Business & Human Rights:  An Introduction to the  “Protect, Respect and Remedy”  Framework and its draft  Guiding Principl...
Contents Context Framework Some background Guiding Principles How is it to work?
Context 16 February 2011
  16 February 2011
Global Supply Chains   16 February 2011
  16 February 2011
Human Rights Dilemmas for Business   16 February 2011
Human Rights Dilemmas for Business <ul><li>Discrimination of women in Saudi Arabia (mandated by law) </li></ul>  16 Februa...
Human Rights Dilemmas for Business <ul><li>Discrimination of women in Saudi Arabia (mandated by law) </li></ul><ul><li>Pra...
Human Rights Dilemmas for Business <ul><li>Discrimination of women in Saudi Arabia (mandated by law) </li></ul><ul><li>Pra...
Human Rights Dilemmas for Business <ul><li>Discrimination of women in Saudi Arabia (mandated by law) </li></ul><ul><li>Pra...
Human Rights Dilemmas for Business <ul><li>Discrimination of women in Saudi Arabia (mandated by law) </li></ul><ul><li>Pra...
Human Rights Dilemmas for Business <ul><li>Discrimination of women in Saudi Arabia (mandated by law) </li></ul><ul><li>Pra...
Human Rights Dilemmas for Business <ul><li>Discrimination of women in Saudi Arabia (mandated by law) </li></ul><ul><li>Pra...
Human Rights Dilemmas for Business <ul><li>Discrimination of women in Saudi Arabia (mandated by law) </li></ul><ul><li>Pra...
Human Rights Dilemmas for Business <ul><li>Discrimination of women in Saudi Arabia (mandated by law) </li></ul><ul><li>Pra...
Human Rights Dilemmas for Business <ul><li>Discrimination of women in Saudi Arabia (mandated by law) </li></ul><ul><li>Pra...
Human Rights Dilemmas for Business <ul><li>Discrimination of women in Saudi Arabia (mandated by law) </li></ul><ul><li>Pra...
UN, business and human rights <ul><ul><li>UDHR, 1948:  “ every organ of society  shall strive by teaching and education to...
But what are the  universal  responsibilities of business with respect to human rights, if any? 16 February 2011
Protect, Respect and Remedy 16 February 2011
History: UN Draft Norms <ul><li>Sub committee of the Human Rights Commission: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Draft Norms on the Respo...
UN Special Representative <ul><li>Appointed by SG Kofi Annan  (cont. by Ban Ki-moon) </li></ul><ul><li>Harvard Prof.  John...
Protect, Respect and Remedy <ul><ul><li>State  Duty to Protect  Human Rights  (policies, regulation, adjudication) </li></...
Features of PRR Framework <ul><li>All  companies, of all sizes, in every sector, in any country,  </li></ul><ul><li>All  s...
Some background 16 February 2011
Analysis of the problem <ul><li>Ruggie: governance gaps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reach, power and rights of companies has dra...
What is happening? <ul><li>States:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should  not limit  their policy space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Guiding Principles 16 February 2011
(Draft) Guiding Principles <ul><li>Operationalization/Implementation of PRR Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Based on 3 further...
State Duty to Protect <ul><li>Foundational Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring Policy Coherence </li></ul><ul><li>Foster...
Responsibility to Respect <ul><li>Foundational Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Top Level Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Due Dil...
Access to Remedy <ul><li>Foundational Principle </li></ul><ul><li>State-based Judicial Mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>State-...
How is it to work? 16 February 2011
Positioning the GPs <ul><li>The Guiding Principles’ normative contribution lies not in the creation of new international l...
Actors <ul><li>States </li></ul><ul><li>National Human Rights Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>Compan...
Examples: States/NHRIs <ul><li>Export credit agencies formulate new criteria (Canada) </li></ul><ul><li>Aligning CSR strat...
Examples: Companies <ul><li>Grievance Mechanisms Pilot Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shell/Sakhalin, Russia </li></ul></ul...
  Developed With:  ABN Amro, AkzoNobel, Essent, KLM, Philips, Rabobank, Randstad, Shell, TNT, and Unilever www.gcnetherlan...
Examples: NGOs/CS <ul><li>Amnesty International </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Submission to OECD, IFC, ECAs common approaches </li...
Converging CSR standards UN Protect, Respect,  Remedy Framework 16 February 2011
<ul><li>Thank you for your attention </li></ul>16 February 2011
ETO/ETJ <ul><li>“ At present, States are not generally required under international human rights law to regulate the extra...
Contact Info <ul><li>David Vermijs </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Tel. + 31 6 4348 9690 </li></ul>16 ...
