Proposal for the use of cell phones in the classroom.<br />George Engel<br />In Partial Fulfillment of EDUC-7101<br />Wald...
The Classroom We Want<br />The Classroom <br />we want<br />
The Classroom we have<br />
Why technology has not fully integrated:<br />Not enough resources<br />Not enough planning time<br />Out of date equipmen...
Limitation:<br /><ul><li>Learners find the technology immobile
No impact outside the classroom</li></li></ul><li>How do we get to the mobile classroom we want?<br />Image by Csteinmetz1...
Barriers to use<br />Too Distracting<br />Cheating tools<br />Inappropriate use<br />
Powerful learning tools<br />Collaboration<br />Discussion<br />Sharing new ideas<br />Personalized learning2<br />2Tomasi...
Allowing Teachers<br />New Dimensions to learning<br />New forms of assessment<br />New forms of review<br />New ways for ...
Allowing students<br />Greater motivation<br />Greater engagement<br />New tools to gather information<br />Text<br />Grap...
Needs<br />Improve student achievement<br />Improve Digital Literacy<br />Greater Student Engagement<br />Greater student ...
Needs<br />To connect home culture with school culture<br />Outside Tech literacy made part of school literacy<br />All to...
Early Adopters (Industry)<br />Bell Labs<br />Joel Engel<br />Motorola<br />Martin Cooper<br />
Early Adopters (Education)<br />Mike Sharples<br />Joseph Dias<br />Eliot Soloway & Cathleen Norris<br />Liz Kolb<br />
S-Curve for cell penetration in the United States<br />
Early Adopters<br />Technology Leaders<br />Risk takers<br />
Innovators<br />Relative advantage<br />Compatibility<br />Complexity<br />Triability<br />
Critical Mass<br /> Opinion leaders need a positive view of the innovation.   <br /> Inventive and technologically sound f...
A Hybrid Approach<br />Centralized – vertical diffusion<br />Appoint a change agent <br />Decentralized – horizontal diffu...
Role of the Change Agent<br />Show a need for change<br />Establish an information exchange relation ship<br />Diagnose pr...
The Laggards<br />The long term teacher<br />The teacher who doesn’t want to change<br />The technophobe<br />
Who are the change agents<br />District  technology coordinator<br />Lead innovators in each building<br />The early adopt...
“Educators can continue to be enforcers, battling with students over mobile devices, wasting a unique opportunity in time....
Which do we choose?<br />
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Proposal for the use of cell phones in the classroom

647 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
647
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • These are the needs that we have in the classroom. However, there is a lack of funding to provide enough computers to meet many of these.
  • These are the needs that we have in the classroom. However, there is a lack of funding to provide enough computers to meet many of these.
  • This data was developed by comparing the number of cell phone subscriptions in a given year to the population that year. Taken from census.gov and http://files.ctia.org/pdf/CTIA_Survey_Year-End_2008_Graphics.pdf
  • These individuals would be the current technology leaders, and the risk takers who enjoy the challenge of a new learning tool.For these innovators to begin the adoption of the technology, they would need to see, on some level, most of the 5 perceived attributes. They would have to understand the relative advantage of the technology, know its compatibility with current classroom practices, know how complex the technology is to use and implement, be able to experiment with the technology (Rogers, 2003). Many would not need to see results and be willing to try the technology out on its own. Note though this would be a very small percentage of faculty who would fall into the early innovators categories. As Rogers indicates only about 2 to 3 percent.
  • These individuals would be the current technology leaders, and the risk takers who enjoy the challenge of a new learning tool.For these innovators to begin the adoption of the technology, they would need to see, on some level, most of the 5 perceived attributes. They would have to understand the relative advantage of the technology, know its compatibility with current classroom practices, know how complex the technology is to use and implement, be able to experiment with the technology (Rogers, 2003). Many would not need to see results and be willing to try the technology out on its own. Note though this would be a very small percentage of faculty who would fall into the early innovators categories. As Rogers indicates only about 2 to 3 percent.
