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“3E” HOT TOPICS
- Employment and poverty
- Environmental issues
- Economic integration
International value distribution of iPhone
Retail price of
iPhone in 2009
= $500
(64% margin for
the Apple)
Source:Xing, Y...
Cost of parts for iPhone3G
Manufacturer Components Unit Price
Toshiba (Japan) Flash Memory US$24.00
Display Module US$19.2...
Value-
added
Production
process
Product
design
Assembly
Distribution
Marketing
Customer
services
Material
procurement
R&D
...
* Analytical focus is limited to a particular
product/firm. Not appropriate for economic
analyses at the national level.
*...
Automobiles
(Y10 billion)
Rough steel
(Y8 million)
Electricity
(Y400,000)
Coal products
(Y100,000)
Petroleum products
(Y40...
Bilateral IIOT
between
China and USA
Main IIOT initiatives
Database Producing
organisation
Reference years Number of
countries
Industry/product
classification
...
Value-
added
Production
process
Product
design
Assembly
Distribution
Marketing
Customer
services
Material
procurement
R&D
...
China
1985
China
2005
Indonesia
Japan
Korea
Malaysia
Chinese
Taipei
Philippines
Singapore
Thailand
USA
2.7
2.9
3.1
3.3
3.5...
1985
2000
China
China
Indonesia
Indonesia
Japan
Japan
Korea
Korea
Malaysia
Malaysia
Taiwan
Taiwan
Philippines
Philippines
...
0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 160,000 180,000 200,000
China
Japan
Korea
Traditional measurement
Va...
Trade in value-added approach
• offers a better measurement of bilateral
trade in the world of increasing production
shari...
Comex2014 inomata ide
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Comex2014 inomata ide

  1. 1. ■ □ ■□ □■ ■□■□ □■□■□■ ■□■□■□ □■□■□■□■ ■□■□■□■□■□ □■□■□■□■□■□■□ ■□■□■□■□■□■□■□■□ □■□■□■□■□■□■□■□■□■ ■□■□■□■□■□■□■□■□■□■□■□ Satoshi Inomata IDE-JETRO Mapping Global Value Chains: International Input-Output Table
  2. 2. “3E” HOT TOPICS - Employment and poverty - Environmental issues - Economic integration
  3. 3. International value distribution of iPhone Retail price of iPhone in 2009 = $500 (64% margin for the Apple) Source:Xing, Y. and N. Detert (2010)
  4. 4. Cost of parts for iPhone3G Manufacturer Components Unit Price Toshiba (Japan) Flash Memory US$24.00 Display Module US$19.25 Touch Screen US$16.00 Samsung (Korea) Application Processor US$14.46 SDRAM-Mobile DDR US$8.50 Infineon (Germany) Baseband US$13.00 Camera Module US$9.55 RF Transceiver US$2.80 GPS Receiver US$2.25 Power IC RF Function US$1.25 Broadcom (US) Bluetooth/FM/WLAN US$5.95 Numonyx (US) Memory MCP US$3.65 Murata (Japan) FEM US$1.35 Dialog Semiconductor (Germany) Power IC Application Processor Function US$1.30 Cirrus Logic (US) Audio Codec US$1.15 Others US$48.00 Source:Xing, Y. and N. Detert (2010)
  5. 5. Value- added Production process Product design Assembly Distribution Marketing Customer services Material procurement R&D Parts procurement “Smiley Curve”
  6. 6. * Analytical focus is limited to a particular product/firm. Not appropriate for economic analyses at the national level. * Firm-level data does not explicitly present “compensation of employees”. * The approach only considers the value-added structure of direct input suppliers (the first tier). Weakness of “firm-level” approach → International Input-Output Analysis
  7. 7. Automobiles (Y10 billion) Rough steel (Y8 million) Electricity (Y400,000) Coal products (Y100,000) Petroleum products (Y40,000) Steel (Y12 million) Wholesale (Y2 million) Roadfreight transport (Y400,000) Sea shipping (Y200,000) Dye (Y3.5 million) Intermediate organic chemical products (Y500,000) Composite plastics (Y200,000) Electricity (Y100,000) Wood pulp (Y100,000) Wholesale (Y100,000) Chemical fiber (Y2.1 million) Financing (Y300,000) Wholesale (Y300,000) Car parts (Y260 million) Cold-finished steel (Y60 million) Steel shar slit (Y20 million) Paint (Y17 million) Composite rubber (Y30 million) Carbon black (Y10 million) Silk and rayon textiles (Y10 million) Raw rubber (imported) (Y10 million) Car chassis (Y650 million) Tires and inner tubes Glass products (Y130 million) Internal-combustion engines (Y1.52 billion) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... Initial Impact 1st-round Impacts 2nd-round Impacts 3rd-round Impacts 4th-round Impacts Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value propagation (car industry)
  8. 8. Bilateral IIOT between China and USA
  9. 9. Main IIOT initiatives Database Producing organisation Reference years Number of countries Industry/product classification AIIOT IDE-JETRO 1975、1985、1990、 1995、2000、2005 10 56 (1975) 78 (1985-95) 76 (2000-05) EORA University of Sydney 1990-2009:yearly Approx. 150 20~500 EXIOPOL Database (CREEA) European Commission 2000 43 + ROW 129 industries 129 products GTAP-MRIO Purdue University 1990、1992、1995、 1997、2001、2004、 2007 129 57 industries ICIO OECD 1995、2000、2005、 2008、2009 56 + ROW 18 industries WIOD European Commission 1995-2011:yearly 40 + ROW 35 industries 59 products
  10. 10. Value- added Production process Product design Assembly Distribution Marketing Customer services Material procurement R&D Parts procurement DownstreamUpstream How to evaluate country’s relative position Backward length Forward length
  11. 11. China 1985 China 2005 Indonesia Japan Korea Malaysia Chinese Taipei Philippines Singapore Thailand USA 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.7 3.9 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.7 3.9 Upstream Downstream Longer supply chains Shorter supply chains Backward APL ForwardAPL Backward Length ForwardLength
  12. 12. 1985 2000 China China Indonesia Indonesia Japan Japan Korea Korea Malaysia Malaysia Taiwan Taiwan Philippines Philippines Singapore SingaporeThailand Thailand USA USA 1985 2005 DownstreamUpstream
  13. 13. 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 160,000 180,000 200,000 China Japan Korea Traditional measurement Value-added measurement Million US$ 33% The US trade deficits: Traditional vs value-added measurement
  14. 14. Trade in value-added approach • offers a better measurement of bilateral trade in the world of increasing production sharing among countries. • can be a core apparatus for linking trade policies to crosscutting economic and/or social issues like job creation, poverty alleviation, and energy and environmental planning.

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