Sterilization and disinfection

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Sterilization and disinfection

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Sterilization and disinfection

  1. 1. STERILIZATION AND DISINFECTION MICHELLE ANNE P. DECIPOLO, RN CLINICAL INSTRUCTOR
  2. 2. STERILE TECHNIQUE <ul><li>COMMONLY USED IN THE OPERATING ROOM AND DELIVERY ROOM </li></ul><ul><li>NURSING PROCEDURES THAT ARE INVASIVE </li></ul>
  3. 3. PURPOSE <ul><li>ELIMINATE ALL MICROORGANISMS THAT WILL COME INTO CONTACT WITH BODY TISSUES. </li></ul><ul><li>PROTECT PATIENTS FROM POSSIBLE INFECTION WHEN NATURAL DEFENSES ARE NOT NORMAL </li></ul>
  4. 4. PROCEDURES REQUIRING STERILE TECHNIQUE <ul><li>PROCEDURES WHEN UNDERLYING TISSUES ARE BEING EXPOSED </li></ul><ul><li>INTERNAL BODY AREAS ARE NORMALLY STERILE </li></ul>
  5. 5. STERILIZATION <ul><li>COMPLETE DESTRUCTION OF MICROORGANISM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ITEMS MUST FIRST BE CLEAN BEFORE STERILIZED </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ITEMS MUST NOT ONLY BE FREE FROM MICROORGNISM BUT ALSO UNDAMAGED </li></ul>
  6. 6. METHODS OF STERILIZATION <ul><li>THERMAL </li></ul><ul><li>CHEMICAL </li></ul><ul><li>IONIZING RADIATION </li></ul>
  7. 7. THERMAL <ul><li>MOIST HEAT (STEAM UNDER PRESSURE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HIGH PRESSURIZED STEAM REACHED A HIGHER TEMPERATURE TO DESTROY MICROORGANISM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EX. AUTOCLAVE </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>HOT AIR (DRY HEAT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STERILIZED PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, ANHYDROUS OILS AND POWDERS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MICROWAVES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USES LOW – PRESSURE STEAM ALONG WITH THE NONIONIZING RADIATION </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. AUTOCLAVE
  10. 10. HOT AIR
  11. 11. MICROWAVE
  12. 12. CHEMICAL <ul><li>ETHYLENE OXIDE GAS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ITEMS THAT ARE SENSITIVE HEAT/ MOISTURE. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HIGHLY FLAMMABLE!!! </li></ul>MONITOR!!!
  13. 13. <ul><ul><li>STERILIZATION IS ACHIEVED THROUGH LOW - TEMPERATURES </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HYDROGEN PEROXIDE PLASMA VAPOR </li></ul>SAFE AND NON-TOXIC
  14. 14. <ul><li>OZONE GAS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EXPENSIVE AND EASY TO OPERATE </li></ul></ul>CORROSIVE!!! <ul><ul><li>NOT USED FOR ITEMS MADE OF STEEL BRASS AND ALUMINUM </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>LIQUID CHEMICAL STERILANT – PERACETIC ACID </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LIQUID STERILANT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUITABLE FOR STERILIZING HEAT – SENSITIVE ITEMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RINSE IN STERILE WATER BEFORE USING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CAN BE USED IMMEDIATELY </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. IONIZING RADIATION <ul><li>EXPOSURE TO IRRADIATION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IRRADIATION STERILIZATION IS SUITABLE FOR HEAT AND MOISTURE SENSITIVE ITEMS </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. DISINFECTION <ul><li>the process of killing pathogenic organisms </li></ul><ul><li>used when items cannot be sterilized or situations where no method of sterilization is available </li></ul>
  18. 18. TYPES <ul><li>LOW – LEVEL DISINFECTANTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FOR HOUSEKEEPING AND NON – CRITICAL ITEMS THAT DOES NOT TOUCH THE PATIENT’S SKIN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EX. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>INTERMEDIATE LEVEL DISINFECTANTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FOR SEMI – CRITICAL ITEMS THAT COMES IN CONTACT WITH THE SKIN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EX. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>HIGH LEVEL DISINFECTANT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FOR CRITICAL ITEMS THAT COMES IN CONTACT WITH THE BODY TISSUES OR BELOW SKIN MEMBRANES </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. TYPES OF DISINFECTANTS <ul><li>CHEMICAL DISINFECTANTS </li></ul><ul><li>PHYSICAL DISINFECTANTS </li></ul>
  22. 22. PHYSICAL DISINFECTANTS <ul><li>BOILING WATER </li></ul><ul><li>ULTRAVIOLET RAYS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>THE RAYS COMES IN CONTACT WITH THE ORGANISMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WEAR PROTECTIVE SKIN COVERING!!! </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. INDICATORS OF STERILITY <ul><li>STERILE TAPES </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>PACKAGE WITH STERILE INDICATORS </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>EXPIRATION DATE </li></ul>
  26. 26. GENERAL PRINCIPLES <ul><li>MICROORGANISMS MOVE THROUGH SPACE IN AIR CURRENTS </li></ul><ul><li>MICROORGANISMS ARE TRANSFERRED FROM ONE SURFACE TO ANOTHER WHEN A NONSTERILE OBJECT TOUCHES OTHER OBJECTS </li></ul><ul><li>MICROORGANISM MOVE FROM ONE OBJECT TO ANOTHER AS A RESULT OF GRAVITY WHEN A NON-STERILE ITEM IS HELD ABOVE ANOTHER ITEM </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>4. MICROORGANISMS TRAVEL RAPIDLY ALONG ANY MOISTURE THROUGH A WICKING ACTION </li></ul><ul><li>5. MICROORGANISMS MOVE SLOWLY ALONG A DRY SURFACE </li></ul><ul><li>6. MICROORGANISMS ARE RELEASES THROUGH THE AIR ON DROPOLET NUCLEI WHENEVER A PERSON BREATHES OR SPEAKS </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>7. MICROORGANISMS ARE IN CONSTANT MOTION IN A VARIETY OF WAYS </li></ul><ul><li>8. THE EDGE OF THE STERILE FIELD IS POTENTIALLY CONTAMINATED BY MICROORGANISMS MOVING IN FROM THE OUTSIDE </li></ul>
  29. 29. ALWAYS REMEMBER!!! WHEN IN DOUBT OF STERILITY DISCARD!!! MA’AM MICHELLE ANNE

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