Review and WelcomeJon Bridle, University of Bristol
The developed world as migratory cuckoos                          Our lifestyles also depend on                          (...
Current ecological overshoot mostly due          to developed world consumption                         US, Europe,SE Asia...
“Hidden journeys” and embedded energyMovement of ideas          Movement of distant energy(Geography I-Spy)          and g...
Hidden journeys remain hidden with the help of    trillions of dollars of tax-payer subsidies• US fishery subsidies ($27  ...
Private wealth acheived at community cost              (“the Tragedy of the Commons”)  Clearing 1 ha of mangrove          ...
“GDP of the poor” is not valued TEEB (2010)Poor people rely most directly on local biodiversity for well-being(e.g. 75% of...
Biodiversity loss and social justice1. The world’s poor suffer most acutely from biodiversity loss   (and benefit least)2....
Overconsumption vs overpopulation: which is easier to tackle?
The best served have the most power (embedded inertia)And “time of crisis is no time to change the system”
1 of the 99%      or1 of the 10%?
Putting a value on ecosystemsHow much overlap between “ecosystem services” and  biodiversity? At what temporal and spatial...
Does engagement            behaviour change?Or do we just want our people to be happier (and consume more)?
Does engagement   behaviour change?
Does engagement lead to behaviour change?
The desire to feel normal                                                          (David Shrigley)What will other people ...
The desire to feel normal“Other guests in thishotel choose to saveenergy by reusing theirtowels.If you wish to jointhem, p...
The desire to feel special...                           “Jon Bridle wipes                             for wildlife!”
Nature is what makes all economics possibleNature is not the icing on the cake
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Jon Bridle

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Presentation delivered by Dr Jon Bridle, University of Bristol, at Communicate, 3rd November 2011. Communicate is hosted by the Bristol Natural History Consortium www.communicatenow.org

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  • Communicate logo – the economy is cradled with nature; that which makes everything else possibleIt isn’t a Venn diagram where they simply overlap (Rita Gardiner)I agree with Paul van Gardingen - Everything we has comes from Nature (Paul van Gardingen – head of ESPA)
  • Brett WestwoodWorld economy is centred round this idea of NIMBYismI liked the idea of BANANAs – build absolutely nothing absolutely neverExporting environmental degradation to developing countries
  • Plot from 2010; social justice and human rights; most impacts felt in the tropics; Consider the difference in populatione.g.Ethopia is a net exporter of water1/6 of food from UK, 1/3 thrown awayVirtual water and virtual energy in production
  • I spy and geography – make linkages; everything is internatioal: Rita Gardner“Hidden journeys”; long distance movement makes the tragedy of the commons more likely – we can’t see the effects (temporally or spatially)The effects of our use of the environment is hidden; “tragedy of the commons”Ideas – fine to move, but depending on good themselves, not...(I-spy)
  • Amazing acheivement to make cod become endangered; have to travel further and for longer to get the same fishNeed picture of avocado and green bean here, and an aircraft; still only costs me 50 p in the supermarketWe pay twice for biodiversity loss – we are actually funding biodiversity lossTotal global subsidies are several trillion...(paid by taxpayers)
  • A couple of examples of how teeb works: PavanSukdev, Tessa McGregorWhat we call in evolutionary biology “the tragedy of the commons”Shrimp farmer and his familyJust give figures of benefit of transforming vs benefit (to others) of keeping it as intact mangroveIncentives to transform; profitable to do so even though: makes no economic senseConnections with offshore fisheries
  • Also, main problem is GDP of poor.PavanSukdevPlots of poor gdp; not included in GDP typically, or profitable for the country – don’t count for balance of trade, or import and exportSomething really important
  • Again, it’s about the global economies focus on individual wealth rather than collective capitalThe suffering of the poor could be ignored before, but now, we have reached the point where the natural economies responsible for the well being of many of us are on the point of collapseWoman collecting rubbish in new delhli probably migrated to city due to increasing rural poverty (biodiversity loss?)
  • Steve BellWhat can the priviledged do? Who is in the best position to change their behaviour?
  • Image of protestors – seeking a dialogue – what we see outside(Julia Davenport) and Ed Gillespe said thisSystem is brokenNeed for change – people outsideTime for change is getting closeExcluded from power; and excluded from lobbyingInjustice = inertia – exclusion of small businesses from lobbying
  • Social and financial exclusion is nothing new: it is central to the global economyIt is how these injustices are maintained in order to allow private profit – and it has been the case for hundreds of yearsIt’s just that now it’s touching people in the developed world: Gado image, Kenyan cartoonist
  • Something that came up at our tableKatherine said – coca cola are never going to ask people to drink less...Good evidence that those who engage with nature don’t consume less – in fact they consume moreMartin Brasher stuffDoug Huyler
  • Lots of people avidly watch springwatch...
  • Those same people, I am almost certain, also watch and love top gear – they don’t see the inherent paradox this elegantly cradlesTwo flagship BBC programmes – probably enjoyed by the same peopleWant to apologise to the juvenile whale shark for comparison to this juvenileI had to apologise to my computer after downloading these imagesTheSpringwatch lot outnumber the top gear lot
  • As we know, we can get people doing terrible things with social normsPeople’s desire to be normal – what do/will other people think about me if I change my behaviour?
  • People’s desire to be normalExploit this in quite clever ways for nature
  • Jon Bridle wipes for wildlife (on billboards)Wanted to get this but couldn’t find it; your name gets written in the sky and on billboards – in a video – Simon Garrett showed itThis desire to feel special, as well as the desire to belong is something that we can really use – and exploitJust like advertisers and marketers do
  • And the hope the rest of today makes you all feel specialIs the leaf falling? Or rising?I’m really looking forward to today, I hope you enjoy it too. I’ll now hand over to
  • Jon Bridle

