Tools should be properly maintained, because for example a dull drill bit requires more force to use.
    Many steps can be taken to avoid repetitive motions when using tools over a prolonged period of time. The list above are examples. Power tools do the repetitive work for you. The same for the spring loaded.
  • Awkward positions-Bent or curved handles can help maintain a more natural wrist position. Tool extenders can also help keep the body in a natural position. Poor wrist positioning can lead to injuries therefore using tools that minimize flexion, extension, and deviation is preferred. Headphones instead of tilting head and holding phone between head and shoulder. Support the equipment from overhead if working in awkward positions to help employee. Keep buttons in proper position-arms reach, not over head etc..
    Step stool for someone that does a lot of work above arms reach could help.
    Exertion-Hard pounding on a keyboard can lead to problems. The average user keys four times harder than necessary. Drum handlers, lifting devices, adjustable hand trucks, dollies to move equipment even like a TV that is moved often, put it on a cart with wheels. Hoists and cranes in shop areas to help with lifting.
  • What’s wrong with this. If person continually performs this activity of filing overhead could become a problem. What if person was not standing on cart? Would overhead reach be longer? Also notice that the proper piece of equipment is not being. This has wheels.
  • This step stool enables the person to reach the level she needs more comfortably. Also notice is proper type. Becomes immobile when step on.
  • Static positions-mats can help with relieving neck, shoulder, back and leg stress, but also need the variation of tasks if possible, and the implementation of breaks.
    Vibration-Most often vibration is an undesirable by-product of using a power tool. The items listed above have limited success in reducing the amount of transmitted vibration. Anti-vibration gloves dampen the vibration being transmitted to the hands, wrists and upper extremities, but their effectiveness may vary.
  • Facilities conditions or environmental conditions can affect employees. Three examples are Lighting, Temperature, and Noise.
    Lighting- Providing optimal illumination for multi-worker offices is difficult as a 60-year old worker requires up to 10 times more light than a 20 year-old worker. Glare from lighting, internal and external. Internal could be fluorescent. There are standard fluorescent bulbs are less expensive, but can increase glare. Full Spectrum fluorescent mimic natural light but cost more. Fluorescent overhead lighting can cause a general feeling of tiredness in the eyes. Whenever possible design offices with indirect lighting fixtures to eliminate glare. External lighting from windows can put glare on computer screens causing eye fatigue and strain. Sit at right angles to windows and at least 3 feet away from the window.To ensure adequate lighting, fixtures may need to be redesigned or repositioned to provide each workstation with the recommended illumination for the task. Adjust desk lamp or task light to avoid reflections on the work area including computer screen. Computer screens and other workstations may need to be repositioned to eliminate glare. Anti-glare screens can help. Adjust drapes or blinds to reduce glare. To help limit reflected glare, walls should be painted a medium or dark color and not have reflective finish. Monitors in relation to glare- The monitor’s brightness should match the room-Adjust the brightness control close to the mid-range if possible and then set the contrast to a comfortable level. Usually the higher the contrast the better. You may have to do this more than once a day if the light changes in the room.
  • Just a visual about what we have talked about on previous slide.
  • Temperature- Elevated temperatures and humidity can be harmful. Low temperatures can reduce finger flexibility and accuracy. Keep in mind that temperature can be affected by several factors including type of work, clothing and heat sources, and amount of airflow.
  • Noise- Excessive noise levels above 90 decibels (dBA) and noise peaks above 100 decibels cause headaches and increases blood pressure, muscle tension and fatigue. High exposure over a long period of time causes deafness and other audiological disorders. Short term exposure causes irritability and distraction.
  • We will give exercises & stretches for all parts of the body. Perform these at your workstation, at home, or anywhere else.
    There are written descriptions for each exercise and demonstrations for some of others.
    Get the audience to stand up and do these together.
  • Blinking and Yawning both produce tears to help moisten and lubricate the eyes.
    Focus on a distance object across the room or even outside the window.
  • Next slide shows exercise
  • Picture of palming.
  • Next slide shows exercise
  • Picture of neck stretch.
  • WHAT is “Pec” ??
  • Next slide shows exercise
  • Picture Shoulder Pinch
  • Next slide shows exercise
  • Picture shoulder shrug
  • Next slide shows exercise
  • Picture of chair rotation stretch
  • Next slide shows exercise
  • Picture of arms behind back stretch
  • Next 2 slides show exercise
  • Picture of flexing.
