Pl musica animae levamen


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Pl musica animae levamen

  1. 1. Christopher Rueger
  2. 2. <ul><li>Since ancient times music has been used for the treatment of individuals with emotional and physical illness. </li></ul><ul><li>Ancient healers and philosophers regarded music as a bridge between the body, soul and earth. The philosophical foundations of music healing properties can be traced to classical antiquity. When it comes to this modern era, the Greek philosophers are credited with the ideology of the cathartic nature of music. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Even the Old Testament mentions music therapy. King David is said to have cured an illness by playing the harp. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>In ancient Egypt , music was used to lessen the pain of women during childbirth. The Egyptians also believed in the link between medicine and music. The relationship between sound and healing was held sacred. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>By playing strings of different lengths, he discovered that sound vibrations naturally occur in a sequence of whole tones or notes that repeat in a pattern of seven. As with the seven naturally occurring colours of the rainbow, there is an octave of seven tones. </li></ul>“ Good music and good health are intimately associated with each other”
  6. 6. <ul><li>He saw an analogy between the movement of the soul and music progressions. He thought that music can quiet the passions. </li></ul>„ Music and rhythm find their way into the secret pla ce of the soul” „ Music is a moral law. It gives soul to the universe, wings to the mind, flight to the imagination, and charm and gaiety to life and to everything.”
  7. 7. <ul><li>In his “Republic”, Plato explained that playing music in a particular harmony would incline one towards specific behaviours associated with it. He suggested that soldiers should listen to music in Dorian or Phrygian harmony to make them stronger, but avoid music in Lydian, Mixolydian or Ionian harmony, for fear of being softened. </li></ul><ul><li>Plato believed that a change in the musical modes of the state would cause a wide-scale social revolution . </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Aristotle described the effects of rhythm, and concluded that rhythm and harmony had the combined impact on mood and character formation. Aristotle, in his &quot;Politics&quot;, explained how different kinds of music, imitating specific feelings (anger, kindness, love), can affect a human being with the same kind of feelings. Therefore, said Aristotle, someone who listens to the wrong kind of music will grow up to a bad person, and vice-versa. </li></ul>&quot;Music imitates (represents) the passions or states of the soul, such as gentleness, anger, courage, temperance, and their opposites.&quot;
  9. 9. <ul><li>Aristotle and Plato recommended the right kind of music in the education of young citizens. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Hippocrates, the father of modern medicine, used music to cure human diseases. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>For him, music was a manifestation of well-being. He stated: “When we listen to music we are for a moment in touch with something outside the empirical realm. We have the experience of being taken out of time and space altogether, and also out of ourselves.” </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Spinoza argued that body and mind are not two separate entities, but one continuous substance. This concept contributed a great deal on affecting the body through the mind. According to Spinoza, in fact, anxiety was “uncertain pain”, an emotion, that can be overcome only by a stronger one. Music can bring about such stronger emotions; hence , music can be useful in these situations. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>music provides opportunities for enhancing a sense of control over emotions </li></ul><ul><li>music reduces negative emotions, such as aggression, rage and anger through emotional catharsis </li></ul><ul><li>music reduces stress and depression </li></ul><ul><li>a slow, moderately soft music is soothing; it can be used to uplift and calm people </li></ul><ul><li>music calm the restless students and stimulate the apathetic ones through mood and behavior regulation </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Music has always played an important role in human li f e. Through its harmony , it had the power to develop positive emotions, eradicate animosity and promote wellness. For these reasons, the masses were educated through music, and music was considered beneficial for those who were sick. In Europe, the first students of the Paris Conservatory were also the first music therapist, as they were sent into hospitals to give concerts and to offer music lessons to psychiatric patients. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>  “ Good music and good health are intimately associated with each other” Podolsky </li></ul><ul><li>The greatest challenge in the effective use of music in health care settings is the selection of specific music pieces. Elements of music that should be considered include: </li></ul><ul><li>drone </li></ul><ul><li>repetition </li></ul><ul><li>harmonics </li></ul><ul><li>rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>melody </li></ul><ul><li>instrumental colours </li></ul><ul><li>form </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Music appropriate for stress reduction has a slow, steady rhythm, low-frequency tones, orchestral effects, and a relaxing melody. Overly dissonant intervals or harmonic progressions should not be sustained during long periods of time. </li></ul><ul><li>The music must be played at a comfortable volume level and have no negative associations for the listener. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Music, as a mean of stimulation, may aid cognitive activity in extroverts and suppress cognitive activity among introverts. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Landels J.:Muzyka starożytnej Grecji I Rzymu , Homini , Kraków, 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Szulc W.: Muzykoterapia jako przedmiot badań i edukacji, Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, Lublin, 2005 </li></ul>