Measures or techniques implemented to reduce the risk of injury, loss &
danger to persons, property or the environment in any facility or place
involving the manufacturing, producing and processing of goods or
The issue of industrial safety evolved concurrently with industrial
development in the US
Shift from compensation to prevention as well as toward an increasing
emphasis on addressing the long-term effects of occupational hazards.
Today, industrial safety is widely regarded as one of the most important
factors that any business, large or small, must consider in its operations.
Employers are required to compensate employees for work-related
injuries or sickness by paying medical expenses, disability benefits, and
compensation for lost work time.
In general, workplace hazards can be categorized into three groups:
1. Chemical hazards- in which the body absorbs toxins.
2. Ergonomic hazards- in which the body is strained or injured, often over
an extended period, because of the nature (design) of the task, its
frequency, or intensity.
3. Physical hazards- in which the worker is exposed to harmful elements or
physical dangers, such as heat or moving parts.
In the modern context, corporate management increasingly has viewed
industrial safety measures as an investment—one that may save money in
the long run by way of reducing disability pay, improving productivity, and
Rather than viewing an injury as a fluke or a random mistake,
management today is more likely to look for systemic problems, such as:
The way equipment is designed or used;
The way workflow is configured;
How workers are trained;
Whether there is a gap between official policies and employee practices.
First comprehensive industrial safety legislation passed at the federal level
was Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970
The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHAct) of 1970 was passed by
Congress "to assure so far as possible every working man and woman in
the Nation safe and healthful working conditions and to preserve our
OSHA was established within the Department of Labor and was
authorized to regulate health and safety conditions for all employers with
Includes safety standards, designed to prevent accidents, and health
standards, designed to protect against exposure to toxins and to address
the more long-term effects of occupational hazards.
encourage employers and employees to reduce workplace hazards and to
implement new or improve existing safety and health standards;
provide for research in occupational safety and health and develop
innovative ways of dealing with occupational safety and health problems;
establish "separate but dependent responsibilities and rights" for
employers and employees for the achievement of better safety and health
maintain a reporting and recordkeeping system to monitor job-related
injuries and illnesses;
establish training programs to increase the number and competence of
occupational safety and health personnel; and,
Types Of Inspection carried by OSHA (based on priority):
Imminent Danger: Condition where there is reasonable certainty that a
danger exists that can be expected to cause death or serious physical
harm immediately or before the danger can be eliminated through normal
Catastrophic and Fatal Accidents: Investigation of fatalities and
catastrophes resulting in hospitalization of three or more employees.
Employee Complaints: Each employee has the right to request an OSHA
inspection when the employee feels that he or she is in imminent danger
from a hazard or when he or she feels that there is a violation of an OSHA
standard that threatens physical harm
Programmed High Hazard Inspections: OSHA establishes programs of
inspection aimed at specific high hazard industries, occupations, or health
Re-inspections: Establishments cited for alleged serious violations may be
re-inspected to determine whether the hazards have been corrected.
Citation & Penalties:
Other than serious violation - A violation that has a direct relationship to
job safety and health, but probably would not cause death or serious
physical harm. The maximum proposed penalty for this type of violation is
Serious violation - A violation where there is substantial probability that
death or serious physical harm could result, and that the employer knew,
or should have known, of the hazard. The maximum proposed penalty for
this type of violation is $7000. Imminent danger situations are also cited
and penalized as serious violations.
Repeated violation - A violation of any standard, regulation, rule, or order
where, upon re-inspection, another violation of the same previously cited
section is found. Repeated violations can bring fines of up to $70,000.
Citation & Penalties (contd…):
Willful violation - A violation that the employer intentionally and
knowingly commits. The employer either knows that the operation
constitutes a violation, or is aware that a hazardous condition exists and
made no reasonable effort to eliminate it. The penalty range for this type
of violation is $5000 to $70,000.
Failure to Abate - Failure to correct any violations may bring civil penalties
of up to $7000 per day for every day the violation continues beyond the
prescribed abatement date.
A visual alerting device in the form of a sign, label, decal,
placard or other marking which advises the observer of
the nature and degree of the potential hazard(s) which
can cause an accident. It may also provide other directions
to eliminate or reduce the hazard and advise of the
probable consequences of no avoiding the hazard.