  • Picture of extending
  • If you want to implement a complete program to prevent or reduce injuries in the workplace these would be the items to include in your program.
    Name someone to be responsible for the ergonomics and supply resources and training for the program. Be sure the policies do not discourage employees from reporting problems and let employees know how they can be involved in the ergonomics program.
    Provide information to the employees periodically on:
    a. ergonomic risk factors (force, repetition, awkward positions, etc)
    b. signs and symptoms of of MSD
    c. importance of reporting the signs and symptoms early to prevent damage and how to make reports.
    3. A. Analyze problem jobs for ergonomic risk factors
    b. Work with employees to eliminate or materially reduce MSD hazards using engineering, administrative and/or work practice controls
    c. Use PPE to supplement other controls
    d. Track progress, and when jobs change, identify and evaluate MSD hazards
    4. A. Train employees in jobs with covered MSD and supervisors and staff responsible for the ergonomic program.
    b. Teach recognition of MSD hazards, and control measures used to reduce hazards.
    c. Conduct training initially and periodically and at least once every 3 years thereafter.
    Provide prompt response to an injured employee.
    Evaluate the program periodically-at least every three years
    Consult with employees on program effectiveness and deficiencies-look at injuries that have occurred.
    Correct any deficiencies
  • Administrative controls, Work Practice Controls, Engineering controls
  • L.ighting/glare, temperature and noise
  • False
  • Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs)
  • True
  • Ergonomics is the science of fitting the job to the worker.
  • Decreased range of motion
    Loss of function
    Loss of color
    Decreased grip strength
    Loss of balance
  • True
  • True
  • Get everyone to provide some thoughts on this. Desk, chair, lighting, tools, etc
  • Ergonomics for the 21st Century Training by Nicholls State University

    2. 2. PRE-TEST What is ergonomics? What are MSDs? What are symptoms of MSD? How can I evaluate my workplace? What are some ergonomic solutions?
    3. 3. COURSE OBJECTIVES Define ergonomics Establish ergonomics in the workplace Introduce basic skills in the recognition & control of occupational ergonomic hazards Introduce ergonomic exercises.
    4. 4. PROGRAM GOAL To minimize injuries due to chronic physical and psychological stresses, while maximizing productivity and efficiency
    5. 5. ERGONOMICS DEFINED Ergonomics is the science of fitting the job to the worker.
    6. 6. BIOMECHANICS The science of measuring the amount of force put on the muscles and joints of people when working in different positions.
    7. 7. BIOMECHANICS CONT. STATIC - Holding one object or body part in one position for an extended period. EX. Standing or sitting in a parking booth or at a microscope.
    8. 8. BIOMECHANICS CONT. DYNAMIC - An activity created by the rhythmic contraction and relaxation of the muscles. EX. Walking
    9. 9. DID YOU KNOW? As early as the 1700’s scientists were aware of repetitive movement injuries to workers. Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714) Clerks Cobblers Porters and tailors
    10. 10. ERGONOMIC STUDY AREAS WORKERS - what they bring to the job TOOLS - what they bring to the worker
    11. 11. ERGONOMIC STUDY AREAS TASKS - what the worker must do ENVIRONMENT- the conditions surrounding the worker and the tool
    12. 12. ERGONOMIC FOCUS The Tool The Task The User /Operator The Work Station and Environment
    13. 13. RESULTING INJURIES ARE CALLED: Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD), Or Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSI), Or Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD)
    14. 14. HOW SERIOUS ARE MSD MSD account for:  1/3 of all lost day injuries each year  These injuries cost business $15-20 billion in worker’s compensation each year
    15. 15. COMMON CAUSES: Repetitive and/or prolonged activities Awkward postures/positions for an extended time Static postures Vibration High/low Temperatures for an extended time Forceful exertions
    17. 17. SIGNS OF MSD Decreased range of motion Loss of function Deformity Cramping Loss of color Decreased grip strength Loss of balance Swelling Redness
    18. 18. SYMPTOMS OF MSD Muscle fatigue or pain Aching Burning Numbness Stiffness Tingling
    19. 19. EXAMPLES OF MSD TENDONITIS- An inflammation of the tendon. Typically occurs in the shoulder, wrist, hands, or elbow. CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME- Irritation of the median nerve, which runs through a bony channel in the wrist called the carpal tunnel. Usually results from excessive flexing or twisting of the wrist.
