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Hazardous Materials Awareness Training by


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Hazardous Materials Awareness Training by

  1. 1. Welcome to “Hazardous Materials Awareness” NFPA Objective 2-1
  2. 2. Acknowledgments The preparation of this course was made possible through the assistance, cooperation, and dedication of many people. The Washington State Patrol / Fire Services Bureau. Washington State Association of Fire Chiefs and Washington State Association of Fire Chiefs Hazardous Materials Division to thank all of the following persons and organizations for their roles in the development of this course
  3. 3. Acknowledgments 1998 Revisions – Washington State Association of Fire Chiefs, Hazardous Materials Division Sgt. Roy Glass, Washington State Patrol Edward B. Lawson, MAFB Fire Dept. Edward Bonollo, Union Gap Fire Dept. Phil Philbin, Auburn Fire Dept. Dave Sauerbrey, Vancouver Fire Dept
  4. 4. Scope This course is designed to provide the student with the basic skills necessary to safely and effectively manage the initial activities of an emergency involving the uncontrolled release of dangerous chemicals
  5. 5. Scope This class focuses on those individuals in local jurisdictions who are most likely to witness or discover a hazardous substance release, and who are expected by their employer to initiate an emergency response sequence by notifying the proper authorities of the release, taking no further action
  6. 6. Scope This class is best suited for: – – – – – – Emergency prehospital care personnel Emergency telecommunications officers Firefighters Law enforcement officers Private industry workers Public works personnel
  7. 7. Course Goal The goal of this training shall be to provide first responders with the knowledge and skills necessary to safely respond to and assess the hazards involved in a chemical emergency and to make necessary notifications
  8. 8. Course Goal Successful completion of this training should provide the student with the necessary skills to objectively demonstrate competency in the following areas:
  9. 9. Competencies An understanding of the potential outcomes associated with an emergency created when hazardous materials are present The ability to recognize the presence of hazardous materials in an emergency The ability to identify the hazardous materials, if possible
  10. 10. Competencies An understanding of the role of the first responder awareness individual in the employer’s emergency response plan including site security and control and the North American Emergency Response Guidebook The ability to realize the need for additional resources, and to make appropriate notifications to the communications center
  11. 11. Course Introduction Welcome Your Instructor(s) are….. – Name, title, background & experience And you are….. – Name, title, background & experience – Expectations
  12. 12. Course Introduction Class Logistics – – – – – – – – Start & Finish times Class fees Length of class periods & breaks Tests Accreditation & certification Class critiques Rest rooms Meals
  13. 13. Safety Keypoints Always consider the possibility of multiple hazard categories in each hazard class. Approach all hazardous materials incidents from upwind, upgrade, and upstream, positioning vehicles and apparatus headed away from the incident scene.
  14. 14. Safety Keypoints In a hazardous materials incident you may have to delay attending to the injured in order to save the lives of many others First operational priority: Isolate the hazard area and deny entry
  15. 15. Safety Keypoints Only those emergency personnel in the proper level of compatible protective clothing and positive pressure selfcontained breathing apparatus “who are actively performing emergency operations” are to operate within the inner perimeter
  16. 16. Safety Keypoints Minimum safety perimeter for citizens = 1,000 feet beyond the inner perimeter boundaries in open areas To avoid inhalation hazards, self-contained positive pressure breathing apparatus must be properly worn, used, and maintained
  17. 17. Safety Keypoints Never eat, smoke, or drink at or around hazardous materials incident scenes until you decontaminate and wash your hands, face, and hair thoroughly Consult protective clothing compatibility data to ensure available protective clothing is compatible with the hazardous materials involved in the incident
  18. 18. Safety Keypoints Think SAFETY with every breath you take
  19. 19. RESPONSIBILITIES First Responders at the Awareness Level are expected to: – – – – NFPA Objective 2-1.2 Recognize the presence of hazardous materials Protect themselves Call for trained personnel Secure the area
  20. 20. Course Goal The goal of this training at the Awareness Level is to provide first responders with the knowledge and skills necessary to perform the following tasks safely: NFPA Objective 2-1.3
  21. 21. Goals Implement Actions Consistent with local emergency response plans, the organizations standard operating procedures, and the current edition of the North American Emergency Response Guidebook by completing the following tasks; NFPA Objective 2-1.3
  22. 22. Goals Implement Actions Initiate protective actions consistent with local emergency response plans, the organization’s standard operating procedures, and the NAERG. Initiate the notification process NFPA Objective 2-1.3
  23. 23. First Responder Awareness Awareness Overview
  24. 24. Hazardous Materials “Any substance that poses an unreasonable risk to life, the environment, or property when not properly contained.”
