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Construction Safety Training by Alliance

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Construction Safety Training by Alliance

  1. 1. Design forDesign for Construction Safety (DfCS)Construction Safety (DfCS) 2 to 4 Hour Course2 to 4 Hour Course
  2. 2. WHAT IS DESIGNING FORWHAT IS DESIGNING FOR CONSTRUCTION SAFETY?CONSTRUCTION SAFETY? The process of addressingThe process of addressing construction site safety andconstruction site safety and health, and planning forhealth, and planning for future maintenance in thefuture maintenance in the design phase of a project.design phase of a project.
  3. 3. WHY IS IT NECESSARY?WHY IS IT NECESSARY?  Currently there are no requirements forCurrently there are no requirements for construction safety in building codesconstruction safety in building codes  IBC Chapter 33 Safeguards DuringIBC Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction-Pedestrian SafetyConstruction-Pedestrian Safety
  4. 4. OSHA 1926-Engineering ControlsOSHA 1926-Engineering Controls  1926.452 Scaffolds1926.452 Scaffolds  1926.502 Fall Protection Anchorages1926.502 Fall Protection Anchorages  1926.552 Hoists1926.552 Hoists  1926.652 Excavations1926.652 Excavations  1926.703 Shoring1926.703 Shoring  1926.705 Lift Slabs1926.705 Lift Slabs
  5. 5. DfCS ProcessDfCS Process11 -It’s a Team Concept-It’s a Team Concept Design Kickoff Design Internal Review Issue for Construction External Review Trade contractor involvement • Establish design for safety expectations • Include construction and operation perspective • Identify design for safety process and tools • QA/QC • Cross- discipline review • Focused safety review • Owner review 1 Gambatese
  6. 6. U.S. Construction Accident StatisticsU.S. Construction Accident Statistics11  Nearly 200,000 serious injuries and 1,226Nearly 200,000 serious injuries and 1,226 deaths each yeardeaths each year  5.5% of workforce but 21.5% of fatalities5.5% of workforce but 21.5% of fatalities  Construction has one of the highest fatalityConstruction has one of the highest fatality rates of any industry sectorrates of any industry sector 11 Bureau of Labor Statistics-2006Bureau of Labor Statistics-2006
  7. 7. CONSTRUCTION ACCIDENTS INCONSTRUCTION ACCIDENTS IN U.S.U.S.11 11 Photos courtesy of Washington Group InternationalPhotos courtesy of Washington Group International
  8. 8. CONSTRUCTION FATALITIES BYCONSTRUCTION FATALITIES BY OCCUPATIONOCCUPATION11  Total fatalities 1,226Total fatalities 1,226  Construction laborers 360Construction laborers 360  Electricians 117Electricians 117  Carpenters 114Carpenters 114  First Line supervisors 113First Line supervisors 113  Roofers 82Roofers 82  Painters and paper hangers 54Painters and paper hangers 54  Structural steel 36Structural steel 36 11 BLS,2006BLS,2006
  9. 9. MOST FREQUENTLY CITED/HIGHESTMOST FREQUENTLY CITED/HIGHEST PENALTY OSHA VIOLATIONS INPENALTY OSHA VIOLATIONS IN CONSTRUCTIONCONSTRUCTION11  Scaffolding 29 CFR 1926.451Scaffolding 29 CFR 1926.451  Fall Protection 29 CFR 1926.501Fall Protection 29 CFR 1926.501  Ladders 29 CFR 1926.1053Ladders 29 CFR 1926.1053  Excavations 29 CFR 1926.651Excavations 29 CFR 1926.651  Aerial Lifts 29 CFR 1926.453Aerial Lifts 29 CFR 1926.453 11 Most Frequently Cited Standards 2005 www.osha.govMost Frequently Cited Standards 2005 www.osha.gov
  10. 10. Considering Safety During DesignConsidering Safety During Design Offers the Most PayoffOffers the Most Payoff11 Conceptual Design Detailed Engineering Procurement Construction Start-up High Low Ability to Influence Safety Project Schedule 1 Szymberski 1987
  11. 11. DESIGN CAN INFLUENCEDESIGN CAN INFLUENCE CONSTRUCTION SAFETY1CONSTRUCTION SAFETY11,21,2  22% of 226 injuries that occurred from 2000-2002 in Oregon,22% of 226 injuries that occurred from 2000-2002 in Oregon, WA and CA linked to designWA and CA linked to design  42% of 224 fatalities in US between 1990-2003 linked to42% of 224 fatalities in US between 1990-2003 linked to designdesign  In Europe, a 1991 study concluded that 60% of fatal accidentsIn Europe, a 1991 study concluded that 60% of fatal accidents resulted from decisions made before site work beganresulted from decisions made before site work began 11 Behm, “Linking Construction Fatalities to the Design for Construction Safety Concept”, 2005Behm, “Linking Construction Fatalities to the Design for Construction Safety Concept”, 2005 22 European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working ConditionsEuropean Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
  12. 12. What Types of Design Decisions?What Types of Design Decisions?  IBC paragraph 704.11.1IBC paragraph 704.11.1 requires that a parapet wallrequires that a parapet wall be at least 30 inches highbe at least 30 inches high  OSHA 1926 Subpart MOSHA 1926 Subpart M requires a 39-45 inchrequires a 39-45 inch guardrail or other fallguardrail or other fall protectionprotection  If the design professionalIf the design professional specifies a 39-45 inch highspecifies a 39-45 inch high parapet wall, fall protectionparapet wall, fall protection would not be requiredwould not be required
  13. 13. DfCS Examples:DfCS Examples: RoofsRoofs Skylights Upper story windows and roof parapets
  14. 14. COURSE OBJECTIVESCOURSE OBJECTIVES  To provide design and constructionTo provide design and construction professionals with skills to identifyprofessionals with skills to identify construction safety hazardsconstruction safety hazards  To provide design and constructionTo provide design and construction professionals with skills to eliminate orprofessionals with skills to eliminate or reduce the risk of a serious injury in thereduce the risk of a serious injury in the design phasedesign phase
  15. 15. COURSE OBJECTIVESCOURSE OBJECTIVES  Safety Engineering-skills to recognizeSafety Engineering-skills to recognize hazards and uncover “hidden” hazardshazards and uncover “hidden” hazards  Design features to eliminate or reduceDesign features to eliminate or reduce the risk of an injury due to a hazardthe risk of an injury due to a hazard  OSHA resources for DfCSOSHA resources for DfCS
  16. 16. Crash Course in Safety EngineeringCrash Course in Safety Engineering  Safety Engineering is a specialtySafety Engineering is a specialty within the engineering field thatwithin the engineering field that deals with the identification anddeals with the identification and elimination of hazards.elimination of hazards.  Safety Engineering cuts across allSafety Engineering cuts across all engineering disciplines: Civil,engineering disciplines: Civil, Mechanical, Chemical, Electrical, asMechanical, Chemical, Electrical, as well as many branches of science.well as many branches of science.
