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"Are the poor invisible?" - PADEV with the poor


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Presentation by Agnieszka Kazimierczuk at the PADEV seminar - Utrecht, 15 September 2010

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"Are the poor invisible?" - PADEV with the poor

  1. 1. Agnieszka Kazimierczuk (PADEV) Presentation prepared for: “ Insights in complexity: possibilities for scaling-up a bottom-up evaluation approach.” Utrecht, 15.09.2010
  2. 2. <ul><li>PADEV weak point: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>participants are the representatives of the rich and the average wealth groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major problem with most of the development interventions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>proper targeting of the recipients </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. “ A poor person is not well-recognized in society and is not involved in any social processes either; while a very poor person is not respected by others, neither recognized in the community, (s)he is not considered in the decision-making processes, nor attending social gatherings; (s)he is isolated and has no friends.” Kazimierczuk 2009
  4. 6. Housing Farm Animals Transport Category Short Description Very rich Rich Not Rich/Not Poor Poor Very poor Transport Owns a car No No No No No Owns a motorbike Yes Yes No No No Owns a bicycle Yes Yes Yes No No Goes bare-footed No No No No Yes Family Has a family (wife/children) Yes Yes Yes Yes No Education Children in SSS Yes Some Some No No Children in basic education Yes Some Some No No Housing House made with cement blocks Yes Some Some No No House roofed with zinc Yes Some Some No No Cloths Goes well-dressed Yes Yes Yes Some No Eating habits 3 meals a day Yes No No No No 2 meals a day Yes Yes Yes No No Farm Use tractor to farm Yes Yes No No No Use bullocks to farm Yes Yes No No No Animals Owns cattle Yes Yes Some No No Owns small ruminants Yes Yes Yes No No Owns poultry Yes Yes Yes Yes No Health Has access to good health care Yes Yes Some Some No Ceremonies Big and recognised ceremonies Yes Some Some No No Position in the society Involved in decision-making Yes Yes Sometimes No No Respected Yes Yes Some No No State of mind Happy Yes Yes Sometimes No No Others Able to support others Yes Yes Sometimes No No Depends on help from others No No Sometimes Yes Yes Has to beg No No No No Yes
  5. 7. The number of households in particular wealth group Wealth Group N Poor 20 Average 77 Rich 69 Very Rich 21
  6. 8. <ul><li>Planned sample N=40 (20 x 2) </li></ul>N Average age Men 21 52 Elderly Men 12 62 Younger Men 9 39 Women 18 45 Elderly Women 8 59 Younger Women 10 34 Total 39 49
  7. 9. <ul><li>Small groups: 5 participants each </li></ul><ul><li>Exercises: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception of changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>List of projects + attribution + selection of the best five </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion about five wealth groups and division of wealth in the village </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact of the best projects on the wealth classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completed life histories of each of the participants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Further comparison to the previous research in the area (2008 and 2010 follow up) </li></ul>
  8. 11. *excluding the overlapping projects between the groups. <ul><li>Number of non-prompted projects per group </li></ul>n Older man I 5 Older men II 6 Younger Men I 7 Younger Men II 11 Older women I 6 Older women II 5 Younger women I 5 Younger women II 9 Total* 18
  9. 12. <ul><li>Number of interventions per sector discussed with the poor compared to the other workshops </li></ul>Sector Gbangu the Poor 2010 Gbangu Follow up 2010 Education 4 12 Crops 8 12 Health 6 19 Infrastructure 1 4 Water 1 3 Credit/Trade/Business 2 4 Livestock 1 4 Social 0 4 Natural Environment 3 7 Food 2 3 Others 0 3 Total 28 75
  10. 13. <ul><li>Only 20 projects directly benefited some or all of the poor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 projects benefited directly all of the participants, and 15 projects benefited some of the participants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Some ” means one or two participants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5 projects that benefit the poor: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boreholes, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinic, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vaccination programme, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grinding mill </li></ul></ul>Public Goods
  11. 14. <ul><li>Frequency of the “best project” </li></ul>Project n 1 School 8 2 Clinic 7 3 Grinding Mill 7 4 Borehole 6 5 Dry-season garden 3 6 Warehouse 2
  12. 15. <ul><li>Average impact of best projects on wealth categories (%) </li></ul>
  13. 16. “ The group of the very poor contains mostly physically and mentally challenged people or single people, like bachelors or widows. A very poor person does not really have an occupation and depends on relatives or begs in public. Some, if their health allows, are labourers who farm or fetch water for other people. ” Kazimierczuk, 2010
  14. 17. <ul><li>Details regarding compounds within which the very poor live </li></ul>Amount of inhabitants Classification of the compound People considered to be the very poor 16 Poor A bachelor 51 Average 2 widows 62 Average 2 old widows 18 Average Aged very poor married couple 60 Average A single old man 27 Rich 2 widows 25 Very rich A blind man and his wife
  15. 18. <ul><li>Methodological perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Since the poor are not direct beneficiaries of most of the development interventions => so far they are not a good target group for the impact evaluation workshops; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The main beneficiaries of the development initiatives are still the average, the rich and the very rich => they constitute the main target group for the impact evaluation workshops; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The exclusion of the representatives of lower wealth classes did not influence the outcome of the previous workshops substantially. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>The poor and the very poor perspective </li></ul>“ The (very) poor are invisible!!” The efforts on the ground need to be greater in order to properly address development divides.
  17. 20. Local definition of poverty and understanding of local context Most vulnerable and excluded people, children