  25. 25. Identifying the Problem Increasing number of incidents. Increased hazardous materials legislation in response to public concern. Resolution responsibility of many agencies. Previous emergency response training stresses taking immediate action.
  26. 26. Basic Safety Guidelines “Proper safety precautions must be taken to reduce risks as much as possible.” Reduce risk through training Responders must be aware of multiple hazards Don’t rush in!!! Positive attitude toward safety is an important part of your protective equipment
  27. 27. NAERG Safety Guidelines When approaching a hazardous materials incident: – – – – – – Approach cautiously Secure the scene Identify the hazards Assess the situation Obtain help Decide on site entry
  28. 28. Purpose of Intervention To favorably change the sequence of natural events in order to minimize the harm to the public, the environment, property and equipment that would occur by natural stabilization.
  29. 29. Risk/Benefit Analysis The benefit (reducing naturally occurring harm) should exceed the risk (harm attributed to intervention).
  30. 30. Risk/Benefit Analysis Low – Protecting environment, property or equipment. Moderate – Attempt rescue of person(s) with low probability of survival. High – Attempt rescue of person(s) with high probability of survival.
  31. 31. Decision Algorithm W hat are the outcom es of natural stabilization? Can I favorably change the outcom es of natural stabilization by m y intervention? NO Do nothing except protect exposures. YES Does the benefit from m y intervention exceed the risk involved? Fe edba ck Loop YES Enga ge in interv ention operations as long as the benefit exce eds the risk! NO Do nothing except protec t exposures.
  32. 32. Legislative Mandates for Training 29 CFR 1910.120 Code of Federal Regulations WAC 296-62-300 Washington Administrative Rule "Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response"
  33. 33. OSHA Response Levels First Responder (Awareness level) First Responder (Operations level) Hazardous Materials Technician Hazardous Materials Specialist On-Scene Incident Commander
  34. 34. First Responder Awareness Witness or discover a release. Trained to initiate an emergency response sequence by notifying the proper authorities of the release. Take no further action beyond notifying the proper authorities of the release.
  35. 35. First Responder Operations Respond to releases as part of initial response to the site. Protect nearby persons, property or the environment from the effects of the release. Trained to respond in a defensive fashion without actually trying to stop the release. Function is to contain the release from a safe distance, keep it from spreading, and prevent exposures.
  36. 36. Hazardous Materials Technician Respond to releases for the purpose of stopping the release. Trained to respond in an offensive fashion to actually try to stop the release. Approach the point of the release in order to plug, patch, or otherwise stop the release.
  37. 37. Hazardous Materials Specialist Respond with and provide support to hazardous material technicians. Their duties require a more directed or specific knowledge of the various substances they may be called upon to contain. Act as site liaison with Federal, state, local and other government authorities in regards to site activities.
  38. 38. On Scene Incident Commander Individuals who will assume control of the incident scene beyond the first responder Awareness level. This level requires at least Operations-level training, as well as training specific to a hazardous materials incident commander as outlined in the federal regulation.
  39. 39. NFPA 472, 1997 Edition Standard for Professional Competence of Responders to Hazardous Materials Incidents Consensus standards – Based on input from the fire service, private industry, manufacturers and governmental agencies – Voluntary compliance Unless adopted at the state of local level “Standard of care” issues
  40. 40. NFPA 472, 1997 Edition Competence required of responders to hazardous materials incidents. – – – – – First Responder Awareness First Responder Operations Hazardous Materials Technician Hazardous Materials Specialist On-Scene Incident Commander
  41. 41. NFPA 472, 1997 Edition – – – – – – Private Sector Employees Hazardous Materials Branch Officer Hazardous Materials Branch Safety Officer Technician with a Tank Car Specialty Technician with a Cargo Tank Specialty Technician with an Intermodal Tank Specialty
  42. 42. NFPA 473, 1997 Edition Applies to all organizations that have EMS responsibilities when responding to hazardous materials incidents. – Level 1 HazMat/EMS – Level 2 HazMat/EMS
  43. 43. Emergency Response Planning Pre-emergency planning & coordination with outside parties Personnel roles, lines of authority, training & communication Emergency recognition & prevention Safe distances & places of refuge Site security & control Evacuation routes & procedures Decontamination Emergency medical treatment & first aid Emergency alerting & response procedures Critique of response & follow-up Personal protective clothing & emergency equipment
  44. 44. Emergency Response Planning Local agencies may use the local emergency response plan, such as a city or county plan, in lieu of having their own individual agency plan, as long as it contains all of the federally required plan elements.