  17. 17. What is a Hazard?What is a Hazard?  AA HAZARDHAZARD is the potential to dois the potential to do harm or damageharm or damage  RISKRISK is a measure of the probabilityis a measure of the probability of a hazard-related incidentof a hazard-related incident occurring and the severity of harm oroccurring and the severity of harm or damagedamage
  18. 18. Recognized HazardsRecognized Hazards  Gravity-Falls from elevationGravity-Falls from elevation Falling objectsFalling objects  Slopes-UpsetSlopes-Upset RolloverRollover Unstable surfacesUnstable surfaces  Water- DrowningWater- Drowning
  19. 19. Recognized HazardsRecognized Hazards  Walking/working surfaces-Walking/working surfaces- tripping, slippingtripping, slipping  Mechanical hazards-Mechanical hazards- Rotation, reciprocation, shearing,Rotation, reciprocation, shearing, vibration, pinch points, hydraulics,vibration, pinch points, hydraulics, pneumatics, entanglementpneumatics, entanglement
  20. 20. Recognized HazardsRecognized Hazards  Stored energy- springs, pneumaticsStored energy- springs, pneumatics hydraulics, capacitorshydraulics, capacitors  Electrical-electrostatic, current,Electrical-electrostatic, current, voltage, sparks, arcsvoltage, sparks, arcs  Chemical-corrosive, combustion,Chemical-corrosive, combustion, toxictoxic
  21. 21. Recognized HazardsRecognized Hazards  Biological-allergens, carcinogensBiological-allergens, carcinogens  Radiant Energy-sound, nuclear,Radiant Energy-sound, nuclear, X-rays, light, lasersX-rays, light, lasers
  22. 22. Recognized Hazards-SourcesRecognized Hazards-Sources ANSI StandardsANSI Standards  ANSI Z49.1 Safety in Welding and CuttingANSI Z49.1 Safety in Welding and Cutting  ANSI Z117.1 Safety Requirements forANSI Z117.1 Safety Requirements for Confined SpacesConfined Spaces  ANSI D6.1 Manual on Uniform TrafficANSI D6.1 Manual on Uniform Traffic Control DevicesControl Devices  ANSI 10.8 Safety Requirements forANSI 10.8 Safety Requirements for ScaffoldingScaffolding  ANSI 14.2 Safety Requirements forANSI 14.2 Safety Requirements for Portable LaddersPortable Ladders
  23. 23. Recognized Hazards-SourcesRecognized Hazards-Sources ANSI StandardsANSI Standards  ANSI Z93.1 Fire Hazards in OxygenANSI Z93.1 Fire Hazards in Oxygen Enriched AtmospheresEnriched Atmospheres  ANSI A14.4 Job Made WoodenANSI A14.4 Job Made Wooden LaddersLadders  ANSI A10.6-Safety Requirements forANSI A10.6-Safety Requirements for Demolition OperationsDemolition Operations  ANSI A1264.1-Safety RequirementsANSI A1264.1-Safety Requirements for Workplace Floor and Wallfor Workplace Floor and Wall Openings, Stairs & Railing SystemsOpenings, Stairs & Railing Systems
  24. 24. Recognized Hazards-SourcesRecognized Hazards-Sources ANSI StandardsANSI Standards  ANSI A10.13 Safety RequirementsANSI A10.13 Safety Requirements for Steel erectionfor Steel erection  ANSI A145.1 Recommended PracticeANSI A145.1 Recommended Practice for Concrete Formworkfor Concrete Formwork  ANSI Z244.1 Lockout/Tagout ofANSI Z244.1 Lockout/Tagout of Energy SourcesEnergy Sources
  25. 25. Recognized Hazards-SourcesRecognized Hazards-Sources ASTM StandardsASTM Standards  ASTM F802 Guide for Selection ofASTM F802 Guide for Selection of Certain Walkway Surfaces WhenCertain Walkway Surfaces When Considering Footwear TrafficConsidering Footwear Traffic  ASTM 04.09 Wood ConstructionASTM 04.09 Wood Construction  ASTM D4532 Respirable Dust inASTM D4532 Respirable Dust in Workplace AtmospheresWorkplace Atmospheres  ASTM STP 1150 Fire Hazard and FireASTM STP 1150 Fire Hazard and Fire Risk AssessmentRisk Assessment
  26. 26. Recognized Hazards-SourcesRecognized Hazards-Sources ASTM StandardsASTM Standards  ASTM O 4.07 Building Seals andASTM O 4.07 Building Seals and SealantsSealants
  27. 27. Recognized Hazards-SourcesRecognized Hazards-Sources NFPA StandardsNFPA Standards  NFPA Volume 13, 53M Fire HazardsNFPA Volume 13, 53M Fire Hazards in Oxygen Enriched Atmospheresin Oxygen Enriched Atmospheres  NFPA 654 Prevention of Fire andNFPA 654 Prevention of Fire and Dust Explosions in the Chemical,Dust Explosions in the Chemical, Dye, Pharmaceutical, and PlasticsDye, Pharmaceutical, and Plastics IndustriesIndustries  NFPA 241 SafeguardingNFPA 241 Safeguarding Construction, Alteration, andConstruction, Alteration, and Demolition OperationsDemolition Operations
