Cardio Pulmonary Resucitation by Palatine High School
DEFINITION OF CPR
• Heart disease is the number one
killer in the United States today,
and over 60% of all victims will
die before they reach the
• The heart lies between the
sternum and the spine.
What are the functions of CPR?
A. As basic life support – to maintain a viable (living) victim
for advanced life support. (EMS)
– EMS stands for Emergency Medical Service
B. To minimize the occurrence of panic during times of
C. For early diagnosis and detection of the symptoms of
– Be able to recognize the signs of a heart attack.
– The greatest risk of death from heart attack is in the
initial two hours after the onset of the symptoms
– 60% of all victims die before they reach the hospital.
(paramedics now stabilize the victim at the site before
What does CPR stand for?
• C = Cardio (heart)
• P = Pulmonary (lungs)
• R = Resuscitation (recover)Oxygen is the basic requirement for breathing and every
Living cell in the body
The function of the epiglottis is to guard the entrance to
What types of situations
might cause a victim to need
• Heart attack
• Drug overdose
• Smoke Inhalation
Emergency Situations Requiring
CPR and Emergency First Aid Alcohol Overdose - Alcohol Poisoning
Drug or Medicine Overdose
Choking – Airway Obstruction
Over Exposure to
What are the real symptoms
of a heart attack?
• Uncomfortable pressure and squeezing, usually
located in the center of the chest
• Pain may spread to shoulders, arms, neck, and
back (usually on the left side)
• The pain is not always severe and may come
and go (sharp, stabbing twinges of pain usually
are not signals of heart attack)
• Sweating, nausea, shortness of breath, feeling
– May occur in either sex, even young adults,
and not necessarily during physical or
How does the heart
• The right side of the heart receives
deoxygenated blood from the body
which it then pump to the lungs
(through the pulmonary artery) where
carbon dioxide is exchanged for
• The left side of the heart receives the
oxygenated blood from the lungs
(through the pulmonary vein) which it
then pumps through the atrium to the
ventricle; from the ventricle the blood
is pumped through the aorta to the
rest of the body.
How to help a heart attack victim
that is conscious
• Help the victim into a comfortable
– Sitting if he or she is short of breath
– Lying down if he or she is light headed
• Loosen clothing around neck and
• Call an ambulance. Call 911!
• Coronary Heart Disease – the blood supply
to a part of the heart is blocked; that part of the
heart not receiving oxygen begins to die.
• Respiratory Arrest – breathing stops
• Cardiac Arrest – the heart has stopped
• Stroke – the blood supply to a part of the brain
is blocked; those brain cells not receiving
oxygen begin to die.
• Clinical Death – means the heart and
breathing have stopped.
• Heart attack – A sudden severe instance of
abnormal heart function.
Brain Death – Occurs 4-6 minutes after
clinical death when the cells of the brain
begin to die.
Biological death- all systems cease to
function. Organ systems have shut down
and are no longer working
General CPR; In ThreeGeneral CPR; In Three
Simple Steps: ABCSimple Steps: ABC
1.1. AAirway – head tilt, chin liftirway – head tilt, chin lift
2.2. BBreathing – look, listen, feelreathing – look, listen, feel
3.3. CCirculation – give chestirculation – give chest
Adult; over 8 years old;
check for unresponsiveness
and call for helpA. Check the Victim for unresponsiveness.
Gently shake them and ask “Are you all
right, are you okay?”
B. If the victim doesn’t respond SEND
SOMEONE TO GET HELP. Call 911 and
return to the victim.
Adult CPRAdult CPR
Airway and breathingAirway and breathing
C. Use the head tilt, chin lift
method to open airway. Look,
listen and feel for breathing.
D. If the victim is not breathing
normally, pinch the nose and
cover their mouth with yours.
Give 2 full breaths until you see
the chest rise. Each breath
should last about 1 second.
E. With each breath the chest
should lower and rise so you
know that air is getting in.
F. After giving two breaths,
immediately begin chest
G. Use the nipple line (“armpit over”)
to determine the proper place to
do chest compressions.
H. Push down on the chest 1 1/2 to 2
inches, 30 times right between the
nipples where the heart lies. (ratio
J. Pump at the rate of 100
compressions / 1 minute
K. If you see chest movement, put
the victim in the side position in
case they vomit.
Chest compressions should be performed on the lower
½ of the sternum
For each compression it is important to push
far enough and to be sure the chest is
released after each compression. This will allow
What is the
•First Aid procedure to use if
the person is unconscious,
breathing and have a pulse.
•It is a safe position to put
them in while you are waiting
for the EMS to arrive
•Allows them to breathe easily
and prevents them from
choking on their tongue or
1 to 8 years of age
A. Check for unresponsiveness
B. If you are alone with the child give 4-5 cycles of
30 compressions before calling 911.
C. Open the airway
D. Check for breathing: look, listen, feel
E. Not breathing: give 2 breaths
F. Perform chest compressions on the nipple line in
the center of the chest.
