Undoubtedly difficulties in studying are veryworrying and its consequences can bealso extremely dangerous. The difficulty inscience is when a student does notmake satisfactory progress, or when there is adiscrepancy between the demands andexpectations from the school orthe students own efforts andhis achievements or capabilities.Consequences of learningdifficulties may appear in many areas, but themost worrying are those that adverselyaffect child development.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ADHD is a developmental disorder. It is primarily characterized by "the co-existence of attentional problems and hyperactivity, with each behavior occurring infrequently alone" and symptoms starting before seven years of age. ADHD is the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children, affecting about 3 to 5 percent of children globally and diagnosed in about 2 to 16 percent of school aged children. It is a chronic disorder with 30 to 50 percent of those individuals diagnosed in childhood continuing to have symptoms into adulthood.
Symptoms of ADHDPredominantly inattentive type symptoms may include:• Be easily distracted, miss details, forget things, and frequently switch from one activity to another• Have difficulty maintaining focus on one task• Become bored with a task after only a few minutes, unless doing something enjoyable• Have difficulty focusing attention on organizing and completing a task or learning something new or trouble completing or turning in homework assignments, often losing things (e.g., pencils, toys, assignments) needed to complete tasks or activities• Not seem to listen when spoken to• Daydream, become easily confused, and move slowly• Have difficulty processing information as quickly and accurately as others• Struggle to follow instructions.
Symptoms of ADHDPredominantly hyperactive-impulsive type symptoms may include:• Fidget and squirm in their seats• Talk nonstop• Dash around, touching or playing with anything and everything in sight• Have trouble sitting still during dinner, school, and story time• Be constantly in motion• Have difficulty doing quiet tasks or activities.and also these manifestations primarily of impulsivity:• Be very impatient• Blurt out inappropriate comments, show their emotions without restraint, and act without regard for consequences• Have difficulty waiting for things they want or waiting their turns in games
DyslexiaDyslexia is a very broad term defining a learningdisability that impairs a persons fluency orcomprehension accuracy in being able to read,and which can manifest itself as a difficulty withphonological awareness, phonological decoding,orthographic coding, auditory short-termmemory, or rapid naming.
Subtypes of dyslexia/CurationThere are three proposed cognitive subtypes ofdyslexia: auditory, visual and attentional. Readingdisabilities, or dyslexia, is the most commonlearning disability, although in research literatureit is considered to be a receptive language-basedlearning disability.There is no cure for dyslexia, but dyslexicindividuals can learn to read and write withappropriate educational support. Earlyintervention is very helpful.
Dysgraphia is a deficiency in theability to write primarily in terms of Dysgraphiahandwriting, but also in terms ofcoherence. It occurs regardless ofthe ability to read and is not due tointellectual impairment. Dysgraphiais a transcription disability, meaningthat it is a writing disorderassociated with impairedhandwriting, orthographic coding(orthography, the storing process ofwritten words and processing theletters in those words), and fingersequencing (the movement ofmuscles required to write).
ClassificationDyslexic dysgraphia People with dyslexic dysgraphia, have illegible spontaneously written work, their copied work is fairly good, but their spelling is usually bad. Their finger tapping speed (a method for identifying fine motor problems) is normal, indicating that the deficit does not likely stem from cerebellar damage.Motor dysgraphia Motor dysgraphia is due to deficient fine motor skills, poor dexterity, poor muscle tone, or unspecified motor clumsiness. Letter formation may be acceptable in very short samples of writing, but this requires extreme effort and an unreasonable amount of time to accomplish, and it cannot be sustained for a significant length of time. Overall, their written work is poor to illegible even if copied by sight from another document, and drawing is difficult. Oral spelling for these individuals is normal, and their finger tapping speed is below normal. This shows that there are problems within the fine motor skills of these individuals. Writing is often slanted due to holding a pen or pencil incorrectly.Spatial dysgraphia A person with spatial dysgraphia has a defect in the understanding of space. They will have illegible spontaneously written work, illegible copied work, and problems with drawing abilities. They have normal spelling and normal finger tapping speed, suggesting that this subtype is not fine motor based.
ClutteringCluttering (also called tachyphemia) is a speechdisorder and a communication disorder characterized byspeech that is difficult for listeners to understand due torapid speaking rate, erratic rhythm, poor syntax or grammar, and words or groupsof words unrelated to thesentence. Cluttering has in the past been viewed as a fluency disorder.
StutteringStuttering (alalia syllabaris), also knownas stammering (alalia literalis or anarthria literalis), isa speech disorder in which the flow of speech isdisrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongationsof sounds, syllables, words or phrases, and involuntarysilent pauses or blocks in which the stutterer is unableto produce sounds. The term stuttering is mostcommonly associated with involuntary soundrepetition, but it also encompasses the abnormalhesitation or pausing before speech, referred to bystutterers as blocks, and the prolongation of certainsounds, usually vowels and semivowels.
LispA lisp is a speech impediment, historically also knownas sigmatism. Stereotypically, people with a lisp areunable to pronounce sibilants (like the sound [s]), andreplace them with interdentals (like thesound [θ]), though there are actually several kinds of lisp.The result is that the speech is unclear. The cause of a lisp can vary. In some instances, the cause is physiological, and the patient has some sort of deformity or medical condition which causes a lisp. For example, a child with swollen adenoids may tend to lisp, as will people who have recurring stuffy noses. Also, a lisp can be formed when the tongue is bruised or swollen.
Color blindnessColor blindness or color vision deficiency isthe inability or decreased ability to seecolor, or perceive color differences, underlighting conditions when color vision is notnormally impaired.