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4 growing and thriving online communities


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4 growing and thriving online communities

  1. 1. Lecture 4Building a Thriving Online Community Ecosystem
  2. 2. Recall  “We want a growing and thriving community!”
  3. 3. Questions?• How to get a community started?• How to motivate contributions?• How to coordinate those contributions?• How to make thriving online communities?
  4. 4. Critical Challenges• Carving out a niche• Dealing with the competition• Starting a new community (critical mass)• Encouraging commitment – Commitment means feelings of attachment or connection to the group, organization, or community – Leave/join is quite easy: no contracts; no space/time boundaries;• Encouraging contribution – Inequality: power-law distribution of contribution• Regulating behavior – How to prevent negative behavior (e.g., trolling, spamming) – Challenging due to anonymity, textual communication, easiness of join/leave – Can overcome challenges since interaction archival, access control, and analysis (reputation, ranking) are possible
  5. 5. Overcoming the challenges • Community start-up • Recruit, select and socialize members • Encourage commitment • Elicit contribution • Regulate behavior • Coordinate activityBut anonymity, weak ties, high turnover, & lack of institutionalization make challengesmore daunting online
  6. 6. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivations• Individual motivation influences behavior through external motivators (e.g., rewards, incentives, reputation) and intrinsic motivators (e.g., fun & curiosity)Increase contributions by manipulating extrinsic incentives & intrinsic motivations – Extrinsic motivators: Offer rewards as incentive (e.g., money, reputation, perks, grades) • Larger rewards induce more contribution than smaller rewards. • Luxury goods create better incentives than money as rewards for more difficult tasks. • Rewards of status, privileges, money, or prizes that are task- contingent but not performance-contingent will lead to gaming by performing the tasks with low effort. • People wont game the system for private verbal reward – Intrinsic motivators: Make the task fun or intrinsically interesting
  7. 7. How would you make a contribution task more fun?
  8. 8. What Makes a Contribution Fun? Lessons from game designFlow Criteria Principles of game designConcentration Games should require concentration and the player should be able to concentrate on the gameChallenge Be sufficiently challenging and match the player’s skill levelSkills Support player skill development and masteryControl Support players sense of control over their actionsClear Goals Provide the player with clear goals at appropriate timeFeedback Provide appropriate feedback at appropriate timesImmersion Players should experience deep but effortless involvement in the gameSocial Interaction Games should support and create opportunities for social interaction Mapping flow to principles of game design (from Sweetser & Wyeth, 2005)
  9. 9. Support Opportunities for Social InteractionMake tedious tasks fun via social interaction
  10. 10. Gamification• Applying game-design thinking to non-game applications• Is the effect via fun (internal motivation) or incentives (external motivations)?
  11. 11. Design Claims Re: Trade-offs Btw Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation• Adding a reward to an already interesting task will cause people to be less interested in the task and to perform it less often.• While tangible rewards reduce intrinsic motivations for interesting activities, verbal rewards enhance intrinsic motivation.• Verbal rewards will not enhance intrinsic motivation and may undermine it if they are judged as controlling.• Verbal rewards enhance intrinsic motivations most when they enhance the target’s perceptions of competence
  12. 12. So, how can we encourage behaviours such as• Finding new users• Move users around online community cycle• Looking after and nurturing existing users• Retaining users• Word-of-mouth promotion by users• Keeping users busy and discourage lurking• Prevent undesirable behaviours 12
  13. 13. Gaining Critical Mass• Providing access to professionally generated content• Providing access to syndicated data• Participation by professional staff• Starting with limited scope and expand later 13
  14. 14. Lurkers
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  16. 16. how do you ...
  17. 17. ... look after them?
  18. 18. ... retain them?
  19. 19. ... keep them busy?
  20. 20. ... discourage lurking?
  21. 21. what can we do toencourage these behaviours?
  22. 22. In groups, please do these:1. Go to the Wiki and navigate to class 42. Analyse the series of images provided under work slides by: a) Identifying a consideration, issue or strategy for managing users from each of the images. b) Specifying a solution or implementation for the identified images in a).
  23. 23. Your job: Construct a user community strategy1. Get into your groups at one table2. Go to the Wiki and navigate to today’s class3. Examine the images on the slides: a) Suggest a possible problem or behaviour represented by the image b) Suggest an action(s) to mitigate (if bad) or encourage (if good)4. You have 40 minutes
  24. 24. Happy user strategies
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  45. 45. Time for a short commercial break Go on, get outside!