  • Critical mass will occur when mobile devices have begun to see use in at least 20% of classrooms in every building. At this point the innovation would become self sustaining and see rapid growth among many classrooms.Cell phones have reached critical mass in society. However, they have not reached critical mass in an educational setting as a tool for learning.In order to achieve critical mass, there are some steps that can be taken.Opinion leaders need a positive view of the innovation. They should be highly respected individuals and well known in the faculty.Initial adopters should include the more inventive and technologically sound facultyIncentives of recognition for pioneering the work should be used to award those who adopt and aid others in adoption.The idea of inevitability of the diffusion should be fostered among those who have yet to adopt the innovation
  • Should the board choose to adopt this innovation, a decision would have to be made as to how the use of mobile devices in the classroom. In this case, a hybrid of the centralized and decentralized approach should be used. Centrally, administration should appoint a change agent to over see the diffusion as well as offering support, both knowledge and technical, to the adopters. There will be more specifics in his role in the next slide.Overall however, the true approach to be used should be decentralized. This allows for the empowerment of teachers who wish to use the innovation. If the teachers do feel empowered more will be willing to adopt. Many teachers are hesitant when a centralized approach is used to begin the diffusion of an innovation. Opinion leaders, those whom are known leaders among teachers should be introduced to the innovation by early adopters, not central administration, as the opinion leaders’ opinions will carry more weight with the faculty. With opinion leaders and local innovators, the use of mobile devices should reach critical mass fairly quickly, if the central administration only offers a role of support rather than installing the innovation.
  • The role of the change agent is a critical one in the diffusion of an innovation. Change agents are able to guide the diffusion process and step in when necessary to offer support where needed. This is accomplished by the ability for the change agent to showA need for change by working with opinion leaders and lead innovators to show them how mobile devices can aid them in instruction over the methods they are currently using. Establish an informal exchange relationship by developing a rapport with the individuals using the innovation. Diagnose problems the adopters may be having with the innovation. A good empathetic relationship with the adopter is important hereCreate an intent to change. The change agent is a motivator that works with adopters to build their interest in the innovationTranslate intent into action by working with opinion leaders to network with adopters to begin using the innovation.Stabilize the adoption by reinforcing the positive behavior of adoption and therefore preventing discontinuance of the adoption.Achieve a terminal relationship by fostering what is called by Rogers a self-renewing behavior, thus putting himself out of business
  • These individuals are the:The long term teacher who is successful in what they do,The teacher who sees no need to change what works for them, and The technophobic individual.The Laggards would have to see the relative advantage of using this technology over what they are already using. Will this make their work any easier? Is there any incentive to change?They would also need to be able to observe the success of the technology. Does it deliver what it promises as an educational technology?They would, finally, need to see how easy the technology is to use. If there is any great degree of difficulty, they may choose to reject the innovation.
  • The change agents in the district include the district technology coordinator and the lead innovators in each building. These lead innovators tend to be the early adopters of many innovation. The ones who take risks to improve student learning. The ones who also have good relationships with opinion leaders in the buildings as well.
