ICCO and Kenk in Actie policy framework on democratization

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Powerpoint Democratisation for Kyrgyzstan Workshop

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  • ICCO & Kerk in Actie provides financial support and advice towards local partner organizations and networks dedicated to these thematic areas. ABS – can be referred to as the social dimension of poverty & injustice Sustainable economic development can be referred to as the economic dimension of poverty and injustice Advancing Peace and democracy can be referred to as the political dimension of poverty and injustice
  • The political, in this context, is understood in terms of power relations. The unequal power relations are sustained by societal structures and socio-cultural phenomena such as corruption, clientalism and discrimination. Example: corruption in the judiciary, when people have to pay a bribe to have access to the court there is no equal access to the rule of law. Or if judges/ prosecutors have want to secure the interest of a specific group over others. Aspects like discrimination, clientalism and corruption also have influence on the political system and the law, which tend to be used to safeguard the rights and interests of the rich and powerful in detriment of the most vulnerable.
  • CT&D programs are aiming to address the structures and systems that permit unequal power relations to persist over time. To work on this in a constructive way we think it is needed to: Analyzing the structural causes of power relations, of the political, legal and societal systems that shape inequalities, including informal institutions, norms, and patterns of behaviour creates a base to focus in a program and see what is needed to work on more equal power relations. Multi-level : In order to achieve real political change local initiatives that unfold at the community or grassroots level need to be connected to larger national and/or international platforms and vice versa. Multi-actor : Similarly, we consider that different types of actors will benefit from linking their work. Focus on empowerment of marginalised groups . The marginalized in this context refer to those groups and individuals within society that are excluded from their capacity to exercise their legitimate rights and to defend their needs.
  • We distinguish two approaches that are interrelated and complementary. Which approach is most applicable for the development of a program is dependent on the context. Conflict and Post-conflict settings (If a violent conflict or the aftermath predominates everything in society it can be preferable to take this conflict as a starting point of the analysis. However, the work on democratization can be crucial in conflict and post conflict settings as well) Formal democracies with serious limitations (In the democratization approach, rights violations, injustice and disempowerment in relation to marginalized groups is the starting point of the analysis. Within democratization elements of conflict transformation can be relevant as well. Claiming access to decision making or natural resources, often central in our work in formal democracies with serious limitations, can lead to conflicts. Therefore, when working on democratisation, attention should be paid to reducing the potential for conflict through activities directed at preventing and resolving conflicts ) In Kyrgyzstan ICCO & Kerk in Actie sees democratization as the main approach in the program up to now – if we are looking at the interventions of our current partner organizations. However, with respect to the recent crisis specific attention to elements of CT can be very relevant. This is something we have to explore together in the analysis and development of the program)
  • Paula: Check jij deze slight? Ik denk dat het goed is om in de D-presentatie 1 slight te hebben over CT en andersom in de CT presentatie 1 over D. Wat is belangrijk om hier te vertellen? Misschien ook aardig om 1 goed real life voorbeeld van een CT programma te vertellen, waar met veschillende interventies aan verschillende dimensies wordt gewerkt. Conflict transformation is aimed at empowering people to become involved in non-violent change processes themselves, to help build sustainable conditions for peace and justice. Characteristics of this approach: Three dimensions Perceptions and attitudes of people : how people behave is influenced by their perceptions and attitudes. Examples of perceptions and attitudes are distrust, feelings of superiority (negative examples) or trust and confidence (positive examples). The context people live in : this concerns the circumstances that people live in, for example, whether people can participate in the political system, or at the level of direct poverty alleviation , whether people have equal access to basic services and whether they have economic opportunities. The context people live in : this concerns the circumstances that people live in, for example, whether people can participate in the political system, or at the level of direct poverty alleviation , whether people have equal access to basic services and whether they have economic opportunities.
  • Illustration on various understanding of democracy: promote free market and democratic freedoms unlike social movements seeking to redefine the content of democracy in terms of social and economic equality. Therefore important to be explicit in our own interpretation of this concept. There are many ways to define or classify democracy but in this presentation we distinguish two approaches. Voor Kyrgyzstan wellicht iets toevoegen over dat ICCO zich bewust is van de negatieve lading die de term democratie of democratisering kan hebben en: Dat we uitgaan van de locale context en de analyse die daar wordt gemaakt en dat ICCO open staat voor een andere terminologie (per context) voor hetgeen waar aan wordt gewerkt. (zoals bijv. fair relations between citizens and government) Democratie/ democratisering niet als een systeem beschouwen dat van buiten af kan worden opgelegd
  • Apart from the characteristics in the minimalist approach, for ICCO & Kerk in Actie democracy should also include these. Explain Level of political participation as the extent to which citizens can participate in the elaboration of policies and influence their outcome.
  • This sheet is about the role of citizens in this broad approach. Citizens have an active role in controlling and shaping the decisions that affect their lives They hold governments accountable for their acts They have an active role in claiming their rights and participate in the elaboration and implementation of policies, especially economic and social policies.
  • ICCO & Kerk in Actie distinguishes two strategic dimensions to work on democratisation . It is not the aim to divide the efforts of partner organizations in the field of democratization to these approaches. The approaches are often intertwined and related. The approaches are closely related to the concept of a citizens’ democracy (as explained above).
  • The empowerment of the marginalised people around issues of local governance and social justice, as to enhance their capacity to claim rights and citizenship through their own actions. Example: Sahakarmi Samaj from Nepal selects disadvantaged communities instead of only leaders. Central in their training is problem analysis, community vision building and participatory action planning. Their final goal is to establish good functioning community based network organisations that are able to analyse its own problems and formulate possible solutions at the local level and negotiate with local authorities. Facilitate dialogue and negotiations between different stakeholders in which citizens can participate and decide on the policies that affect their lives. Example: Cooperacción (Peru) created the opportunity for different actors to meet by organising round tables in which community based organisations / CSO’s share their proposals on policies and regulations around land management with public opinion makers, policy makers and other civil society organisations. GD important to bring social justice on the political agenda – the aim is to empower the marginalised as to let them participate and decide about issues that affect their lives (if anybody has a question on Citizenship) Citizenship: taking active part in the nation state to secure your rights and participate in decision making processes
  • Accountability is a means to apply institutional constraints to the exercise of power, prevent abuse, and keep authorities in line with established rules. Focus on government but also other actors. Depending on the patterns of power in a given context, we support initiatives oriented towards holding either the different institutions of the state accountable (domestic public accountability) or other duty bearers (corporate sector, intergovernmental bodies, or civil society organisations). In the latter we will often focus on the exploitation of natural resources or land grabbing. The international human rights treaties and standards to which authorities have committed themselves can be a base to measure the performances of the duty bearers. General aim – Accountability is not an end in itself but aims to contribute to greater justice, equality and redistribution of resources. Examples of initiatives on accountability: Improve transparency in policy making through participation of citizens in budget allocations and public hearings Monitoring electoral process Civil control over military forces and police Capacity development of citizens on how accountability mechanisms work and how they can use them ACC and GD can be intertwined: The examples of Sahakarmi – the empowerment of these communities can be seen as GD, but this is not the final aim. The negotiations the have with local government could be considered as initiatives on accountability.
  • Three elements in accountability; Responsibility – in a way of denouncing abuse, obtain participation Responsibility (explain and justify behaviour) Sanctioning – enforcement of desired behaviour/ consequences or learning - Need special attention in accountability initiatives
  • Three elements in accountability; Responsibility – in a way of denouncing abuse, obtain participation Responsibility (explain and justify behaviour) Sanctioning – enforcement of desired behaviour/ consequences or learning - Need special attention in accountability initiatives
  • ICCO and Kenk in Actie policy framework on democratization