  28. 28. Recognized Hazards-SourcesRecognized Hazards-Sources Government RegulationsGovernment Regulations  OSHA 1926.550 Cranes and derricksOSHA 1926.550 Cranes and derricks  OSHA 1926.251 Rigging Material forOSHA 1926.251 Rigging Material for Material HandlingMaterial Handling  OSHA 1926.452 ScaffoldsOSHA 1926.452 Scaffolds  OSHA 1926.800 UndergroundOSHA 1926.800 Underground ConstructionConstruction  OSHA 1926.52 Occupational NoiseOSHA 1926.52 Occupational Noise ExposureExposure
  29. 29. Recognized Hazards-SourcesRecognized Hazards-Sources NFPA StandardsNFPA Standards  NFPA 30 Flammable and CombustibleNFPA 30 Flammable and Combustible LiquidsLiquids  NFPA 325M Fire Hazard Properties ofNFPA 325M Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable Liquids, Gases & VolatileFlammable Liquids, Gases & Volatile SolidsSolids
  30. 30. Recognized Hazards-SourcesRecognized Hazards-Sources Government RegulationsGovernment Regulations  OSHA 1918.95 LongshoringOSHA 1918.95 Longshoring Operations in the Vicinity of RepairOperations in the Vicinity of Repair and Maintenance Workand Maintenance Work  OSHA 1926.1050-1053 StairwaysOSHA 1926.1050-1053 Stairways and Laddersand Ladders  OSHA 1926.650 ExcavationsOSHA 1926.650 Excavations  Federal Motor Carrier SafetyFederal Motor Carrier Safety RegulationsRegulations
  31. 31. Recognized Hazards-SourcesRecognized Hazards-Sources Other SourcesOther Sources  National Safety CouncilNational Safety Council  MSHAMSHA  SAESAE  NIOSHNIOSH  US Army Corps of EngineersUS Army Corps of Engineers  ACIACI
  32. 32. Recognized Hazards-ExamplesRecognized Hazards-Examples Fall Hazards 6 Feet or MoreFall Hazards 6 Feet or More11 11 Photos courtesy of Washington Group InternationalPhotos courtesy of Washington Group International Unprotected edges
  33. 33. Recognized Hazards-ExamplesRecognized Hazards-Examples Confined SpaceConfined Space
  34. 34. Recognized Hazards-ExamplesRecognized Hazards-Examples Power LinesPower Lines  Worker electrocuted when his drill rig got too close to overhead power lines.  Design engineer specified groundwater monitoring wells were to be dug directly under power lines.  Engineer could have specified wells be dug away from power lines and/or better informed the employer of hazard posed by wells’ proximity to powerlines through the plans, specifications, and bid documents.
  35. 35. Hidden Hazards-ExamplesHidden Hazards-Examples  Underground utilitiesUnderground utilities  Electrical wire buried in a wallElectrical wire buried in a wall  AsbestosAsbestos  Rot/Decay of structural membersRot/Decay of structural members  Gas linesGas lines  Any hazard uncovered during projectAny hazard uncovered during project executionexecution
  36. 36. Hidden Hazards-”What If” AnalysisHidden Hazards-”What If” Analysis  A “What If” analysis is a structuredA “What If” analysis is a structured brainstorming methods of uncoveringbrainstorming methods of uncovering hidden hazardshidden hazards  Select the boundaries of the reviewSelect the boundaries of the review and assemble an experienced teamand assemble an experienced team  Gather information-video tapes ofGather information-video tapes of operation, design documents,operation, design documents, maintenance procedures, etc.maintenance procedures, etc.
  37. 37. Hidden Hazards-”What If” AnalysisHidden Hazards-”What If” Analysis “What If” Situation Questions“What If” Situation Questions  Failure to follow proceduresFailure to follow procedures  Procedures are followed, but areProcedures are followed, but are incorrectincorrect  Equipment failureEquipment failure  Utility failureUtility failure  WeatherWeather  Operator not trainedOperator not trained
  38. 38. Hidden Hazards-”What If” AnalysisHidden Hazards-”What If” Analysis ExampleExample Highway Construction Project-Highway Construction Project-  What if workers have to access drains? Are drainsWhat if workers have to access drains? Are drains a possible confined space?a possible confined space?  What about the power lines? Will equipment beWhat about the power lines? Will equipment be operating near power lines?operating near power lines?  What about worker/public injury from trafficWhat about worker/public injury from traffic accidents? Do trucks have enough turning space?accidents? Do trucks have enough turning space? Is there signage/barriers to re-direct pedestrians?Is there signage/barriers to re-direct pedestrians?  Will construction vehicles have enough shoulderWill construction vehicles have enough shoulder space to stop on roadspace to stop on road  What if worker attempts to manually pick upWhat if worker attempts to manually pick up drain covers? Are they lightweight? Do they havedrain covers? Are they lightweight? Do they have handles?handles?