  45. 45. Standard Operating Procedures Local agencies that choose to use the local emergency response plan instead of developing their own individual agency plan should, as a minimum, develop the federally mandated plan elements into standard operating procedures.
  46. 46. Analyzing the Incident Module I Given various facility and/or transportation scenarios, with and without hazardous materials present, identify those scenarios where hazardous materials are present. NFPA Objective 2-2.1
  47. 47. Goals Analyze The Incident To determine both the hazardous materials present and the basic response information by completing the following tasks: – Detect the presence of hazardous materials
  48. 48. Goals Analyze The Incident – Survey a hazardous materials incident, from a safe location, to identify the name, UN/NA identification number, or the type of placard applied – Collect hazard information from the current edition of the North American Emergency Response Guidebook (NAERG)
  49. 49. Hazardous Materials (Dangerous Goods in Canada) Definition: Any substance that poses an unreasonable risk to the health and safety of persons and/or the environment if it is not properly controlled during handling, storage, manufacturing, processing, packaging, use, disposal, or transportation. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.1
  50. 50. Hazardous Material Definition: United States Department of Transportation (DOT) term that covers all hazard classes and divisions. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.1
  51. 51. Hazardous Substance Definition: EPA term for chemicals that, if released into the environment above a certain amount, must be reported, and depending on the threat to the environment, federal involvement handling the incident can be authorized. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.1
  52. 52. Extremely Hazardous Substances Definition: EPA term for chemicals that must be reported to the appropriate authorities if released above the threshold reporting quantity. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.1
  53. 53. Toxic Chemicals Definition: EPA term for chemicals whose total emissions or release must be reported annually by owners and operators of certain facilities that manufacture, process, or otherwise use a listed toxic chemical. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.1
  54. 54. Hazardous Wastes Definition: EPA term for chemicals that are regulated under the Resource, Conservation, and Recovery Act. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.1
  55. 55. Hazardous Chemicals Definition: OSHA term that denotes any chemical that would be a risk to employees if exposed in the work place. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.1
  56. 56. Dangerous Goods Definition: In Canadian transportation, hazardous materials are called dangerous goods. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.1
  57. 57. Identification Methods DOT Hazard Classes and Divisions with examples, primary hazards of each class, and their associated placards and labels. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  58. 58. Hazard Classes and Divisions DOT has classified hazardous materials according to their primary hazard and assigned standardized symbols to identify the classes. – NOTE: Materials are grouped by their major hazardous characteristic and many will have other hazards as well. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  59. 59. Class 1 (Explosives) Major Hazard: Explosion Any substance or article, including a device, that is designed to function by explosion (i.e...... an extremely rapid release of gas and heat) or that, by chemical reaction with itself, is able to function by explosion. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  60. 60. Divisions DOT has divided Class 1 hazards into 6 divisions. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  61. 61. Class 1.1 Mass explosion that affects almost the entire load – – – – – NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2 Black powder Dynamite T-N-T Blasting caps Nitroglycerin
  62. 62. Class 1.2 Projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard – – – NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2 Aerial flares Detonation cord Power device cartridges
  63. 63. Class 1.3 Fire hazard and either a minor blast or minor projection hazard – Liquid-fueled rocket motors – Propellant explosives NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  64. 64. Class 1.4 Presents a minor explosion hazard – Practice ammunition – Signal cartridges NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  65. 65. Class 1.5 Very insensitive explosives with mass explosion hazard – Prilled ammonium nitrate fertilizer – Blasting agents NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  66. 66. Class 1.6 Extremely insensitive explosives – Does not have a mass explosion hazard. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  67. 67. Class 2 Compressed Gases Major Hazard: BLEVE Sub Hazards – – – – Flammable Oxidizer Poisonous Corrosive Divided into 3 divisions NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  68. 68. Class 2.1 Flammable Gases A material that is a gas at 68 degrees F or less at 14.7 psi or has a boiling point of 68 degrees or less at 14.7 psi. – Ignitable at 14.7 psi in a mixture of 13% or less by volume – Has a flammable range of at least 12% regardless of the lower limit. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  69. 69. Placard (Flammable) Red background White frame FLAMMABLE GAS 2 NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  70. 70. Class 2.2 Nonflammable, Nonpoisonous Gases Any material or mixture that exerts an absolute pressure of 41 psia at 68 degrees F. Compressed gases, including liquefied gas, pressurized cryogenic gas, and compressed gas in solution. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  71. 71. Placard (Non-Flammable) Green background White cylinder NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2 NON-FLAMMABLE GAS