Environmental safety sign
Sign or placard in a work or public area that
provides safety information about the immediate
Product safety sign
Sign, label, or decal affixed to a product that
provides hazard and safety information about that product.
CAUTION: Potentially hazardous situation which, if not
avoided, may result in minor or moderate injury.
DANGER: Imminently hazardous situation which, if not
avoided, will result in death or serious injury.
NOTICE: Signs used to indicate a statement of company
policy or information indirectly related to the safety of
personnel or protection of property.
◦ This symbol appears as a
reminder to use caution
when handling hot
◦ This symbol appears when a
danger to the eyes exists.
Safety goggles should be worn
when this symbol appears.
◦ This symbol appears when care
should be taken around open
Although safety equipment is useful and can save a trip to the hospital, it
is the responsibility of every employee to pitch in to help with safety
Safety issues can occur in any situation including:
Trespassers committing vandalism or setting
fire for fun
Protesters intruding into the plant
Workplace drug crime
Theft of confidential information
Management issues includes
◦ security policy
◦ internal and external collaboration,
◦ incident reporting and analysis,
◦ employee and contractor training and security awareness,
◦ investigations of suspicious incidents and security breaches,
◦ Emergency response and crisis management
◦ Periodic reassessment
Physical security includes
◦ Access control
◦ Perimeter protection („keeping intruders offsite“)
◦ Security officers
◦ Backup systems
◦ Other measures, such as entering post control etc
Information, Computer and network security:
Spoken information security
Computer and network security
Audits and investigation
Release of Ammonia.
More then 20
$ 200 Billion
More then 1 Lakh
process as well as
$ 500 Million
More then 20,000
40 people injured
flammable vapors People in Netherland &
France could clearly
hear the loud
July 3, 2010)
& safety release
Destruction of oil worth
1. Risk Assessment:
a step in a risk management procedure.
Risk assessment is the determination of quantitative or qualitative
value of risk related to a concrete situation and a recognized threat
(also called hazard).
Quantitative risk assessment requires calculations of two components
R, the magnitude of the potential loss L, and
P, the probability that the loss will occur.
2. Emergency Management / Disaster Management
It is the discipline of dealing with and avoiding risks.
It is a discipline that involves preparing for disaster before it occurs,
disaster response (e.g., emergency evacuation, quarantine, mass
decontamination, etc.), and supporting, and rebuilding society after
natural or human-made disasters have occurred.
In general, any Emergency management is the continuous process by
which all individuals, groups, and communities manage hazards in an
effort to avoid or ameliorate the impact of disasters resulting from the
hazards. Actions taken depend in part on perceptions of risk of those
effective emergency management relies on thorough integration of
emergency plans at all levels of government and non-government
Activities at each level (individual, group, community) affect the other
It is common to place the responsibility for governmental emergency
management with the institutions for civil defense or within the
conventional structure of the emergency services.
However, emergency management actually starts at the lowest level
and only increases to the next higher organizational level after the
current level's resources have been exhausted.
In the private sector, emergency management is sometimes referred to
as business continuity planning.
3. HAZOP study (hazard and operability study)
It is a structured and systematic examination of a planned or existing
process or operation in order to identify and evaluate problems that
may represent risks to personnel or equipment, or prevent efficient
The HAZOP technique was initially developed to analyze chemical
process systems, but has later been extended to other types of systems
and also to complex operations and to software systems.
A HAZOP is a qualitative technique based on guide-words and is carried
out by a multi-disciplinary team (HAZOP team) during a set of meetings.
4. General Public Awareness
To maximize public awareness and support for your community AED program, you may
need to develop a campaign directed both at the grassroots level and at
the political decision-maker level.
success will depend on how effective you are at bringing the media into
your campaign as allies.
Developing a public awareness and support campaign entails these
a. Establish an AED task force
b. Frame your issues
c. Develop a statement of need
d. Promote media coverage
e. Lobby local political leaders
Safety Practices – Return on Investment
Safety Management = Risk Management
Efficiency = Productivity
Productivity = Profit
Policy are in place but lacks implementation. It’s the time that principles
laid down must be transformed into action, action must deliver result and
progress towards result must be measurable.
“Be Aware, Be Alert & Be Alive”