    1. 1. Democratisation ICCO & Kerk in Actie’s policy framework on democratisation
    2. 2. <ul><li>Improving access to basic services (social dimension) </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulating sustainable economic development (economic dimension) </li></ul><ul><li>Advancing peace and democracy (political dimension) </li></ul>General Thematic Focus
    3. 3. Titel van de presentatie Eventueel de ondertitel van de presentatie <ul><li>Political is understood in terms of power relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty and injustice are rooted in unequal power relations </li></ul><ul><li>Sustained by societal structures and socio-cultural phenomena </li></ul>Political Dimension?
    4. 4. <ul><li>Analyzing structural causes </li></ul><ul><li>Linking local initiatives to larger platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Linking different actors </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on marginalised groups </li></ul>Aim for more equality in power relations
    5. 5. <ul><li>Conflict Transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Democratisation </li></ul>Two approaches
    6. 6. <ul><li>Non-violent change processes, to build sustainable conditions for peace and justice </li></ul><ul><li>Three dimensions; attitudes, behaviour and context </li></ul>Conflict Transformation
    7. 7. <ul><li>Varies according to person, ideology, culture and context. Two approaches: </li></ul><ul><li>Minimalist approach </li></ul><ul><li>Broad approach </li></ul>Concept of Democracy
    8. 8. Titel van de presentatie <ul><li>Eventueel een extra regel tekst </li></ul><ul><li>Eventueel een extra regel tekst </li></ul><ul><li>Eventueel een extra regel tekst </li></ul><ul><li>Eventueel een extra regel tekst </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on free and fair elections </li></ul><ul><li>Different political parties </li></ul><ul><li>Respect for civil and political liberties </li></ul>Minimalist Approach
    9. 9. <ul><ul><li>No attention for inequality in existing power relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power relations can undermine procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard to assess the quality of democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rather passive role for citizens </li></ul></ul>Disadvantages
    10. 10. <ul><li>Level of political participation </li></ul><ul><li>The rule of law </li></ul><ul><li>The respect for social, economic and cultural rights </li></ul>Broad Approach
    11. 11. <ul><li>Hold governments accountable </li></ul><ul><li>Claim their rights </li></ul><ul><li>Participate in the elaboration and implementation of policies </li></ul>Active Role for Citizens
    12. 12. <ul><li>Grassroots Democratisation </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability of duty bearers </li></ul>Strategic Dimensions
    13. 13. Titel van de presentatie <ul><li>Eventueel een extra regel tekst </li></ul><ul><li>Eventueel een extra regel tekst </li></ul><ul><li>Eventueel een extra regel tekst </li></ul><ul><li>Eventueel een extra regel tekst </li></ul><ul><li>Political and legal empowerment of the most marginalised </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate dialogue between different stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Aim to improve the link between grassroots and larger platforms </li></ul>Grassroots Democratisation
    14. 14. Titel van de presentatie <ul><li>Eventueel een extra regel tekst </li></ul><ul><li>Eventueel een extra regel tekst </li></ul><ul><li>Eventueel een extra regel tekst </li></ul><ul><li>Eventueel een extra regel tekst </li></ul><ul><li>Holding actors responsible for their actions </li></ul><ul><li>Addressing those with obligations and responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>International human rights treaties and standards as a base to measure </li></ul>Accountability
    15. 15. Titel van de presentatie <ul><li>Eventueel een extra regel tekst </li></ul><ul><li>Eventueel een extra regel tekst </li></ul><ul><li>Eventueel een extra regel tekst </li></ul><ul><li>Eventueel een extra regel tekst </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information, transparency and voice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogue, consultation negotiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sanctioning </li></ul></ul>Three Elements
    16. 16. Questions?

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