  72. 72. Placard (Oxygen) Yellow background Flaming “O” NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2 OXYGEN
  73. 73. Class 2.3 Poisonous Gas Vaporize easily and very dangerous to life, even in small amounts. Known to be so toxic to humans as to pose a hazard to health during transportation. Presumed to be toxic because of laboratory testing. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  74. 74. LC-50 (Lethal Concentration, 50%) Concentration of a material, expressed as parts per million which kills half of the lab animals in a given length of time. Significant in determining the toxicity of a material; the lower the value, the more toxic the substance. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  75. 75. Examples of Class 2.3 Gases Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride Arsine Chlorine Methyl bromide Cyanide gas Hydrocyanic acid Diphosgene – 2.4 Gases (Canadian) NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  76. 76. Placards (Poison Gas) White background Skull & crossbones POISON GAS 2 NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  77. 77. Class 3 Flammable Liquids Major Hazard: Burns readily Flammable and combustible liquids NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  78. 78. Flammable Liquids Any liquid having a flash point (FP) of not more than 141 degrees F. – Three divisions 3.1 - FP < 0 degrees F 3.2 - FP 0 to < 73 degrees F 3.3 - FP 73 to < 141 degrees F NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  79. 79. Combustible Liquid Any liquid that does not meet the definition of any other hazard class and has a flash point above 141 degrees F and below 200 degrees F. – NOTE: A flammable liquid with a flash point at or above 100 degrees that does not meet the definition of any other hazard class except 9, may be reclassified as combustible. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  80. 80. Class 3 Placards Flammable: – Red background, white flame with the word “FLAMMABLE” – Flame pictograph FLAMMABLE 3 NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  81. 81. Class 3 Placards Combustible: – Red background, white flame with the word “COMBUSTIBLE” – UN class number COMBUSTIBLE 3 NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  82. 82. Class 4 (Flammable Solids) Major Hazard: Rapid combustion with a liberation of mass quantities of smoke (toxic). – Divided into 3 divisions NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  83. 83. 4.1 Flammable Solids Three types – – Wetted explosives Self-reactive materials – Readily combustible solids NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2 FLAMMABLE SOLID 4
  84. 84. Wetted Explosives Explosives wetted with sufficient water, alcohol, or a plasticizer to suppress explosive properties. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  85. 85. Self Reactive Materials Materials that are liable to undergo, at normal or elevated temperatures, a strongly exothermic decomposition. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  86. 86. Readily Combustible Solids Solids that may cause a fire through friction and metal powders that can be ignited. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  87. 87. 4.2 Spontaneously Combustible Materials Self-heating material - a material that, when in contact with air and without an energy supply, is liable to self-heat. SPONTANEOUSLY COMBUSTIBLE 4 NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  88. 88. Pyrophoric Materials A liquid or solid that, even in small quantities and without an external ignition source, can ignite within 5 minutes after coming in contact with air. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  89. 89. Dangerous When Wet Materials Material that, by contact with water is liable to become spontaneously flammable or to give off flammable or toxic gas at a rate of greater than 1 l/kg. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2 WHEN DANGEROUS WET 4
  90. 90. Class 5 (Oxidizers) 2 Divisions Major Hazard 5.1: Supports combustion and intensifies fire. Major Hazard 5.2: Unstable/reactive explosives NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  91. 91. 5.1 Oxidizers Materials that may, generally by yielding oxygen, cause or enhance the combustion of other materials. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2 OXIDIZER 5.1