  39. 39. Hidden Hazards-Other MethodsHidden Hazards-Other Methods  Fault Tree AnalysisFault Tree Analysis  Design Check ListsDesign Check Lists  Plan review, if your gut feeling tellsPlan review, if your gut feeling tells you that something is unsafe, ityou that something is unsafe, it probably is.probably is.  Read case studies on constructionRead case studies on construction accidentsaccidents  ““Fatal Facts”Fatal Facts”
  40. 40. Fatal FactsFatal Facts
  41. 41. Fatal FactsFatal Facts
  42. 42. Fatal FactsFatal Facts
  43. 43. Fatal FactsFatal Facts
  44. 44. Fatal FactsFatal Facts
  45. 45. Design for Safety (DFS)Design for Safety (DFS)  Identify the hazard(s)Identify the hazard(s)  Assess the RiskAssess the Risk  Propose design features to eliminatePropose design features to eliminate the risk or reduce it to an acceptablethe risk or reduce it to an acceptable levellevel
  46. 46. DFS- Risk AssessmentDFS- Risk Assessment Estimate Injury SeverityEstimate Injury Severity SevereSevere-Death or serious debilitating-Death or serious debilitating long-term injury such as amputationlong-term injury such as amputation or comaor coma SeriousSerious-Permanent or nonreversible-Permanent or nonreversible injury that severely impactinjury that severely impact enjoyment of life and may requireenjoyment of life and may require continued treatmentcontinued treatment
  47. 47. DFS- Risk AssessmentDFS- Risk Assessment Estimate Injury SeverityEstimate Injury Severity ModerateModerate-Permanent or reversible-Permanent or reversible minor injury that does notminor injury that does not significantly impact enjoyment of life,significantly impact enjoyment of life, but requires medical treatment.but requires medical treatment. SlightSlight-Reversible injury requiring-Reversible injury requiring simple medical treatment with nosimple medical treatment with no confinementconfinement
  48. 48. DFS- Risk AssessmentDFS- Risk Assessment Estimate Probability of HazardousEstimate Probability of Hazardous EventEvent HighHigh- Very likely to occur, protective- Very likely to occur, protective measures are nearly worthlessmeasures are nearly worthless MediumMedium-Occurrence is likely. The-Occurrence is likely. The frequency of control measures isfrequency of control measures is significant or control measures aresignificant or control measures are inadequateinadequate
  49. 49. DFS- Risk AssessmentDFS- Risk Assessment Estimate Probability of HazardousEstimate Probability of Hazardous EventEvent ModerateModerate-Occurrence is possible, but-Occurrence is possible, but not likelynot likely LowLow- Occurrence is so unlikely as to- Occurrence is so unlikely as to be considered nearly zero.be considered nearly zero.
  50. 50. DFS-Risk Assessment MatrixDFS-Risk Assessment Matrix SeveritySeverity ProbabilityProbability SevereSevere SeriousSerious ModerateModerate SlightSlight HighHigh High High Medium LowHigh High Medium Low MediumMedium High Medium Low LowHigh Medium Low Low ModerateModerate Medium Low Low NegligibleMedium Low Low Negligible LowLow Low Low Negligible NegligibleLow Low Negligible Negligible
  51. 51. Other Forms of HazardOther Forms of Hazard Identification/Prevention MatrixIdentification/Prevention Matrix11 1Hazard Information Foundation, Inc.1Hazard Information Foundation, Inc.   Eliminate the Hazard Guard the Hazard Provide a Safety Factor Provide Redundancy Provide Reliability Hazard Safety Hazard Safety Hazard Safety Hazard Safety   Natural                   Structural/ Mechanical                   Electrical                   Chemical                   Radiant Energy                   Biological                   Artificial Intelligence                  
  52. 52. DFS-Design HierarchyDFS-Design Hierarchy  First-Design out the hazardFirst-Design out the hazard  Second-Provide safety devicesSecond-Provide safety devices  Third-Provide warning devicesThird-Provide warning devices  Fourth- Implement operatingFourth- Implement operating procedures and training programsprocedures and training programs  Fifth-Use personal protectiveFifth-Use personal protective equipmentequipment
  53. 53. END OF CRASH COURSEEND OF CRASH COURSE IN SAFETYIN SAFETY ENGINEERINGENGINEERING
  54. 54. Typical Construction ProjectTypical Construction Project ArrangementArrangement  Project owner separately contracts with aProject owner separately contracts with a Architect/Engineer and with a generalArchitect/Engineer and with a general contractor, prime contractor, constructioncontractor, prime contractor, construction manager, program manager or owner’s agentmanager, program manager or owner’s agent  Above entities may subcontract out some orAbove entities may subcontract out some or all of the work to specialty trade contractorsall of the work to specialty trade contractors  Project owners occasionally contract with aProject owners occasionally contract with a design-build firm to perform both design anddesign-build firm to perform both design and constructionconstruction
  55. 55. Root Causes for ConstructionRoot Causes for Construction AccidentsAccidents11  Inadequate construction planningInadequate construction planning  Lack of proper trainingLack of proper training  Deficient enforcement of trainingDeficient enforcement of training  Unsafe equipmentUnsafe equipment  Unsafe methods or sequencingUnsafe methods or sequencing  Unsafe site conditionsUnsafe site conditions  Not using safety equipment that was providedNot using safety equipment that was provided 11 Toole, “Construction Site Safety Roles”, 2002Toole, “Construction Site Safety Roles”, 2002
  56. 56. Potential Areas of Concern inPotential Areas of Concern in Construction SafetyConstruction Safety  FallsFalls  Hazardous materialsHazardous materials  Fire ProtectionFire Protection  ElectricalElectrical  ScaffoldingScaffolding  Floor and wall openings, stairways,Floor and wall openings, stairways, laddersladders
  57. 57. Potential Areas of Concern inPotential Areas of Concern in Construction SafetyConstruction Safety  Cranes, derricks, hoistsCranes, derricks, hoists  Material handling and storageMaterial handling and storage  Excavating and trenchingExcavating and trenching  Confined SpaceConfined Space  Work ZoneWork Zone
  58. 58. Potential Areas of Concern inPotential Areas of Concern in Construction SafetyConstruction Safety  Trade specificTrade specific Steel workersSteel workers ElectricalElectrical HVACHVAC PlumbingPlumbing ExcavatorsExcavators ConcreteConcrete
  59. 59. Designing for Construction SafetyDesigning for Construction Safety (DfCS) – What is it?(DfCS) – What is it?  An extension of DfS to coverAn extension of DfS to cover construction projectsconstruction projects  Recognizes construction site safetyRecognizes construction site safety as a design criterionas a design criterion  The process of addressingThe process of addressing construction site safety and health inconstruction site safety and health in the design of a projectthe design of a project