  16 February 2011
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  • Confidentiality - test the grounds finalize report
  • Not: whether violated Rather: whether Randstad has systems in place
  • Not: whether violated Rather: whether Randstad has systems in place
  • Business & Human Rights: An Introduction to the “Protect, Respect and Remedy” Framework and its draft Guiding Principles

    1. 1. Business & Human Rights: An Introduction to the “Protect, Respect and Remedy” Framework and its draft Guiding Principles David Vermijs ICCO, 16 February 2011 INDEX CARDS Tracking Performance Impact Assessments Integration Human Rights Policy Grievance Mechanism
    2. 2. Contents Context Framework Some background Guiding Principles How is it to work?
    3. 3. Context 16 February 2011
    4. 4. 16 February 2011
    5. 5. Global Supply Chains 16 February 2011
    6. 6. 16 February 2011
    7. 7. Human Rights Dilemmas for Business 16 February 2011
    8. 8. Human Rights Dilemmas for Business <ul><li>Discrimination of women in Saudi Arabia (mandated by law) </li></ul> 16 February 2011
    9. 9. Human Rights Dilemmas for Business <ul><li>Discrimination of women in Saudi Arabia (mandated by law) </li></ul><ul><li>Practical barriers to Freedom of Association (eg. USA and China) </li></ul> 16 February 2011
    10. 10. Human Rights Dilemmas for Business <ul><li>Discrimination of women in Saudi Arabia (mandated by law) </li></ul><ul><li>Practical barriers to Freedom of Association (eg. USA and China) </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal pay between men and women (widespread in Europe, US) </li></ul> 16 February 2011
    11. 11. Human Rights Dilemmas for Business <ul><li>Discrimination of women in Saudi Arabia (mandated by law) </li></ul><ul><li>Practical barriers to Freedom of Association (eg. USA and China) </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal pay between men and women (widespread in Europe, US) </li></ul><ul><li>Harassment of colleagues in the office </li></ul> 16 February 2011
    12. 12. Human Rights Dilemmas for Business <ul><li>Discrimination of women in Saudi Arabia (mandated by law) </li></ul><ul><li>Practical barriers to Freedom of Association (eg. USA and China) </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal pay between men and women (widespread in Europe, US) </li></ul><ul><li>Harassment of colleagues in the office </li></ul> 16 February 2011
    13. 13. Human Rights Dilemmas for Business <ul><li>Discrimination of women in Saudi Arabia (mandated by law) </li></ul><ul><li>Practical barriers to Freedom of Association (eg. USA and China) </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal pay between men and women (widespread in Europe, US) </li></ul><ul><li>Harassment of colleagues in the office </li></ul><ul><li>Access to banking (anywhere, including in the Netherlands) </li></ul> 16 February 2011
    14. 14. Human Rights Dilemmas for Business <ul><li>Discrimination of women in Saudi Arabia (mandated by law) </li></ul><ul><li>Practical barriers to Freedom of Association (eg. USA and China) </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal pay between men and women (widespread in Europe, US) </li></ul><ul><li>Harassment of colleagues in the office </li></ul><ul><li>Access to banking (anywhere, including in the Netherlands) </li></ul><ul><li>Investments of pension funds (cluster bombs, low wages, etc.) </li></ul> 16 February 2011
    15. 15. Human Rights Dilemmas for Business <ul><li>Discrimination of women in Saudi Arabia (mandated by law) </li></ul><ul><li>Practical barriers to Freedom of Association (eg. USA and China) </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal pay between men and women (widespread in Europe, US) </li></ul><ul><li>Harassment of colleagues in the office </li></ul><ul><li>Access to banking (anywhere, including in the Netherlands) </li></ul><ul><li>Investments of pension funds (cluster bombs, low wages, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Body scanners in airports (privacy) </li></ul> 16 February 2011
    16. 16. Human Rights Dilemmas for Business <ul><li>Discrimination of women in Saudi Arabia (mandated by law) </li></ul><ul><li>Practical barriers to Freedom of Association (eg. USA and China) </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal pay between men and women (widespread in Europe, US) </li></ul><ul><li>Harassment of colleagues in the office </li></ul><ul><li>Access to banking (anywhere, including in the Netherlands) </li></ul><ul><li>Investments of pension funds (cluster bombs, low wages, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Body scanners in airports (privacy) </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of Speech (Google/China, Vodafone/Egypt, Nokia/Iran) </li></ul> 16 February 2011
    17. 17. Human Rights Dilemmas for Business <ul><li>Discrimination of women in Saudi Arabia (mandated by law) </li></ul><ul><li>Practical barriers to Freedom of Association (eg. USA and China) </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal pay between men and women (widespread in Europe, US) </li></ul><ul><li>Harassment of colleagues in the office </li></ul><ul><li>Access to banking (anywhere, including in the Netherlands) </li></ul><ul><li>Investments of pension funds (cluster bombs, low wages, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Body scanners in airports (privacy) </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of Speech (Google/China, Vodafone/Egypt, Nokia/Iran) </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation of war criminals (airlines) </li></ul> 16 February 2011
