Associate Professor Anne Johnson
<ul><li>Background information </li></ul><ul><li>How do you assess information? </li></ul><ul><li>Resources you can use </...
<ul><li>Patient-centred care is about sharing the management of an illness/condition between patient (and significant othe...
Degree Participants’ Action High Have control Have delegated Plan jointly Advise Low Are consulted Receive information None
<ul><li>Enabling an open exchange of information between health professionals and consumers is essential in the provision ...
<ul><li>75% of oral communication is ignored, misunderstood or quickly forgotten  (Bolton 1986) . </li></ul><ul><li>Qualit...
<ul><li>The Cochrane Review, “ Written and verbal information versus verbal information only for patients being discharged...
 
<ul><li>Health literacy is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, an...
<ul><li>Health literacy has a direct influence on people’s access to crucial information about their rights and health car...
<ul><li>Health care and maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Health promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Health protection </li></ul><ul><...
 
 
<ul><li>At each higher level of self-reported level of overall health, adults had higher average health literacy than adul...
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>Lower percentages of adults with  Below Basic  health literacy than adults with  Basic, Intermediate, or Proficien...
 
.
 
<ul><li>Higher percentages of adults with  Below Basic  or  Basic   health literacy than adults with  Intermediate  health...
<ul><li>Consumer information </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen information </li></ul><ul><li>Choice information </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Educational resources as part of an education program </li></ul><ul><li>Health/illness information </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>This is mine! </li></ul><ul><li>What do other staff think of this? </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s do it as a department/t...
<ul><li>Where consumers and health professionals work collaboratively. </li></ul><ul><li>Most common flaw is where health ...
<ul><li>When you look at consumer health information what criteria do you use to make your judgment about whether you thin...
<ul><li>NHMRC (1999) How to present the evidence for consumers: preparation of consumer publications. </li></ul><ul><li>ht...
<ul><li>Health Consumers’ Council WA (1997) Best Practice Guidelines for Developing Patient Information. </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Better Information and Communication Practices </li></ul><ul><li>http://fahcsia.gov.au/sa/disability/pubs/policy/D...
<ul><li>What is the purpose? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is the information being written for? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the inf...
<ul><li>Whom else needs to be involved? </li></ul><ul><li>How best to involve consumers and others? </li></ul><ul><li>What...
<ul><li>In your writing style have you </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kept sentences short and to the point? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><ul><li>Limited the number of words containing three or more syllables? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tried to keep the e...
<ul><li>Have you taken the following into account when writing? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the information address the mes...
<ul><ul><li>Is the content organised so that the “must know” information comes before the “nice to know” information? </li...
<ul><ul><li>Would the message be more clearly communicated through the use of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Question and...
<ul><li>Have you remained gender neutral, or it it a gender specific topic? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the information respectfu...
<ul><li>Has the draft been analysed to ensure clarity, accuracy and appropriate reading age? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading...
<ul><li>Step 1: count 10 consecutive sentences near the beginning, middle and end of the material (total of 30 sentences)....
<ul><li>Step 3: Obtain the nearest square root of the number of three or more syllabled words. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: A...
<ul><li>Step 1: 10 sentences beginning, middle and end (= 30 sentences) </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2:  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Step 3: 64=8 </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: 8 + 3 = 11th grade </li></ul>
<ul><li>College reading level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with the onset of nausea, diarrhoea or other gastrointestinal disturba...
<ul><li>8th Grade Reading Level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you start having nausea, loose bowel movements or other stomach o...
<ul><li>Have you planned your evaluation process for the publication? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you evaluate? </li></ul>
Effective health information is developed with the people who will be using it.
Writing consumer health information
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Writing consumer health information

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Writing consumer health information