  60. 60. Designing for Construction SafetyDesigning for Construction Safety ProcessProcess11 11 GambateseGambatese Planning Preliminary design/ Schematics Design Construction Operation and Maintenance Planning Review Prelim. Design Review 30% Review 90% Review 60% Review
  61. 61. DfCS Examples:DfCS Examples: Prefabrication Steel stairs Concrete Wall Panels Concrete Segmented Bridge
  62. 62. DfCS Examples:DfCS Examples: Anchorage Points
  63. 63. DfCS Examples:DfCS Examples: RoofsRoofs Skylights Upper story windows and roof parapets
  64. 64. DfCS Examples:DfCS Examples: Steell Design  Avoid hanging connections;Avoid hanging connections; design to bear on columnsdesign to bear on columns instead using safety seatsinstead using safety seats  Require holes in columns forRequire holes in columns for tie lines 21” and 42” abovetie lines 21” and 42” above each floor slabeach floor slab  Specify shop weldedSpecify shop welded connections instead of boltsconnections instead of bolts or field welds to avoidor field welds to avoid dangerous positions duringdangerous positions during erectionerection  Consider approximateConsider approximate dimensions of connectiondimensions of connection tools to prevent pinches ortools to prevent pinches or awkward assembliesawkward assembliesNational Institute of Steel Detailing and SteelNational Institute of Steel Detailing and Steel Erectors Association of America.Erectors Association of America. DetailingDetailing Guide for the Enhancement of Erection Safety.Guide for the Enhancement of Erection Safety.
  65. 65. DfCS Examples: Residential FallDfCS Examples: Residential Fall ProtectionProtection
  66. 66. Other DfCS Design ExamplesOther DfCS Design Examples  Design underground utilities to be placedDesign underground utilities to be placed using trenchless technologyusing trenchless technology11  Specify primers, sealers and otherSpecify primers, sealers and other coatings that do not emit noxious fumescoatings that do not emit noxious fumes or contain carcinogenic productsor contain carcinogenic products22  Design cable type lifeline system forDesign cable type lifeline system for storage towersstorage towers33 11 Weinstein, “Can Design Improve Construction Safety”, 2005Weinstein, “Can Design Improve Construction Safety”, 2005 22 Gambatese, “Viability of Designing for Construction Worker Safety”, 2005Gambatese, “Viability of Designing for Construction Worker Safety”, 2005 33 Behm, “Linking Construction Fatalities to the Design for Construction SafetyBehm, “Linking Construction Fatalities to the Design for Construction Safety Concept”, 2005Concept”, 2005
  67. 67. CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATORCASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPSPUMPS
  68. 68. CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATORCASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPSPUMPS  Replacing circulator pumps requiresReplacing circulator pumps requires a ladder,pumps are located in a tighta ladder,pumps are located in a tight space.space.  Maintenance worker could fall offMaintenance worker could fall off ladder, drop pump, or suffer handladder, drop pump, or suffer hand injury from hitting adjacent pipinginjury from hitting adjacent piping
  69. 69. CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATORCASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPSPUMPS Design review questions-Design review questions- Is there enough room to replace theIs there enough room to replace the pumps?pumps? How high off the ground are the pumps?How high off the ground are the pumps? What if a maintenance worker has to shutWhat if a maintenance worker has to shut off a valve an emergency?off a valve an emergency?
  70. 70. CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATORCASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPSPUMPS Identify Hazard-Identify Hazard- Fall and mechanicalFall and mechanical
  71. 71. CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATORCASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPSPUMPS Assess Risk-Assess Risk- severity- slight (knuckles) to seriousseverity- slight (knuckles) to serious (head injury)(head injury) probability-medium (likely)probability-medium (likely) risk- low to mediumrisk- low to medium Additional consideration- solution isAdditional consideration- solution is simple and inexpensivesimple and inexpensive
  72. 72. CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATORCASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPSPUMPS SeveritySeverity ProbabilityProbability SevereSevere SeriousSerious ModerateModerate SlightSlight HighHigh High High Medium LowHigh High Medium Low MediumMedium HighHigh Medium Low LowMedium Low Low ModerateModerate Medium Low Low NegligibleMedium Low Low Negligible LowLow Low Low Negligible NegligibleLow Low Negligible Negligible
  73. 73. CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATORCASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPSPUMPS DfCS solution: design pumps close toDfCS solution: design pumps close to ground level so that a ladder is notground level so that a ladder is not required, provide adequate space aroundrequired, provide adequate space around pumps, provide a metal identification tagpumps, provide a metal identification tag for each valve and provide a permanentfor each valve and provide a permanent identification board in the mechanicalidentification board in the mechanical room that identifies each valve and it’sroom that identifies each valve and it’s purpose.purpose.
  74. 74. CASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATORCASE STUDY #1-CIRCULATOR PUMPSPUMPS
  75. 75. CASE STUDY #2-CASE STUDY #2- INSTALLATIONMAINTENANCE OFINSTALLATIONMAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)  HVAC System installed in the attic ofHVAC System installed in the attic of a commercial office buildinga commercial office building  No floor or platform/walkways wereNo floor or platform/walkways were designed or installeddesigned or installed  HVAC technicians had to walk onHVAC technicians had to walk on joists/trussesjoists/trusses
  76. 76. CASE STUDY #2-CASE STUDY #2- INSTALLATIONMAINTENANCE OFINSTALLATIONMAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC) Design review questionsDesign review questions What will workers stand on when installingWhat will workers stand on when installing HVAC system?HVAC system? Will regular maintenance be required?Will regular maintenance be required? What will the maintenance workers standWhat will the maintenance workers stand on?on? What are the pertinent OSHA regulations?What are the pertinent OSHA regulations?
