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L Egitto Facilitazioni obiettivi minimi

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L Egitto Facilitazioni obiettivi minimi

  1. 1. L’antico Egitto a cura del prof. Marco Migliardi Semplificazione Gloria Cogliati
  2. 2. Mar Mediterraneo Egitto Egitto Mar Rosso La piramide e la Sfinge
  3. 3. Le origini <ul><li>Regione popolata fin dal Neolitico </li></ul><ul><li>La prima dinastia si forma nel IV millennio a.c. col re Menes che fonda la capitale Menfi </li></ul><ul><li>Seguiranno 31 dinastie </li></ul><ul><li>finisce alla conquista di Alessandro Magno nel 322 a.c . </li></ul>
  4. 4. I 3 periodi- imperi Ramses II fece Luxor e molte altre opere 1° piramide ( Saqqara ) Cateratte sul Nilo Findazione del complesso di Giza (Cheope, Chefren e Micerino) grande potenza militare vittoria sugli Ittiti Periodo di anarchia , invasione dei persiani Richiesto aiuto ad Alessandro Magno decadenza Periodo di espansione dei confini, invasioni (100 anni) e liberazione Periodo felice 1580 a.C. – 322 a.C. 2100 a.C – 1580 a.C. 4° millennio 2100 a.C. nuovo medio antico
  5. 7. L’artigianato <ul><li>Soprattutto vasellame e lavori in bronzo </li></ul><ul><li>Fondamentale l’industria del papiro </li></ul>
  6. 8. La religione <ul><li>Numerose divinità ma sono solo attributi dell’unico Dio </li></ul><ul><li>La più perfetta immagine di Dio era il Sole </li></ul><ul><li>L'anima del sole fu chiamata Amon o Amon-Ra </li></ul>
  7. 9. Altre divinità <ul><li>Iside : dea del benessere, sorella di </li></ul><ul><li>Osiride: dio dell’agricoltura Padre di </li></ul><ul><li>Anubi : il dio delle mummificazioni </li></ul><ul><li>Horus : dio della legge, il faraone è la sua incarnazione, è rappresentato come un uomo con testa di falco </li></ul>Iside Osiride Anubi e Horus
  8. 10. La mummificazione <ul><li>La tecnica di imbalsamare i cadaveri era considerata di origine divina e risaliva a Anubi </li></ul><ul><li>La spettacolare conservazione dei cadaveri è dovuta in parte alla tecnica di imbalsamazione, ma il clima arido dell'Egitto fu più importante </li></ul><ul><li>Serviva per rendere immortale l’anima (solo dei faraoni e dei nobili però) </li></ul><ul><li>Ogni sepoltura seguiva un rito e un corteo estremamente elaborato </li></ul>
  9. 11. Mummie celebri Mummia di Ramsete I, Ramsete II e Tutankamon Nella tomba del faraone c’erano gli oggetti a lui più cari e anche le mummie dei suoi animali preferiti
  10. 12. Le Piramidi <ul><li>La piramide è la struttura architettonica caratteristica delle tombe reali dell'Antico e del Medio Regno. </li></ul><ul><li>al suo interno veniva garantita la vita del sovrano oltre la morte </li></ul><ul><li>racchiudeva la camera funeraria dove veniva deposta la mummia del faraone </li></ul>
  11. 13. La Sfinge <ul><li>Il significato e la data sono oscuri. </li></ul><ul><li>Forse doveva vegliare sul complesso  funerario delle piramidi. </li></ul><ul><li>Forse rappresenta un Leone ed è orientata verso la sua costellazione, ma nella posizione che aveva nel 10500 a.C. </li></ul>
  12. 14. La scrittura <ul><li>Il geroglifico è la forma di scrittura egiziana più antica. </li></ul><ul><li>E’ presente nell'antico e medio Egitto. </li></ul><ul><li>La ritroviamo nei templi e nelle tombe, infatti era usata per i testi dei monumenti e per le epigrafi. </li></ul><ul><li>Invece dei 26 caratteri usati da noi, quelli Egiziani erano circa 800 e avevano significati diversi </li></ul><ul><li>Alcuni indicano singole lettere, altri sillabe, altri ancora parole intere o idee </li></ul>
  13. 15. La stele di Rosetta <ul><li>La traduzione del geroglifico egiziano si deve al ritrovamento della Stele di Rosetta </li></ul><ul><li>Scritta in tre lingue </li></ul><ul><li>il greco e il demotico erano conosciute: permisero di capire che il testo era lo stesso </li></ul><ul><li>Fu perciò tradotta e capita la simbologia geroglifica </li></ul>
  14. 16. Lezione di Egiziano <ul><li>Si legge “Mut” e indica anche il verso della lettura </li></ul><ul><li>“ nefer” e simboleggia la trachea </li></ul><ul><li>“ t” simbolo divino </li></ul><ul><li>“ a” simboleggia la canna in fiore </li></ul><ul><li>La bocca e le due barre si pron. “i y” </li></ul><ul><li>La serpentina (il mare) si pron.”en”, gli altri segni “meri” </li></ul>I nomi degli dei e dei faraoni era incorniciato. In questo caso è rappresentata la regina Nefertari Clicca qui per la soluzione
  15. 17. <ul><li>Il tutto si legge: </li></ul><ul><li>NEFER-T-A-R-Y    MERI(T)   EN   MUT. Letteralmente &quot;La Bellissima (Nefertari) amata (meri-t) da (en) Mut (dea, in questo caso,simbolizzata dall'avvoltoio) </li></ul>
  16. 18. Gli ideogrammi <ul><li>Si è detto che i geroglifici possono essere anche dei segni pittografici. </li></ul><ul><li>Un esempio classico di questo tipo è dato dalla ben conosciuta Tavolozza di Narmer. In essa c'è un chiaro messaggio: decifriamolo </li></ul>IL FARAONE CONQUISTA IL POPOLO DEL DELTA

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