  1. 1. Associate Professor Anne Johnson
  2. 2. <ul><li>Background information </li></ul><ul><li>How do you assess information? </li></ul><ul><li>Resources you can use </li></ul><ul><li>Suggestions for how to write more clearly and effectively </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Patient-centred care is about sharing the management of an illness/condition between patient (and significant other) and practitioner. </li></ul><ul><li>It is in contrast to the traditional, didactic “Medical model” approach to the practitioner-patient interaction which focuses on the disease rather than the person with the disease and the power and knowledge rests with the practitioner. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Degree Participants’ Action High Have control Have delegated Plan jointly Advise Low Are consulted Receive information None
  5. 5. <ul><li>Enabling an open exchange of information between health professionals and consumers is essential in the provision of appropriate and effective patient-centred care. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a right of consumers to have access to up-to-date, accurate, relevant and understandable information on which to base informed choice and informed consent. Written information is one approach to the provision of this information. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>75% of oral communication is ignored, misunderstood or quickly forgotten (Bolton 1986) . </li></ul><ul><li>Quality written information as a communication tool greatly enhances learning and retention of information, increases confidence, decreases unnecessary contacts with health professionals and increases consumer satisfaction. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The Cochrane Review, “ Written and verbal information versus verbal information only for patients being discharged from acute hospital settings to home ”, found that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the knowledge and satisfaction of patients and/or significant others appears to improve when a combination of verbal and written health information is provided compared to verbal information only. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Johnson A, Sandford J, Tyndall J, 2003, Issue 4, The Cochrane Library) </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Health literacy is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information to make appropriate health decisions. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Health literacy has a direct influence on people’s access to crucial information about their rights and health care, whether it involves following instructions for care, taking medication, comprehending disease-related information, what services/programs are available for them to access, or learning about disease prevention and health promotion (Rudd et. al.1999). </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Health care and maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Health promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Health protection </li></ul><ul><li>Disease prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Systems navigation </li></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>At each higher level of self-reported level of overall health, adults had higher average health literacy than adults in the next lower level. </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent health = average score 262 </li></ul><ul><li>Very good health = average score 254 </li></ul><ul><li>Good health = average score 234 </li></ul><ul><li>Fair health = average score 207 </li></ul><ul><li>Poor health = average score 196 </li></ul>
  12. 19. <ul><li>Lower percentages of adults with Below Basic health literacy than adults with Basic, Intermediate, or Proficient health literacy reported that they got information about health issues from any written sources. </li></ul><ul><li>20% of adults with Below Basic health literacy got information about health issues from the Internet. This compared to 42% with Basic health literacy, 67% with Intermediate and 85% with Proficient . </li></ul>
  13. 21. .
  14. 23. <ul><li>Higher percentages of adults with Below Basic or Basic health literacy than adults with Intermediate health received a lot of information about health issues from radio literacy and TV. </li></ul><ul><li>Adults with Proficient health literacy were least likely to receive a lot of information about health issues from those same non-print media sources. </li></ul>
  15. 24. <ul><li>Consumer information </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen information </li></ul><ul><li>Choice information </li></ul><ul><li>Coping information </li></ul><ul><li>Community health promotion information </li></ul>
  16. 25. <ul><li>Educational resources as part of an education program </li></ul><ul><li>Health/illness information </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural and medication information </li></ul><ul><li>Service information </li></ul><ul><li>Health information for the community </li></ul>
  17. 26. <ul><li>This is mine! </li></ul><ul><li>What do other staff think of this? </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s do it as a department/team! </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s forms a committee! </li></ul><ul><li>What do consumers think should be included? </li></ul><ul><li>The consumer(s) want to do it and want us to help! </li></ul><ul><li>(Johnson A, 1998, Reorienting a health service to become more health promoting. PhD thesis, Flinders University) </li></ul>
  18. 27. <ul><li>Where consumers and health professionals work collaboratively. </li></ul><ul><li>Most common flaw is where health professionals ask consumers to comment on the design and content of an existing draft (Coulter et. al. 1999) </li></ul>
  19. 28. <ul><li>When you look at consumer health information what criteria do you use to make your judgment about whether you think it is is any good or not? </li></ul>
  20. 29. <ul><li>NHMRC (1999) How to present the evidence for consumers: preparation of consumer publications. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.health.gov.au/nhmrc/publications/synopses/cp65syn.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Victorian DHS (2000) Well written health information: A guide. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.health.vic.gov.au/consumer/downloads/dhs1074.pdf </li></ul>
  21. 30. <ul><li>Health Consumers’ Council WA (1997) Best Practice Guidelines for Developing Patient Information. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.hcc-wa.asn.au/ </li></ul><ul><li>Plain English Campaign, How to write medical information in plain English, UK </li></ul><ul><li>http://plainenglish.co.uk/medicalguide.html </li></ul>