  77. 77. CASE STUDY #2-CASE STUDY #2- INSTALLATIONMAINTENANCEINSTALLATIONMAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)
  78. 78. CASE STUDY #2-CASE STUDY #2- INSTALLATIONMAINTENANCE OFINSTALLATIONMAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC) Design review questionsDesign review questions What will workers stand on when installingWhat will workers stand on when installing HVAC system?HVAC system? Will regular maintenance be required?Will regular maintenance be required? What will the maintenance workers standWhat will the maintenance workers stand on?on? What are the pertinent OSHA regulations?What are the pertinent OSHA regulations?
  79. 79. CASE STUDY #2-CASE STUDY #2- INSTALLATIONMAINTENANCE OFINSTALLATIONMAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC) Identify hazardIdentify hazard FALLFALL
  80. 80. CASE STUDY #2-CASE STUDY #2- INSTALLATIONMAINTENANCE OFINSTALLATIONMAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC) Assess Risk-Assess Risk- severity- serious (knee) to severeseverity- serious (knee) to severe (death)(death) probability-medium (likely)probability-medium (likely) risk- medium to highrisk- medium to high
  81. 81. CASE STUDY #2-CASE STUDY #2- INSTALLATIONMAINTENANCE OF HVACINSTALLATIONMAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)SYSTEM (ATTIC) SeveritySeverity ProbabilityProbability SevereSevere SeriousSerious ModerateModerate SlightSlight HighHigh High High Medium LowHigh High Medium Low MediumMedium High MediumHigh Medium Low LowLow Low ModerateModerate Medium Low Low NegligibleMedium Low Low Negligible LowLow Low Low Negligible NegligibleLow Low Negligible Negligible
  82. 82. CASE STUDY #2-CASE STUDY #2- INSTALLATIONMAINTENANCE OFINSTALLATIONMAINTENANCE OF HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC)HVAC SYSTEM (ATTIC) DfCS solution: design permanentDfCS solution: design permanent platforms and walkways withplatforms and walkways with guardrailsguardrails
  83. 83. CASE STUDY #3-RAW COALCASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITYRECLAIM FACILITY11  Plant utility worker was fatallyPlant utility worker was fatally injured while performing clean-upinjured while performing clean-up duties at a raw coal reclaim areaduties at a raw coal reclaim area  Victim either fell through a 56” x 80”Victim either fell through a 56” x 80” opening in a platform or enteredopening in a platform or entered through a coal feeder openingthrough a coal feeder opening 11 Case study courtesy of Washington Group InternationalCase study courtesy of Washington Group International
  84. 84. CASE STUDY #3-RAW COALCASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITYRECLAIM FACILITY Design review questions-Design review questions- Will workers need to have access toWill workers need to have access to conveyors?conveyors? Are covers and/or guardrailsAre covers and/or guardrails provided for all openings near orprovided for all openings near or over conveyors?over conveyors? Are covers and/or guardrail gatesAre covers and/or guardrail gates interlocked?interlocked?
  85. 85. CASE STUDY #3-RAW COALCASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITYRECLAIM FACILITY
  86. 86. CASE STUDY #3-RAW COALCASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITYRECLAIM FACILITY Identify hazardIdentify hazard MechanicalMechanical
  87. 87. CASE STUDY #3-RAW COALCASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITYRECLAIM FACILITY Assess Risk-Assess Risk- severity- severe (death)severity- severe (death) probability-medium to highprobability-medium to high risk- highrisk- high
  88. 88. CASE STUDY #3-RAW COALCASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITYRECLAIM FACILITY SeveritySeverity ProbabilityProbability SevereSevere SeriousSerious ModerateModerate SlightSlight HighHigh HighHigh High Medium LowHigh Medium Low MediumMedium HighHigh Medium Low LowMedium Low Low ModerateModerate Medium Low Low NegligibleMedium Low Low Negligible LowLow Low Low Negligible NegligibleLow Low Negligible Negligible
  89. 89. CASE STUDY #3-RAW COALCASE STUDY #3-RAW COAL RECLAIM FACILITYRECLAIM FACILITY DfCS solution: design covers and/orDfCS solution: design covers and/or guardrails over conveyor belts andguardrails over conveyor belts and opening to conveyor belts. Designopening to conveyor belts. Design interlocks for covers and gates.interlocks for covers and gates.
  90. 90. CASE STUDY #4-BLINDCASE STUDY #4-BLIND PENETRATION INTO CONCRETEPENETRATION INTO CONCRETE11 A construction worker penetrated anA construction worker penetrated an embedded electrical conduitembedded electrical conduit containing an energized 120-volt linecontaining an energized 120-volt line while hand drilling into a concretewhile hand drilling into a concrete bean to install pipe hanger inserts.bean to install pipe hanger inserts. The conduit was 1 inch from theThe conduit was 1 inch from the surface.surface. 11 Dept. of Energy Blind Penetration IncidentsDept. of Energy Blind Penetration Incidents
  91. 91. CASE STUDY #4-BLINDCASE STUDY #4-BLIND PENETRATION INTO CONCRETEPENETRATION INTO CONCRETE Design review questionsDesign review questions How will the worker install the pipeHow will the worker install the pipe hangers?hangers? Are there any electrical lines in theAre there any electrical lines in the concrete beam?concrete beam? Are there any pipe hangers that will beAre there any pipe hangers that will be near an electrical line?near an electrical line?