  92. 92. 5.2 Organic Peroxides Any organic compound containing oxygen in the bivalent O-O structure that may be considered a derivative of hydrogen peroxide, where one or more of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by organic radicals. Organic peroxides have been further broken down into types a-g (worst to least hazardous). NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  93. 93. Placard Organic Peroxides Yellow background Flaming “O” with words “Organic Peroxide” ORGANIC PEROXIDE 5.2 NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  94. 94. Class 6 Poisons Major Hazard: Toxicity, Infectious 2 Divisions – NOTE: Poisonous gases are Class 2 Division 3 NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  95. 95. 6.1 Poisonous Materials A material, other than a gas, that is either known to be so toxic to humans as to afford a hazard to health during transportation, or in the absence of adequate data on human toxicity, is presumed to be toxic to humans, including irritating materials that cause irritation. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  96. 96. 6.1 Placard White background Skull and crossbones Poison 6.1 NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  97. 97. 6.2 Infectious Substances A viable microorganism, or its toxin, that causes disease in humans or animals. Infectious substance and etiologic agents are the same. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  98. 98. Class 6 Poisons Class 6 materials are divided into 3 packaging groups (PG). – PG I or II, other than PG I inhalation hazard – PG III NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  99. 99. Class 7 Radioactive Major Hazard: Radioactive poisonous burns Definition: Materials having a specific activity greater than 0.002 microcurie per gram. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2 RADIOACTIVE
  100. 100. Class 8 Corrosives Major Hazard: burns/emulsification skin damage. Definition - A liquid or solid that causes visible or irreversible alterations in human skin tissue at the site of contact, or a liquid that has a severe corrosion rate on steel or aluminum. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  101. 101. Class 8 Placard White top Black bottom Test tubes Hand and steel bar NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2 CORROSIVE
  102. 102. Class 9 Miscellaneous Hazardous Materials A material that presents a hazard during transport, but that is not included in another hazard class NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  103. 103. Class 9 Division 9.1 - Miscellaneous Dangerous Goods (Canada) Division 9.2 - Environmentally Hazardous Substances (Canada) Division 9.3 - Dangerous Wastes (Canada) NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  104. 104. Other Regulated Materials (ORM-D) A material that presents a limited hazard during transportation due to its – – – – NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2 Form Quantity Packaging No placard
  105. 105. Forbidden Materials Materials prohibited from being offered or accepted for transportation. Does not apply if the materials are diluted, stabilized, or incorporated in devices. There is no placard for these items since they aren't transported. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  106. 106. System Limitations Dangerous placard 2,205 lbs or 1,000 kg. limitation Visibility Unclassified materials and exemptions NFPA Objective 2-2.1.2
  107. 107. 1.1 1.2 1.3 2.3 4.3 Table 1 Hazard Classes & Placards 5.2 (Organic Peroxide Type B, Liquid or solid, temperature controlled) 6.1 (PG inhalation hazard, Zone A & B) 7.0 (Radioactive, Yellow Label III) Explosives 1.1 Explosive 1.2 Explosives 1.3 Poison Gas Dangerous When Wet Organic Peroxide Poison Inhalation Hazard Radioactive 1
  108. 108. Table 2 Hazard Classes & Placards 1.4 1.5 1.6 2.1 2.2 3.0 (flammable Liquid) 3.0 (combustible liquid) 4.1 4.2 5.1 Explosives 1.4 Explosives 1.5 Explosives 1.6 Flammable Gas Non-Flammable Gas Flammable Liquid Combustible Liquid Flammable Solid Spontaneously Combustible Oxidizer
  109. 109. Table 2 Hazard Classes & Placards 5.2 (other than organic peroxide, Type B) 6.1 (PG I & II, other than, PG I inhalation hazard) 6.1 (PG III) 6.2 8.0 9.0 ORM-D Organic Peroxide Poison Keep Away From Food (None) Corrosive Class 9 (None)
  110. 110. Hazardous Materials Incidents Versus Other Emergencies Potential for doing great harm since effects are far reaching and severe. Responders must be specially trained and equipped. Often have long term effects to the environment, people, and property. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.4
  111. 111. Typical Locations & Occupancies Containing Hazardous Materials Warehouses Tank farms Weapons depots Hospitals NFPA Objective 2-2.1.5 Laboratories Truck terminals Flight line areas Maintenance facilities
  112. 112. Front of Pool Supply Store Liquefied Petroleum Gas Storage Area NFPA Objective 2-2.1.5
  113. 113. Pre-Incident Planning People developing pre-incident plans should seek assistance from facility managers in identifying hazardous materials locations and record them on the plan in a way that will be useful to the first arriving responders. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.5
  114. 114. Remember!!!!! Hazardous materials that are manufactured, stored, processed, or used at a particular site are NOT subject to regulations affecting transported materials. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.5
