Use of ethical codes in communication management correlates with gender and membership in professional organisations 21.3% 16.7% 18.5% 21.4% 51.2% 49.3% 52.1% 57.7% 32.1% 32.3% 26.6% 20.9% Female communication Male communication Members of a professional Communication professionals professionals professionals communication organisation without membership Use of a code of ethics No use of a code of ethics No moral problems experiencedwww.communicationmonitor.eu / Zerfass et al. 2012 / n = 2,096 PR professionals. Q 3: Did you ever use a professional code of ethics (i.e. the Code of Athens) 29to solve a moral problem in your daily work? Differences are highly significant (chi-square test / Cramers V, p ≤ 0.01, V = 0.072 gender, V = 0.114 membership).