  22. 31. <ul><li>Better Information and Communication Practices </li></ul><ul><li>http://fahcsia.gov.au/sa/disability/pubs/policy/Documents/cds/bicp/default.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Rights Australia (CAUS) – communication tool for people with speech and communication difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.caus.com.au </li></ul><ul><li>NSW Health terminology and protocol guide for communicating with Aboriginal people. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/pubs/2004/aboriginalterminology.html </li></ul>
  23. 32. <ul><li>What is the purpose? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is the information being written for? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the information that needs to be covered? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you reviewed existing material on the subject? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you discussed the project with your department head and secured support? </li></ul>
  24. 33. <ul><li>Whom else needs to be involved? </li></ul><ul><li>How best to involve consumers and others? </li></ul><ul><li>What format best suits the information? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the cost of the proposed project? </li></ul>
  25. 34. <ul><li>In your writing style have you </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kept sentences short and to the point? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressed only one idea in each sentence? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used simple grammatical structures? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written in the active versus the passive voice? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used the second person YOU instead of the third person such as ‘the patient’ or ‘individuals’ </li></ul></ul>
  26. 35. <ul><ul><li>Limited the number of words containing three or more syllables? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tried to keep the eye span to no more that 60-70 characters? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used adequate spacing to provide the eyes with a rest? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used font size of suitable size (11 or 12) and Times New Roman or other easy to read font. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT USED ALL CAPITAL LETTERS? </li></ul></ul>
  27. 36. <ul><li>Have you taken the following into account when writing? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the information address the message you want to convey as well as what the target group want to know? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can the information be supported by current research? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the information consistent with your organisations standards/policies? </li></ul></ul>
  28. 37. <ul><ul><li>Is the content organised so that the “must know” information comes before the “nice to know” information? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the content organised so it flows well? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where appropriate have you used illustrations to convey the message more clearly? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the content free from jargon and abbreviations? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have you used consistent terminology? </li></ul></ul>
  29. 38. <ul><ul><li>Would the message be more clearly communicated through the use of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Question and answer format? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Headings? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Point form where appropriate? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Remember’ boxes which contain the most important points/action steps? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 39. <ul><li>Have you remained gender neutral, or it it a gender specific topic? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the information respectful towards the target group? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you identified your department and organisation and provided a contact number and address? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the publication dated? </li></ul><ul><li>If necessary, have you placed © on it? </li></ul>
  31. 40. <ul><li>Has the draft been analysed to ensure clarity, accuracy and appropriate reading age? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading age dependent on target group. Standard is usually grade 8 reading level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective feedback from someone with good writing skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final copy edited for printing errors. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 41. <ul><li>Step 1: count 10 consecutive sentences near the beginning, middle and end of the material (total of 30 sentences). A sentence is any list of words ending in a full stop, question mark or exclamation mark. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: count every word of three or more syllables in the 30 sentences. Count repetitions of words. </li></ul>
  33. 42. <ul><li>Step 3: Obtain the nearest square root of the number of three or more syllabled words. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: Add three to the square root. This gives you the SMOG Grade </li></ul>
  34. 43. <ul><li>Step 1: 10 sentences beginning, middle and end (= 30 sentences) </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>21 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>28 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>23 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total 72 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 44. <ul><li>Step 3: 64=8 </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: 8 + 3 = 11th grade </li></ul>
  36. 45. <ul><li>College reading level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>with the onset of nausea, diarrhoea or other gastrointestinal disturbances, consult your physician immediately. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>12th Grade Reading Level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you experience nausea, diarrhoea or other stomach or bowel problems, call your physician. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 46. <ul><li>8th Grade Reading Level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you start having nausea, loose bowel movements or other stomach or bowel problems call your doctor immediately. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4th Grade Reading Level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you start having an upset stomach, loose bowel movements or other problems call your doctor right away. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 47. <ul><li>Have you planned your evaluation process for the publication? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you evaluate? </li></ul>
  39. 48. Effective health information is developed with the people who will be using it.

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