  115. 115. Typical Container Shapes That May Indicate Hazardous Materials NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
  116. 116. Radioactive Container Shapes Protective overpacks – Cylindrical configuration – Boxlike configuration Casks – Rigid metal packaging – Reinforcing rings and cooling fins NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
  117. 117. Radioactive Container Shapes Fiberboard Wooden Boxes NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6 Steel Drums
  118. 118. Radioactive Cask NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
  119. 119. Pressurized Container Shapes Cylinders MC-331 tank trailer Pressure tank car Tube trailers, tube modules, high pressure tube cars NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
  120. 120. Pressurized Containers Compressed Gas Cylinders Aerosol Cans Tube Module NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
  121. 121. MC 331 Bolted Manway Large Hemishpere Ends Cage Around Piping NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
  122. 122. Pressure Tank Car Expansion Dome No visible Fittings 4,000 - 45,000 100 to 600 psi gallons Flammable/Nonflammable Gases NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6 Poison Gases
  123. 123. High Pressure Tube Trailer Permanently Attached Horizontal Cylinders NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
  124. 124. Cryogenic Containers Tank-within-a-tank or “Thermos bottle” design Absence of top fittings on most containers – MC - 338 – Cryogenic tank car NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
  125. 125. MC 338 Ends Normally Flat Loading/Unloading Station at Rear NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6 Loading Sometimes Located Here
  126. 126. Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Low Pressure Liquids (25 psig or lower) Refrigerated to -155 degrees and below NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
  127. 127. Corrosive Containers Carboys – – Glass or plastic bottles Encased in a protective box MC - 312 – Long thin tank with stiffener rings – Working platform on top NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
  128. 128. Corrosive Containers Carboy in Wooden Box Carboy in Polystyrene NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
  129. 129. MC 312 Rounded Ends NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6 Exterior Stiffner Rings Small Diameter “Cigar Shape”
  130. 130. Flammable Liquid Containers Drums Jerricans MC - 306 Non-pressure tank car NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
  131. 131. Flammable Liquid Containers Jerricans Wooden Barrel NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
  132. 132. MC 306 Oval Cross Section Longitudinal Rollover Protection Valving and Unloading Controls Under Tank NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
  133. 133. Non-Pressure Tank Car Also called “General Service” or “Low Pressure” No Expansion Dome Visible Fittings 4,000 - 45,000 gallons NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6 Older cars have expansion domes
  134. 134. Dry Bulk Containers Pneumatic hopper trailer – “V” shaped bottom – Rounded sides and sloping ends Pneumatically unloaded hopper car – “V” shaped bottom – Flat or rounded sides NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
  135. 135. Dry Bulk Carriers Compressor Unit Large Sloping “V” Shaped Bottom NFPA Objective 2-2.1.6
  136. 136. Facility & Transportation Markings & Colors May Indicate Hazardous Materials NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7
  137. 137. UN/NA ID Numbers UN Class numbers (bottom of placard) Hazard class or ID number on placard or orange panel POISON GAS 2 Symbols and colors Name of material NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7 1026
  138. 138. Military Hazardous Materials Marking System NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7
  139. 139. Class 1, Division 1 Materials that present a mass denotation hazard NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7
  140. 140. Class 1, Division 2 Presents an explosion with fragmentation hazard NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7
  141. 141. Class 1, Division 3 Materials with a mass fire hazard NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7
  142. 142. Class 1, Division 4 Materials that present a moderate fire hazard NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7
  143. 143. Special Warnings Chemical hazards Highly Toxic NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7 Harassing Agents White Phosphorus Munitions
  144. 144. Special Warnings Apply No Water NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7 Wear Protective Breathing Apparatus
  145. 145. Special Hazard Communication Markings Hazardous Materials Information System PCB Labels NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7
  146. 146. Pipeline Markers Pipeline markers are usually metal signs placed adjacent to a hazardous materials pipeline right of way. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7
  147. 147. Pipeline Markers Ownership of Line – Name of carrier – Phone number Signal Word – Caution – Warning – Danger Transported Commodity NFPA Objective 2-2.1.7 Petroleum