G. If the child is small, use one hand for
compressions. If the child is larger, use 2
H. Press the sternum down 1” to 1 ½”.
I. Give 30 compressions to 2 breaths (ratio of
J. Pump at the rate of 100 compressions per 1
CPR: Infant; 0 to 1 year
check for unresponsiveness;
call for help
A. Check for
tickle, touch, pinch
the infant gently.
B. If there is no
response, perform 5
cycles of 30
before calling 911.
CPR: Infant; open airway
C. A = Open The Airway.
D. Tilt the head back gently, only
far enough so that the infant’s
mouth is facing the ceiling. Do
not tilt the head too far back!
This may injure the neck, and
collapse the airway.
CPR: INFANT; check
E. B = breathing: Look, listen, and feel
F. If the infant is NOT breathing give 2
small gentle “puffs” of air.
G. Cover both the baby's mouth AND
nose with your mouth.
H. You should see the baby's chest rise
with each breath.
CPR: Infants; check
I. The proper placement for chest
compressions is just below the
J. Position your 3rd and 4th fingers
in the center of the chest ½ inch
below the nipples.
K. Press down ½” to 1”.
L. Perform 30 chest compressions
at a ratio of 30:2 (30
compressions for every 2 breaths)
M. At least 100 compressions
should be given within 1 minute.
If the infant recovers, put them in
the recovery position by gently
supporting the neck and picking
Under what special
circumstances can a non-
physician discontinue CPR?
• The victim responds.
• The rescuer collapses.
• A doctor pronounces the victim dead.
• Someone with equal or more training
• With a child/infant – stop after 1
minute to call 911 if you alone, and no
one will be coming.
Obstructed airway (choking)
• Partially obstructed airway with good air
exchange: victim can make some sounds;
may be able to speak and cough
• Partially obstructed airway with poor
exchange: victim cannot speak, may be
wheezing or coughing weakly
• Fully obstructed airway: victim cannot make
• The most common cause of an airway
obstruction in a conscious person is food or
a foreign object.
• The most common cause of an airway
obstruction in an unconscious person is the
Adult choking; conscious
The Heimlich maneuver
A. Ask the victim: : “Are you choking?”
B. If the victim nods yes, ask them “Would you like
• If they say “NO”, do not help them. If they say
yes, you may help them.
C. Position yourself by placing one of your legs
between the legs of your victim. Give 5
abdominal thrusts and continue as needed.
– For a pregnant or obese person, perform chest thrusts.
D. Repeat thrusts until the object is expelled and
the obstruction is relieved OR the victim
Adult choking; unconscious
A. Call 911.
B. Open the airway.
C. Perform a finger sweep to remove possible
foreign object in mouth.
D. Open the airway and try to get air in. Give 2
breaths. If air does not go in, reposition the
head and give 2 more breaths. If air still does
not go in, the airway is obstructed.
F. With the victim lying on the floor, give 5
abdominal thrusts while straddling your
G. Repeat the steps until victim is no longer
choking or continue the steps of CPR as
ADULT UNCONSCIOUS CHOKING
You would straddle the victim while
performing any needed CPR and abdominal chest
Do not push down on the Xiphoid process!
Infant choking; conscious
A. Check for breathing difficulty, ineffective
cough, weak cry.
B. Confirm signs of severe or complete airway
C. Give 5 back blows with your open hand
and 5 chest thrusts, using your 3rd and 4th
D. Repeat back blows and chest thrusts until
object is expelled OR the victim becomes
Infant choking; unconscious
A. Call 911
B. Open the airway and if you see the object, remove
C. Try to give 2 breaths. If the chest does not rise, re-
open the airway and try to give 2 more breaths.
D. If the air still does not go in they are choking. Give
5 back blows, 5 chest thrusts and 2 breaths. Re-
open airway and give 2 more breaths.
E. Repeat above steps until breathing is effective.
Perform CPR if needed.
F. If the rescuer is alone and the airway obstruction is
not relieved after 1 minute, call 911.
Treat a conscious or unconscious child (1-8
years old) with an airway obstruction like a
conscious or unconscious adult with an airway
Example of a conscious choking child
• When performing CPR, the victim must
be placed on a firm, flat surface, in the
“head-tilt, chin-lift” position
• The universal sign for choking is two
hands placed at the throat
• If you give a victim 2 full breaths and
they don’t seem to go in, you should re-
tilt the head (head tilt, chin lift) and try
again. If the air still does not go in your
victim may be choking..
• In a two person rescue situation,
rescuers should rotate between
compressions and breathing
every 2 minutes to avoid fatigue.
• Ideally, the rescuers should
switch positions within 5 seconds
so the victim is not left
unattended for too long.
Good Samaritan Law
Law that protects rescuers from prosecution or civil
law suits, unless their actions constitute willful
misconduct and negligence.
The Rescuer MUST comply with proper
emergency first aid and CPR guidelines; acting in
good faith by being prudent and responsible in their