Research on food for health marketing for shaping consumers' acceptance
COMMUNICATING FOOD FOR HEALTH BENEFITS NEW FOOD TRENDS AND MEANINGS PROFESSIONAL IDENTITIES AND FOOD COMMUNICATION INNOVATIVE PRACTICES IN COMMUNICATION 8th – 9th November, 2012TARRAGONA Research on food for health marketing for shaping consumers’ acceptance Wim Verbeke Pieter Rutsaert
Three cases on “food for health”-marketing• Consumer reactions to foods with nutrition and health claims (Appetite paper)• Key success factor in commercial food marketing and transferability to public health campaigns (BMC Public Health paper)• Potential of social media in food risk/benefit communication (Trends in Food Science & Technology paper)
Consumer reactions to foods with nutrition and health claimsVerbeke, Scholderer & Lähteenmäki (2009) Appetite 52, 684-692. – Design : • Consumer study (n=341) with • 3 claim types x 3 product concepts • Nutrition, Health and Reduction of Disease Risk Claim • Calcium-enriched fruit juice (unnatural, healthy) • Omega-3 enriched spread (margarine) (natural, unhealthy) • Fibre-enriched breakfast cereals (natural, healthy) – Effect measures: • Convincingness, Credibility, • Perceived attractiveness, Intention to buy
Product conceptsTable 1. Product concepts and health claims used in stimulus materials.Product concept Nutrition claim Health claim Reduction of disease risk claimCalcium-enriched fruit juice Fruit juice enriched Fruit juice enriched Fruit juice enriched with with calcium with calcium calcium reduces risk in the strengthens bones development of osteoporosisOmega-3 enriched spread Spread enriched with Spread enriched with Spread enriched with omega-3 omega-3 fatty acids omega-3 fatty acids fatty acids reduces risk in the improves heart health development of cardio-vascular diseaseFibre-enriched cereals Breakfast cereals Breakfast cereals Breakfast cereals enriched with enriched with dietary enriched with dietary dietary fibre reduce risk in the fibre fibre improves the development of inflammatory intestinal transit bowel disease functionVerbeke et al. (2009) Appetite 52, 684-692.
4,5 Credibility Attractiveness Main effects of 4,25 Intention claim type and 4 product concept 3,75 3,5 Nutrition claim Health claim Reduction of disease risk claim 4,5 4,25 4 Credibility 3,75 Attractiveness Intention 3,5 Calcium-enriched Omega-3 enriched Fibre-enrichedVerbeke et al. (2009).Appetite 52, 684-692. fruit juice spread cereals
Claim type – Product concept Interaction effects estimated marginal means of credibility as a function of claim type and product concept (error bars represent 95% confidence intervals). 5.0 Calcium- enriched fruit juice 4.5 Omega-3 enriched spread Credibility Fibre- 4.0 enriched cereals 3.5 3.0 Nutrition claim Health claim Reduction of disease risk claimVerbeke et al. (2009).Appetite 52, 684-692.
Table 5. Estimates of fixed effects (unstandardised restricted maximum likelihood estimates). Dependent variable Effect Convincingness Attractiveness Credibility Intention Age -0.01 -0.01 -0.02*** -0.01 Gender -0.05 0.00 -0.26*** 0.01 Children < 18 years 0.20 0.21 -0.15 0.25* Children < 12 years -0.21 -0.11 0.12 -0.27* Product experience (familiarity) 0.15*** 0.16*** 0.13*** 0.18*** Perceived impact of food on health 0.03 0.05* 0.06** 0.05 Perceived control over own health -0.11*** -0.19*** -0.09*** -0.09*** Subjective knowledge about FFs# 0.12*** 0.08*** 0.14*** 0.07** General attitude towards FFs 0.32*** 0.35*** 0.27*** 0.45*** Perception of FFs as too expensive 0.00 -0.01 0.05* 0.04 Perception of FFs as a marketing scam -0.09*** -0.06* -0.17*** -0.12***Note. *** p < 0.001, ** p < 0.01, * p < 0.05 (two-tailed).a Reference category: reduction of disease risk claim (effect fixed to zero).b Reference category: fibre-enriched cereals (effect fixed to zero).# FFs = Functional Foods
Conclusions claims study: – Consumer study with “3 claim types x 3 product concepts” design – Convincingness, credibility, attractiveness, intention to buy – Health more convincing and attractive than Nutrition claims – Reduction of disease risk claims lowest credibility and intention – Significant interactions between claim type and product concept – Demographic background had very little impact on perceptions – Previous experience and general attitude boosted all ratings – Perceived control over own health decreased ratings (no need?) – Perception of FF as marketing scam decreased ratings (no trust?)
Background• Food marketing’s likely negative role in the obesity pandemic• What is the recipe for the success of food marketing?• Social marketing: – “Applying marketing in programs calculated to influence the acceptability of social ideas”: – … “healthy eating is a topical social idea” – “Influencing the voluntary behaviour of target audiences to improve their personal welfare and that of their society”: – … “food choice is voluntary behaviour” – … “there is a potential huge impact on personal and societal welfare”• What are the key success factors and what about their use in future social marketing campaigns for public health nutrition purposes?
Methods• Case study approach• 27 cases “successful in changing consumer behaviour” : – Marketing effectiveness awards – Food market experts judgment – Food company recommendation
KSF1: Data and knowledge• Superior data or knowledge• Scientific nutritional evidence• Market and consumer behaviour insight• Awareness of emerging trends
KSF2: Emotions• Emotional engagement by target audience• Humour• Wish for “simplicity”, “naturalness” and “back to nature”• Happiness• Emotional songKSF3: Endorsement• Basis for trust and credibility• Vertical endorsement: personalities, role models, celebrities• Peer endorsement: “people like me”
KSF4: Community• Appeal to general human and social values and aims• Belongingness and hared responsibility• Active participation (often through new social media)• Local origin, regional traditions and valuesKSF5: Media• Best possible media mix• Right combination of media• Massive use of media• Creative use of media, triggering positive publicity (for free)
KSF6: Why and how• Facilitate consumers’ ability to understand the message• Activate motivation and ability to act accordingly• Simple and clear message• Short- and long-term benefits• Explanation about how these benefits can be achieved
Discussion• Is it feasible that public campaigns adapt and apply the identified Key Success Factors?Challenges / Limitations• Objective: improved public health vs. commercial success• Focus: general behaviours vs. specific products• Message: avoidance vs. appealing for desire
ConclusionsFuture public health campaigns can become more successful if:• Preceded by more intensive research on behaviour and trends• Stronger emotional appeal• Emphasizing the desire for simplicity and naturalness• Appealing to common values• Re-connecting to local community• Using right choice and mix of media• Stressing short- and long-term benefits• Fostering public-private partnerships
Opportunities associated with social media• Gain understanding of the general publics feeling• Observe consumer views on food issues• Detect upcoming issues• Generate online trust and credibility• Take responsibility or express sympathy• Honesty, openness and transparency• Timely communication when needed• Direct communication to the audience
Challenges associated with social media• Escalation of a situation• No control over situation• Widely disseminated information which is incorrect or misleading• Need of resources and effort to feed, correct and control• Long-term expense
Thanks for your attention! Pieter.email@example.com