    1. 1. Review and WelcomeJon Bridle, University of Bristol
    2. 2. The developed world as migratory cuckoos Our lifestyles also depend on (depleting) distant ecosystems No such thing as localism (but there is NIMBYism...!)
    3. 3. Current ecological overshoot mostly due to developed world consumption US, Europe,SE Asia Australia Africa Brazil, Russia, India, China WWF Living Planet report (2010)
    4. 4. “Hidden journeys” and embedded energyMovement of ideas Movement of distant energy(Geography I-Spy) and goods
    5. 5. Hidden journeys remain hidden with the help of trillions of dollars of tax-payer subsidies• US fishery subsidies ($27 Billion per year), causing catastrophic damage to fish stocks (and by-catch)• Fossil fuel subsidies ($650 Billion in 2008); food transport kept cheap, no incentive for alternative energy sources Source: TEEB for people (2010)
    6. 6. Private wealth acheived at community cost (“the Tragedy of the Commons”) Clearing 1 ha of mangrove (1) Generates $1.1 K per ha for the shrimp farmer(2) Costs $10.8 K per ha just in lostoffshore fish stocks; loss of flooddefence, fuel woodBenefits are privatised, but costs areshared across wider community
    7. 7. “GDP of the poor” is not valued TEEB (2010)Poor people rely most directly on local biodiversity for well-being(e.g. 75% of GDP in Indonesia)Economy ignores this (doesn’t involve financial markets)
    8. 8. Biodiversity loss and social justice1. The world’s poor suffer most acutely from biodiversity loss (and benefit least)2. They are least responsible for its fundamental causes, and have the least financial or political power3. Only people alive today can affect the market Intra and inter generational poverty
    9. 9. Overconsumption vs overpopulation: which is easier to tackle?
    10. 10. The best served have the most power (embedded inertia)And “time of crisis is no time to change the system”
    11. 11. 1 of the 99% or1 of the 10%?
    12. 12. Putting a value on ecosystemsHow much overlap between “ecosystem services” and biodiversity? At what temporal and spatial scale?How much will this approach protect real biodiversity?REDD+ and Access and Benefit Sharing scheme; value of whole ecosystems
    13. 13. Does engagement behaviour change?Or do we just want our people to be happier (and consume more)?
    14. 14. Does engagement behaviour change?
    15. 15. Does engagement lead to behaviour change?
    16. 16. The desire to feel normal (David Shrigley)What will other people think about me if I change my behaviour?
    17. 17. The desire to feel normal“Other guests in thishotel choose to saveenergy by reusing theirtowels.If you wish to jointhem, please leave yourtowel on the rack”
    18. 18. The desire to feel special... “Jon Bridle wipes for wildlife!”
    19. 19. Nature is what makes all economics possibleNature is not the icing on the cake

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