  92. 92. CASE STUDY #4-BLINDCASE STUDY #4-BLIND PENETRATION INTO CONCRETEPENETRATION INTO CONCRETE Assess Risk-Assess Risk- severity- severe (death)severity- severe (death) probability- moderate to mediumprobability- moderate to medium risk- medium to highrisk- medium to high
  93. 93. CASE STUDY #4-BLINDCASE STUDY #4-BLIND PENETRATION INTO CONCRETEPENETRATION INTO CONCRETE SeveritySeverity ProbabilityProbability SevereSevere SeriousSerious ModerateModerate SlightSlight HighHigh High High Medium LowHigh High Medium Low MediumMedium HighHigh Medium Low LowMedium Low Low ModerateModerate MediumMedium Low Low NegligibleLow Low Negligible LowLow Low Low Negligible NegligibleLow Low Negligible Negligible
  94. 94. CASE STUDY #4-BLINDCASE STUDY #4-BLIND PENETRATION INTO CONCRETEPENETRATION INTO CONCRETE DfCS Solution: Design embeddedDfCS Solution: Design embedded electrical lines deeper than theelectrical lines deeper than the maximum depth of the pipe hangermaximum depth of the pipe hanger bolts, clearly mark locations ofbolts, clearly mark locations of electrical lines on contract drawingselectrical lines on contract drawings
  95. 95. CASE STUDY #5-INCINERATORCASE STUDY #5-INCINERATOR CLEANOUTCLEANOUT11  An incinerator located adjacent to a main catwalk on 4An incinerator located adjacent to a main catwalk on 4thth floorfloor  There was no catwalk from the main catwalk to theThere was no catwalk from the main catwalk to the incineratorincinerator  Workers periodically had to go into incinerator to cleanWorkers periodically had to go into incinerator to clean  Workers used make shift planking to from main catwalk toWorkers used make shift planking to from main catwalk to incineratorincinerator 11 Note the catwalk from the main catwalk to the incinerator with the yellow guardrails wasNote the catwalk from the main catwalk to the incinerator with the yellow guardrails was not in place at the time the worker fell.not in place at the time the worker fell.
  96. 96. CASE STUDY #5-INCINERATORCASE STUDY #5-INCINERATOR CLEANOUTCLEANOUT
  97. 97. CASE STUDY #5-INCINERATORCASE STUDY #5-INCINERATOR CLEANOUTCLEANOUT
  98. 98. CASE STUDY #5-INCINERATORCASE STUDY #5-INCINERATOR CLEANOUTCLEANOUT Design review questions..Design review questions.. Will regular maintenance be required?Will regular maintenance be required? How will the workers gain access to theHow will the workers gain access to the incineratorincinerator What are the pertinent OSHA regulations?What are the pertinent OSHA regulations?
  99. 99. CASE STUDY #5-INCINERATORCASE STUDY #5-INCINERATOR CLEANOUTCLEANOUT Identify hazardIdentify hazard FALLFALL
  100. 100. CASE STUDY #5-INCINERATORCASE STUDY #5-INCINERATOR CLEANOUTCLEANOUT Assess Risk-Assess Risk- severity- severe (death)severity- severe (death) probability-medium (likely) to highprobability-medium (likely) to high (very likely)(very likely) risk- highrisk- high
  101. 101. CASE STUDY #-INCINERATOR CLEANOUTCASE STUDY #-INCINERATOR CLEANOUT SeveritySeverity ProbabilityProbability SevereSevere SeriousSerious ModerateModerate SlightSlight HighHigh HighHigh High Medium LowHigh Medium Low MediumMedium HighHigh Medium Low LowMedium Low Low ModerateModerate Medium Low Low NegligibleMedium Low Low Negligible LowLow Low Low Negligible NegligibleLow Low Negligible Negligible
  102. 102. CASE STUDY #5-INCINERATORCASE STUDY #5-INCINERATOR CLEANOUTCLEANOUT DfCS solution: design catwalk withDfCS solution: design catwalk with guardrail and toeboards from mainguardrail and toeboards from main catwalk to incinerator.catwalk to incinerator.
  103. 103. IDEAS FOR DESIGNERSIDEAS FOR DESIGNERS www.safetyindesign.orgwww.safetyindesign.org Case StudiesCase Studies  Trimming tops of Concrete PilesTrimming tops of Concrete Piles  Modular Construction and Installation ofModular Construction and Installation of ServicesServices  Temporary Support Steelwork for HighTemporary Support Steelwork for High Level Work PlatformLevel Work Platform  Atrium LightingAtrium Lighting  Integrated Service Column / Panel DesignIntegrated Service Column / Panel Design  Prefabrication of SteelworkPrefabrication of Steelwork  Modular Construction of Stone PanelsModular Construction of Stone Panels
  104. 104. TRAILER ACCESS PLATFORMSTRAILER ACCESS PLATFORMS11 11 www.safetyindesign.orgwww.safetyindesign.org
  105. 105. CAST-IN SOCKETS FORCAST-IN SOCKETS FOR RAILINGSRAILINGS11 11 www.safetyindesign.orgwww.safetyindesign.org
  106. 106. COLOR CODED BOLT BAGSCOLOR CODED BOLT BAGS11 11 www.safetyindesign.orgwww.safetyindesign.org
  107. 107. SAFETY BARRIER TO LOADSAFETY BARRIER TO LOAD PALLETS ONTO MEZZANINEPALLETS ONTO MEZZANINE11 11 www.safetyindesign.orgwww.safetyindesign.org
  108. 108. PREFABRICATION OFPREFABRICATION OF STEELWORKSTEELWORK11 11 www.safetyindesign.orgwww.safetyindesign.org
  109. 109. MAINTENANCE LIFT TO ACCESSMAINTENANCE LIFT TO ACCESS ATRIUM LIGHTINGATRIUM LIGHTING11 11 www.safetyindesign.orgwww.safetyindesign.org
  110. 110. MODULAR SERVICE RISERSMODULAR SERVICE RISERS11 11 www.safetyindesign.orgwww.safetyindesign.org
  111. 111. GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERSGUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS www.safetyindesign.orgwww.safetyindesign.org  Hazardous materialsHazardous materials  AsbestosAsbestos  Musculo-SkeletalMusculo-Skeletal  NoiseNoise  ExcavationsExcavations  Erection of StructuresErection of Structures  SteelworkSteelwork
  112. 112. GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERSGUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS www.safetyindesign.orgwww.safetyindesign.org  RefurbishmentRefurbishment  Temporary work equipmentTemporary work equipment  Work at heightWork at height  RoofsRoofs  Spatial DesignsSpatial Designs  Suspended Access EquipmentSuspended Access Equipment  BlockworkBlockwork