    21. 21. MSD CONT. TRIGGER FINGER SYNDROME- Tendons in the fingers become inflamed, causing pain, swelling, and a loss of dexterity. EYE STRAIN - The eyes become strained as a result of poor lighting, glare or viewing from awkward positions.
    22. 22. MSD CONT. HAND/ARM VIBRATION SYNDROMETingling, numbness, blanching, loss of dexterity in the hand/arm MUSCLE STRAIN – Pain in muscles
    23. 23. VIDEO
    24. 24. WHAT CAN WE DO? Administrative controls Work practice controls Engineering controls
    25. 25. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS Employee rotation/job task expansion Physical adjustments to the work pace Redesign of work methods Alternative tasks Breaks
    26. 26. WORK PRACTICE CONTROLS Safe & proper work techniques & procedures Training Physical conditioning period
    27. 27. POSTURE & ANGLES Whether your tasks are performed while sitting or standing, always maintain proper posture & angles--and avoid: Awkward positions, and Extreme reaches for materials
    30. 30. MORE ANGLES…
    31. 31. MORE ANGLES…
    32. 32. ENGINEERING CONTROLS Workstations Tools/equipment Facilities
    33. 33. WORKSTATIONS The objective is to: Fit the workstation to the employee Reduce awkward positions This can be done by using two methods:
    34. 34. WORKSTATIONS CONT. Standard Way  Adjustable workstation  Adjustable chair  Foot rests  Adjustable monitor  Document holder Innovative Way  Cut legs off  Add blocks  Build foot rest  Thick book  Build platform
    35. 35. TOOLS Use of Force or of grip-strength  Longer/shorter and thicker/thinner handles Repetitive motion  Ratcheting mechanism or gears  Power tools Electric stapler Electric knife Spring-loaded returns
    36. 36. TOOLS CONT. Awkward positions  Bent or curved handles  Extensions or add-ons  Headphones  Support equipment overhead  Step stool Forceful exertions  Soft-touch keyboards/buttons  Lifting devices
    37. 37. TOOLS CONT. Static positions  Anti-fatigue mats Vibration  Anti-vibration materials  Anti-vibration mounts/handles  External support  Anti-vibration gloves
    38. 38. FACILITIES Lighting/glare
    39. 39. FACILITIES Temperature
    40. 40. FACILITIES Noise
    41. 41. EXERCISES & STRETCHES These are exercises or stretches that can be performed at your workstation, home, just about anywhere.
    42. 42. EYE Eye comfort exercises  Blinking  Yawning  Focus change
    43. 43. EYE Palming While seated, brace elbows on the edge of the desk Let weight fall forward Cup hands over eyes and close eyes Inhale slowly through nose & hold for 4 seconds Continue deep breathing for 15-30 seconds
    44. 44. EYE Movements Close eyes and slowly & gently move eyes up to the ceiling, then slowly down to the floor Repeat 3 times Close eyes and slowly & gently move eyes to the left, then slowly to the right Repeat 3 times
    45. 45. NECK STRETCH Tilt ear towards shoulder Reach up and touch top of head with palm to hold in tilted position Hold 5-10 seconds. Repeat 2-3 times (come out of stretch slowly) Reverse side and repeat
    46. 46. Pec Corner Stretch Stand at a corner about a foot away from the wall with forearms on opposite sides of the corner. One foot should be forward. Elbows should be at slightly below shoulder height Keep abdominals tight to avoid arching back Lean gently towards corner by bending the front knee until a stretch is felt in front of the chest. Hold 5-10 seconds. Repeat 2-3 times
    47. 47. Overhead Reach Take a deep breathe and reach up over head with both arms. Hold 5-10 seconds Exhale and lower slowly Repeat 2-3 times
    48. 48. Shoulder Pinch Place arms behind head being careful not to press hand into head Relax shoulders, and squeeze shoulder blades together while keeping shoulders back and down Hold 5-10 seconds. Repeat 2-3 times
    49. 49. Shoulder Shrug Sitting up straight, slowly bring shoulders up toward your ears. Hold positions 5-10 seconds Then bring the shoulders down and hold Repeat 2-3 times
    50. 50. Chair Rotation Stretch Sit in chair and place feet flat on floor Reach across your body and grab the back of the chair Pull gently to increase stretch in mid back Hold 5-10 seconds. Repeat 5 times Repeat on other side
    51. 51. Arms Behind Back Stretch Hold hands behind back and grasp hands together Pull shoulder blades back and down Hold 5 seconds. Repeat 5 times