  • Proposal for the use of cell phones in the classroom

    1. 1. Proposal for the use of cell phones in the classroom.<br />George Engel<br />In Partial Fulfillment of EDUC-7101<br />Walden University<br />
    2. 2. The Classroom We Want<br />The Classroom <br />we want<br />
    3. 3. The Classroom we have<br />
    4. 4. Why technology has not fully integrated:<br />Not enough resources<br />Not enough planning time<br />Out of date equipment<br />Technical issues1<br />1Bauer, J.  & Kenton, J. (2005). Toward Technology Integration in the Schools: Why It Isn&apos;t Happening. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 13(4), 519-546.  Retrieved June 30, 2009, from http://proquest.umi.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/pqdweb?did=916970701&sid=2&Fmt=6&clientId=70192&RQT=309&VName=PQD+ <br />
    5. 5. Limitation:<br /><ul><li>Learners find the technology immobile
    6. 6. No impact outside the classroom</li></li></ul><li>How do we get to the mobile classroom we want?<br />Image by Csteinmetz1 retrieved from http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Iphone.gif<br />
    7. 7. Barriers to use<br />Too Distracting<br />Cheating tools<br />Inappropriate use<br />
    8. 8. Powerful learning tools<br />Collaboration<br />Discussion<br />Sharing new ideas<br />Personalized learning2<br />2Tomasino, C., Doubek, K., & Ormiston, M. (2007). Can handhelds make a difference? Lessons learned from large and small scale implementations. Educational Technology Magazine, 47(3), 29-32. Retrieved August 8, 2009, from http://asianvu.com/bookstoread/etp/Educational_Technology_May_June_2007.pdf<br />
    9. 9. Allowing Teachers<br />New Dimensions to learning<br />New forms of assessment<br />New forms of review<br />New ways for brain storming3<br />3Savill-Smith, C., Attewell, J., and Stead, G. (2006). Mobile learning in practice. London: Learning and Skills Network. <br />
    10. 10. Allowing students<br />Greater motivation<br />Greater engagement<br />New tools to gather information<br />Text<br />Graphs<br />Images <br />Video2<br />2Tomasino, C., Doubek, K., & Ormiston, M. (2007). Can handhelds make a difference? Lessons learned from large and small scale implementations. Educational Technology Magazine, 47(3), 29-32. Retrieved August 8, 2009, from http://asianvu.com/bookstoread/etp/Educational_Technology_May_June_2007.pdf<br />
    11. 11. Needs<br />Improve student achievement<br />Improve Digital Literacy<br />Greater Student Engagement<br />Greater student access to technology<br />
    12. 12. Needs<br />To connect home culture with school culture<br />Outside Tech literacy made part of school literacy<br />All tools of literacy needed to find success4<br />4Kolb, L. (2008). Toys to tools: Connecting student cell phones to education. Washington, DC: International Society for Technology in Education.<br />
    13. 13. Early Adopters (Industry)<br />Bell Labs<br />Joel Engel<br />Motorola<br />Martin Cooper<br />
    14. 14. Early Adopters (Education)<br />Mike Sharples<br />Joseph Dias<br />Eliot Soloway & Cathleen Norris<br />Liz Kolb<br />
    15. 15.
    16. 16. S-Curve for cell penetration in the United States<br />
    17. 17. Early Adopters<br />Technology Leaders<br />Risk takers<br />
    18. 18. Innovators<br />Relative advantage<br />Compatibility<br />Complexity<br />Triability<br />
    19. 19. Critical Mass<br /> Opinion leaders need a positive view of the innovation. <br /> Inventive and technologically sound faculty<br /> Incentives of recognition<br /> The idea of inevitability<br />
    20. 20. A Hybrid Approach<br />Centralized – vertical diffusion<br />Appoint a change agent <br />Decentralized – horizontal diffusion<br />Opinion leaders<br />Local innovators<br />
    21. 21. Role of the Change Agent<br />Show a need for change<br />Establish an information exchange relation ship<br />Diagnose problems<br />Create intent to change<br />Translate intent into action<br />Stabilize the adoption<br />Achieve a terminal relationship<br />
    22. 22. The Laggards<br />The long term teacher<br />The teacher who doesn’t want to change<br />The technophobe<br />
    23. 23. Who are the change agents<br />District technology coordinator<br />Lead innovators in each building<br />The early adopters<br />The risk takers<br />The leaders<br />
    24. 24. “Educators can continue to be enforcers, battling with students over mobile devices, wasting a unique opportunity in time. Or educators can make their scarce dollars go further by ultimately having students use their own mobile devices for school work” Norris and Soloway<br />Norris, C., & Soloway, E. (2009, January). The Impending Mobile Mega-Disruption. District Administration, 45(1), 84-85. Retrieved August 10, 2009, from http://ezp.waldenulibrary.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=36206090&site=ehost-live&scope=site.<br />
    25. 25. Which do we choose?<br />

    ×