  113. 113. GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERSGUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS www.safetyindesign.orgwww.safetyindesign.org  DemolitionDemolition  Manual HandlingManual Handling  Lifting-cranesLifting-cranes
  114. 114. GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERSGUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS T 20.008 Work at HeightT 20.008 Work at Height11  Design service runs for so that they can beDesign service runs for so that they can be maintained from floor abovemaintained from floor above  Pre-assembly and fitting of trussesPre-assembly and fitting of trusses  Position splices for steel columns so thePosition splices for steel columns so the splices can be done from a finished floorsplices can be done from a finished floor  Install stairways early to avoid the needInstall stairways early to avoid the need for temporary accessfor temporary access  Locate service equipment on ground ifLocate service equipment on ground if possiblepossible 11 www.safetyindesign.orgwww.safetyindesign.org
  115. 115. GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERSGUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS T 20.002 Erecting SteelworkT 20.002 Erecting Steelwork11  Check all steel members for erection loadsCheck all steel members for erection loads  Ensure that all slender members can resistEnsure that all slender members can resist compression imposed by lifting slingscompression imposed by lifting slings  Maximize pre-fabricationMaximize pre-fabrication  Ensure the spacing of purlins allows forEnsure the spacing of purlins allows for the largest component to lowered downthe largest component to lowered down throughthrough 11 www.safetyindesign.orgwww.safetyindesign.org
  116. 116. GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERSGUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS T 20.009 RoofsT 20.009 Roofs11  Provide anchors points for fallProvide anchors points for fall protectionprotection  Ensure roof structure can handleEnsure roof structure can handle stacks of materialsstacks of materials  Position gutters so that cleaning canPosition gutters so that cleaning can be done from cherry pickers or frombe done from cherry pickers or from safe access routessafe access routes  Consider parapetsConsider parapets 11 www.safetyindesign.orgwww.safetyindesign.org
  117. 117. GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERSGUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS H 20.002 NOISEH 20.002 NOISE11  Cast in crack inducers rather thanCast in crack inducers rather than saw cuttingsaw cutting  Cast in anchors rather than siteCast in anchors rather than site drillingdrilling  Avoid vibro-compaction of groundAvoid vibro-compaction of ground  Keep site grinding, cutting, etc. to aKeep site grinding, cutting, etc. to a minimumminimum 11 www.safetyindesign.orgwww.safetyindesign.org
  118. 118. GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERSGUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS H 20.001Musculo-skeletalH 20.001Musculo-skeletal11  Provide adequate space for liftingProvide adequate space for lifting machinesmachines  Design for machine laying of paversDesign for machine laying of pavers  Design brick laying to reduce longDesign brick laying to reduce long duration repetitionduration repetition 11 www.safetyindesign.orgwww.safetyindesign.org
  119. 119. GUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERSGUIDANCE FOR DESIGNERS H 10.001 Hazardous MaterialsH 10.001 Hazardous Materials11  Cast in chases for services ratherCast in chases for services rather than cut to reduce dustthan cut to reduce dust  Specify water base or solvent freeSpecify water base or solvent free paintspaints  Check to see if there any existingCheck to see if there any existing contaminants on the site, alertcontaminants on the site, alert workersworkers 11 www.safetyindesign.orgwww.safetyindesign.org
  120. 120. Summary/ClosingSummary/Closing  Introduce the DfCS ProcessIntroduce the DfCS Process  Basic Safety EngineeringBasic Safety Engineering  Design FeaturesDesign Features  Case Studies to Illustrate ProcessCase Studies to Illustrate Process
  121. 121. Summary/ClosingSummary/Closing DESIGNERS CAN HAVE ADESIGNERS CAN HAVE A POSITIVE IMPACT ONPOSITIVE IMPACT ON REDUCING CONSTRUCTIONREDUCING CONSTRUCTION ACCIDENTSACCIDENTS
  122. 122. DfCS Tools/ResourcesDfCS Tools/Resources  Construction Industry Institute databaseConstruction Industry Institute database • www.construction-institute.org/scriptcontent/more/rwww.construction-institute.org/scriptcontent/more/rr  United Kingdom Health & Safety ExecutiveUnited Kingdom Health & Safety Executive designer guidesdesigner guides • www.hse.gov.uk/construction/designers/index.htwww.hse.gov.uk/construction/designers/index.ht mm  CHAIRCHAIR • www.workcover.nsw.gov.au/Publications/OHS/Safwww.workcover.nsw.gov.au/Publications/OHS/Saf etyGuides/chairsafetyindesigntool.htmetyGuides/chairsafetyindesigntool.htm  OSHA WebsiteOSHA Website • www.osha.govwww.osha.gov
  123. 123. DfCS Tools/ResourcesDfCS Tools/Resources  Inherently Safer Design Principles forInherently Safer Design Principles for Construction, The Hazard InformationConstruction, The Hazard Information Foundation, Inc.Foundation, Inc. besafe@hazardinfo.combesafe@hazardinfo.com  www.safetyindesign.orgwww.safetyindesign.org

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