    52. 52. Thoracic Spine Extension Stretch Lie on your back with a pillow under your knees. Place a firmly rolled towel under your shoulder blades across your upper back Raise arms up as you inhale Lower arms as you exhale, and hold a couple of seconds Do this 5 times
    53. 53. Prop Ups or Press Ups Lie on stomach and either prop up on forearms or if wrists are not compromised, press up through hands. Let stomach sag, and allow back to arch without using back muscles. If propped on elbows, hold 5-10 seconds. Repeat 5 times If on hands, press up and down slowly 10 times
    54. 54. Foot Rotations While sitting upright, slowly rotate each foot from the ankles 3 times in one direction Then rotate 3 in the opposite direction
    55. 55. Wrist Flexed & Extended Hold arm straight at waist height With fingers of other hand, gently press down above the knuckles, bending wrist down. (DO NOT hold at the fingers to push down.) Hold 5-10 seconds and repeat 2-3 times For extending, hold onto palm of hand and stretch wrist back. (DO NOT pull on fingers.) Hold 5-10 seconds and repeat 2-3 times.
    56. 56. Finger Massage VERY gently, massage the fingers of each hand individually. Move toward the nail gently. Massage the space between your fingers to widen and relax
    57. 57. Finger Squeeze Squeeze a foam block OR the edge of your desk firmly with all fingers Hold for 3 seconds Relax your grip
    58. 58. ERGONOMICS PROGRAM Essential elements:  Management Leadership and employee participation  Hazard information and reporting  Job Hazard Analysis and Control  Training  MSD Management  Program evaluation
    59. 59. ERGONOMICS POST TEST What three types of controls can we implement as solutions What three types of controls can we implement as solutions for ergonomic problems? for ergonomic problems?
    60. 60. ERGONOMICS POST TEST What three types of controls can we implement as solutions for ergonomic problems? List three (3) examples of environmental conditions that List three (3) examples of environmental conditions that affect affect employees. employees.
    61. 61. ERGONOMICS POST TEST What three types of controls can we implement as solutions for ergonomic problems? List three (3) examples of environmental conditions that affect employees. Posture is not important in regards to ergonomics. T or F Posture is not important in regards to ergonomics. T or F
    62. 62. ERGONOMICS POST TEST What three types of controls can we implement as solutions for ergonomic problems? List three (3) examples of environmental conditions that affect employees. Posture is not important in regards to ergonomics. T or F What does MSD stand for? What does MSD stand for?
    63. 63. ERGONOMICS POST TEST What three types of controls can we implement as solutions for ergonomic problems? List three (3) examples of environmental conditions that affect employees. Posture is not important in regards to ergonomics. T or F What does MSD stand for? Two examples of MSDs are, Tendonitis and Carpal Tunnel Two examples of MSDs are, Tendonitis and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. T or F Syndrome. T or F
    64. 64. ERGONOMICS POST TEST What is ergonomics? What is ergonomics?
    65. 65. ERGONOMICS POST TEST What is ergonomics? List three (3) signs of MSD. List three (3) signs of MSD.
    66. 66. ERGONOMICS POST TEST What is ergonomics? List three (3) signs of MSD. Ergonomics study areas include the worker and tools. T or Ergonomics study areas include the worker and tools. T or F F
    67. 67. ERGONOMICS POST TEST What is ergonomics? List three (3) signs of MSD. Ergonomics study areas include the worker and tools. When focusing on the tool, the task and the environment you When focusing on the tool, the task and the environment you are trying to find the best combination for the worker are trying to find the best combination for the worker (user/operator). T or F (user/operator). T or F
    68. 68. ERGONOMICS POST TEST What is ergonomics? List three (3) signs of MSD. Ergonomics study areas include the worker and tools. T or F When focusing on the tool, the task and the environment you are trying to find the best combination for the worker (user/operator). T or F How can evaluate my workplace? How can I I evaluate my workplace?
    69. 69. QUESTIONS