    18. 18. Human Rights Dilemmas for Business <ul><li>Discrimination of women in Saudi Arabia (mandated by law) </li></ul><ul><li>Practical barriers to Freedom of Association (eg. USA and China) </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal pay between men and women (widespread in Europe, US) </li></ul><ul><li>Harassment of colleagues in the office </li></ul><ul><li>Access to banking (anywhere, including in the Netherlands) </li></ul><ul><li>Investments of pension funds (cluster bombs, low wages, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Body scanners in airports (privacy) </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of Speech (Google/China, Vodafone/Egypt, Nokia/Iran) </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation of war criminals (airlines) </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting company assets against attacks (eg. Nigeria, Colombia) </li></ul> 16 February 2011
    19. 19. UN, business and human rights <ul><ul><li>UDHR, 1948: “ every organ of society shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Compact, 2000: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Principle 1 : Businesses should support and respect the protection of internationally proclaimed human rights; and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Principle 2:  make sure that they are not complicit in human rights abuses.”  </li></ul></ul></ul> 16 February 2011
    20. 20. But what are the universal responsibilities of business with respect to human rights, if any? 16 February 2011
    21. 21. Protect, Respect and Remedy 16 February 2011
    22. 22. History: UN Draft Norms <ul><li>Sub committee of the Human Rights Commission: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Draft Norms on the Responsibilities of Transnational Corporations and Other Business Enterprises with Regard to Human Rights” </li></ul><ul><li>Heated debate </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imposed state-like obligations on companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No clear differentiation between roles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No specific provision for enforcement </li></ul></ul>16 February 2011
    23. 23. UN Special Representative <ul><li>Appointed by SG Kofi Annan (cont. by Ban Ki-moon) </li></ul><ul><li>Harvard Prof. John Ruggie (Political Science) </li></ul><ul><li>Principled Pragmatism: “ to reduce corporate- related human rights harm to the maximum extent possible in the shortest possible period of time.” </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence-based : 1000s pages research, 45+ multi-stakeholder consultations, 2 main reports, 4 interim reports </li></ul>16 February 2011
    24. 24. Protect, Respect and Remedy <ul><ul><li>State Duty to Protect Human Rights (policies, regulation, adjudication) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate Responsibility to Respect Human Rights (requires human rights due diligence) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need for Access to effective Remedies (both companies and states; judicial/non-judicial) </li></ul></ul>16 February 2011
    25. 25. Features of PRR Framework <ul><li>All companies, of all sizes, in every sector, in any country, </li></ul><ul><li>All stakeholders whose human rights might be affected </li></ul><ul><li>All internationally recognized human rights (international bill of rights and ILO core conventions) </li></ul><ul><li>Human rights cannot be off-set : doing harm in one place cannot compensate for doing good elsewhere </li></ul><ul><li>Respecting human rights involves meaningful engagement </li></ul>16 February 2011
    26. 26. Some background 16 February 2011
    27. 27. Analysis of the problem <ul><li>Ruggie: governance gaps </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reach, power and rights of companies has dramatically increased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But capacity of states to prevent and mitigate the adverse consequences has not </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bilateral Investment Treaties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Export Credits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakly governed states </li></ul></ul> 16 February 2011
    28. 28. What is happening? <ul><li>States: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should not limit their policy space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should not interpret their obligations minimally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should use their policy space, including ETJ/ETO </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Business: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adhering to the law is not enough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Company needs a social license to operate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From “naming and shaming” to “knowing and showing” </li></ul></ul> 16 February 2011
    29. 29. Guiding Principles 16 February 2011
    30. 30. (Draft) Guiding Principles <ul><li>Operationalization/Implementation of PRR Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Based on 3 further years of research and consultation </li></ul><ul><li>Contents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Report (Introduction) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guiding Principles + Commentary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Definitions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Timeline: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>November 2010: Draft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>31 January 2011: Deadline for comments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>March 2011: finalized for translations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>June 2011: discussed by Human Rights Council </li></ul></ul>16 February 2011
    31. 31. State Duty to Protect <ul><li>Foundational Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring Policy Coherence </li></ul><ul><li>Fostering Business Respect for Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>The State-Business Nexus </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial Transactions of the State </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting Business Respect for Human Rights in Conflict-Affected Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Multilateral Institutions </li></ul>16 February 2011