  148. 148. 3 NFPA 704 Markings Suggested method for identifying hazardous materials Scale of 0-4 (4 being the worst hazard) Used only for facilities when mandated by local ordinances NFPA Objective 2- 2 1
  149. 149. NFPA 704 Colors and Their Meanings 2 1. Blue = Health 2. Red = Flammability 3. Yellow = Reactivity 4. White = Special 1 _ W 4 NFPA Objective 2- 3
  150. 150. HEALTH 4 - Too Dangerous to Enter -Vapor or Liquid 3 3 - Extremely Dangerous -- Use Full Protective Clothing 2 - Hazardous -- Use Breathing Apparatus 1 - Slightly Hazardous 0 - Like Ordinary Material NFPA Objective 2-
  151. 151. FLAMMABILITY 3 - Ignites at Normal Temperatures 2 - Ignites When Moderately Heated - Must Be Preheated to Burn 0 NFPA Objective 2- - Extremely Flammable 1 2 4 - Will Not Burn
  152. 152. 4 1 NFPA Objective 2- 3 - Strong Shock or Heat May Detonate -- Use Monitors From Behind Explosion Resistant Barriers 2 - Violent Chemical Change Possible -- Use Hose Streams From Distance 1 REACTIVITY - May Detonate -- Evacuate Area if Materials are Exposed to Fire - Unstable if Heated-Use Normal Precautions 0 - Normally Stable
  153. 153. SPECIAL INFORMATION W W OX ALK ACID NFPA Objective 2- - Avoid Use of Water - Oxidizer - Used by some to Indicate Alkaline Materials - Used by Some to Indicate Acidic Materials
  154. 154. Location of NFPA 704 Markers 4 2 3 W NFPA Objective 2-
  155. 155. Material Safety Data Sheets Why they are necessary – Federal Law – Right to know – Mandatory local communication on hazard OSHA requirements – Central location – With facility manager/employer NFPA Objective 2-
  156. 156. MSDS (Basic Information) Manufactures name and location Name and family of chemical Hazardous ingredients Physical data Fire and explosion data NFPA Objective 2-2.1.10
  157. 157. MSDS (Basic Information) Health Hazard Data Spill or Leak Procedures Special Protection Information Special Precautions
  158. 158. Material Safety Data Sheets MSDS Entries – – – – – NFPA Objective 2-2.1. NFPA Objective 2-2.1.10 General Information Hazardous ingredients statement Physical data Fire and explosion data Spill and leak control procedures
  159. 159. Material Safety Data Sheets Special Protection Information Special Precautions (Other as necessary) Health and Reactivity Hazard Data – – – – Including Toxicology Information Signs and Symptoms of Exposure Emergency Care Chemical Incompatibilities and its decomposition products!
  160. 160. MSDS Sample Information NFPA Objective 2-2.1.10
  161. 161. Shipping Papers NFPA Objective 2-2.1.10
  162. 162. Shipping Paper Entries Proper shipping name Hazard class or division Product Identification Number NFPA Objective 2-2.1.10
  163. 163. NFPA Objective 2-
  164. 164. Titles of Shipping Papers Highway - Bill of lading/freight bill Rail - Waybill and consist Water - Dangerous cargo manifest Air - Air bill with shippers certification for restricted articles NFPA Objective 2-
  165. 165. Location of Shipping Papers, Responsible Person Highway - cab of vehicle - Driver Rail- Engine or caboose - with conductor or engineer Water - Wheelhouse or pipelike container on a barge - Captain or master Air - Cockpit/flightdeck or attached to package - pilot NFPA Objective 2- NFPA Objective 2-
  166. 166. Identification Clues Examples of clues (other than occupancy/ location, container shape, markings/colors, placards/labels, MSDS, and shipping papers) that use the senses of sight, sound and odor to indicate hazardous materials. NFPA Objective 2-1.11
  167. 167. Using Senses to Detect Hazardous Materials Odor Sight Sound Informal Methods NFPA Objective 2-2.1.11
  168. 168. Limitations of Using Senses Odor Sight Sound Risk of Injury NFPA Objective 2-2.1.12
  169. 169. Targets for Criminal or Terrorist Activity – – – – – – NFPA Objective 2-2.1.13 Places of public assembly Public buildings Mass transit system Places of high economic impact Telecommunications activities Places of historical or symbolic significance
  170. 170. Indications of Terrorist or Criminal Activity – – – – – – NFPA Objective 2-2.1.14 Equipment that is not relevant to a location Intentional releases of hazardous materials Unexplained illness or death Unusual odors or tastes Irritations Unusual security measures
  171. 171. Given Examples Facility and transportation situations involving hazardous materials, the first responder at the awareness level shall identify the hazardous material(s) in each situation by name, UN/NA identification number, or type placard applied. NFPA Objective 2-2.2.1
  172. 172. Difficulties in Determining Specific Names Facilities – – – – – – NFPA Objective 2-2.2.1 Labels or placards missing Label or placard shows no product identifier Mixed loads Error in placarding or labeling Shipping papers are not accessible Facility Manager or MSDS’s not available
  173. 173. Names Sources for ID# or Placards North American Emergency Response Guidebook Shipping Papers NFPA Objective 2-2.2.2
  174. 174. Sources in Facilities MSDS Markings on containers Emergency planning documents NFPA Objective 2-2.2.3
  175. 175. Implementing The Planned Response Module II
  176. 176. Identify the basic precautions to be taken by the awareness level responder to protect themselves and others in a hazardous materials incident. IAW the Emergency Response Plan (ERP) or SOP’s.