    32. 32. Responsibility to Respect <ul><li>Foundational Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Top Level Commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Due Diligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing Impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remediation </li></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicts of standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritization </li></ul></ul>16 February 2011
    33. 33. Access to Remedy <ul><li>Foundational Principle </li></ul><ul><li>State-based Judicial Mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>State-based Non-judicial Mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Non-state-based Grievance Mechanisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>States: facilitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Companies: operational-level GMs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MSIs: provide for GMs too </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Effectiveness Criteria for GMs: Legitimate, Accessible, Predictable, Equitable, Rights-Compatible, Transparent ( Based on Dialogue and Engagement) </li></ul></ul>16 February 2011
    34. 34. How is it to work? 16 February 2011
    35. 35. Positioning the GPs <ul><li>The Guiding Principles’ normative contribution lies not in the creation of new international law obligations but in elaborating the implications of existing standards and practices for States and businesses; integrating them within a single, coherent and comprehensive template; and identifying where the current regime falls short and how it should be improved. </li></ul><ul><li>– Draft Final Report, paragraph 13 </li></ul>16 February 2011
    36. 36. Actors <ul><li>States </li></ul><ul><li>National Human Rights Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>Companies and business organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Multistakeholder organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Investors </li></ul><ul><li>Multilateral organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Academic </li></ul><ul><li>U.N. Special Procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>www.business -humanrights.org/SpecialRepPortal/Home/Protect-Respect-Remedy- Framework </li></ul>16 February 2011
    37. 37. Examples: States/NHRIs <ul><li>Export credit agencies formulate new criteria (Canada) </li></ul><ul><li>Aligning CSR strategy with framework (Norway, UK) </li></ul><ul><li>Studies on the legal and extraterritorial aspects of respect for human rights (EU, Netherlands) </li></ul><ul><li>Business & Human Rights Toolkit for diplomatic staff (UK) </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible procurement (Netherlands) </li></ul><ul><li>Public Reporting (Denmark and Sweden) </li></ul><ul><li>Malaysia: NHRI prepares workshop in line with framework </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa HRC: framework referenced in BIT review </li></ul><ul><li>Australia HRC: Part of Guidance to companies </li></ul><ul><li>www.business -humanrights.org/SpecialRepPortal/Home/Protect-Respect-Remedy- Framework </li></ul>16 February 2011
    38. 38. Examples: Companies <ul><li>Grievance Mechanisms Pilot Project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shell/Sakhalin, Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tesco, South Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerejon, Colombia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HP, China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Esquel Group, Vietnam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ExxonMobil/Nestle: benchmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Anglo American/ ArcelorMittal/ Shell: company-wide GMs </li></ul><ul><li>IOE/MVO Nederland: guides/programs for SMEs </li></ul><ul><li>Global Business Initiative on Human Rights </li></ul>16 February 2011
    39. 39. Developed With: ABN Amro, AkzoNobel, Essent, KLM, Philips, Rabobank, Randstad, Shell, TNT, and Unilever www.gcnetherlands.nl ABB, Anglo American, Cairn Energy, Cerrejón Coal, Chevron, ENI, Essent, ExxonMobil, Gap Inc., General Electric, Hewlett Packard, Levi Strauss, Merck, Nestle, Newmont, Novartis, Novo Nordisk, Philips, Shell, Syngenta, The Coca Cola Company, Total, Unilever. www.institutehrb.org State of Play Guidance Tool 16 February 2011
    40. 40. Examples: NGOs/CS <ul><li>Amnesty International </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Submission to OECD, IFC, ECAs common approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research reports on Shell (Nigeria), Vedanta (India) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Burma Campaign UK (re: Toyota’s decision to leave Burma) </li></ul><ul><li>Cambodia Human Rights Center </li></ul><ul><li>Institute for Human Rights and Business: several papers </li></ul><ul><li>Oxfam Australia (Review of Australian Mining companies) </li></ul><ul><li>World Resources Institute (Roadmap for World Bank) </li></ul>16 February 2011
    41. 41. Converging CSR standards UN Protect, Respect, Remedy Framework 16 February 2011
    42. 42. <ul><li>Thank you for your attention </li></ul>16 February 2011
    43. 43. ETO/ETJ <ul><li>“ At present, States are not generally required under international human rights law to regulate the extraterritorial activities of businesses domiciled in their territory and/or jurisdiction. But nor are they prohibited from doing so provided there is a recognized jurisdictional basis and that the exercise of jurisdiction is reasonable.” </li></ul><ul><li>Draft Report, Paragraph 7 </li></ul>16 February 2011
    44. 44. Contact Info <ul><li>David Vermijs </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Tel. + 31 6 4348 9690 </li></ul>16 February 2011
    45. 45. 16 February 2011

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