  177. 177. Basic Precautions Isolate the hazard area – Evacuate those in danger – Deny entry If evacuation is not possible – Provide in-place protection – Keep away from doors and windows NFPA Objective 2-4.1.3
  178. 178. Basic Precautions Basic precautions to be taken by the awareness level responder are to protect themselves and others in a hazardous materials incident IAW the Local Emergency Response Plan or SOP’s. NFPA Objective 2-4.1.4
  179. 179. Providing Medical Care Precautions necessary when providing emergency medical care to victims of hazardous materials. Victim may be contaminated – No PPE – Understanding your limitations will prevent you from becoming a victim. NFPA Objective 2-4.3.1
  180. 180. Typical Ignition Sources Heated sources Frictional heat Radiant heat Smoking materials Lighting open flames Spontaneous ignition Static Electricity Chemical Reactions NFPA Objective 2-
  181. 181. Ways Hazardous Materials are Harmful Thermal Corrosive Mechanical Asphyxiation Poisonous Radiation NFPA Objective 2-
  182. 182. General Routes of Entry Contact Absorption Inhalation Ingestion NFPA Objective 2-
  183. 183. Routes of Entry for Human Exposure Contact & Absorption NFPA Objective 2- Inhalation Ingestion
  184. 184. Objectiv Given the name, UN/NAe identification number or type placard, a current copy of the North American Emergency Response Guidebook a local response plan and standard operating procedures, and a facility or transportation scenario including hazardous materials, collect hazard information, initiate protective actions, and the notification process.
  185. 185. Yellow Pages ID Number Green Pages Initial Isolation NFPA Objective 2-2.3.1 Orange Pages Guide Numbers Blue Pages Chemical Name
  186. 186. Determine The Appropriate Guidebook Page Four digit ID# (yellow pages) Spelling of the product (blue pages) Placards (table of placards) Dealing with an unknown – Use Guide #111 NFPA Objective 2-2.3.1
  187. 187. General Types of Hazards Found on Each Guide Page – – – NFPA Objective 2-2.3.2 Fire and Explosion Health hazard “P” polymerization hazard
  188. 188. Response Information Emergency actions from numbered guide pages Protective clothing Initial isolation and protective action distances NFPA Objective 2-4.1.4
  189. 189. Protective Clothing Recommended clothing in the North American Emergency Response Guidebook – – – – NFPA Objective 2- Street clothing Structural fire fighter protective clothing Positive pressure SCBA Chemical-protective clothing
  190. 190. Protective Actions North American Emergency Response Guidebook definitions – Isolate hazard area and deny entry – Evacuate the area – Sheltering in-place NFPA Objective 2-
  192. 192. Difference between small and large spills as found in the table of isolation distances – Small spill – Large spill Circumstances under which different distances are used NFPA Objective 2-
  193. 193. Small Spill NFPA Objective 2- Large Spill
  194. 194. Difference Between Orange & Green Pages Isolation distance in the Orange pages – – Used to protect from immediate hazards Materials not highlighted Protective action distance in the Green pages – – Used for materials that present a toxic hazard. Highlighted materials only. NFPA Objective 2-
  195. 195. Location of Emergency Response Plans Local Emergency Response Plan and the Standard Operating Instructions – Applicable to each jurisdiction – Kept with the responsible agency NFPA Objective 2-4.1.1
  196. 196. Role of the Awareness Level First Responder Guidelines are found in: – – The local emergency response plan. The organization’s standard operating procedures. – North American Emergency Response Guidebook NFPA Objective 2-4.1.2
  197. 197. Techniques Used Techniques used to isolate the hazard area and deny entry – – – – – NFPA Objective 2-4.1.5 Use a vehicle to block a road Rope-off or barricade entrance to area Notify law enforcement to divert traffic Close doors to facility Use public address system
  198. 198. Involving Criminal or Terrorist Activity – Communicate the suspicion during notification – Isolate potentially exposed people – Document the initial observation NFPA Objective 2-4.1.6