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Christenings
         and
  Weddings,
Traditions bring us
    together.
INDEX

COUNTRY             PAGE

 Cyprus             1

  Italy             75

 Latvia             141

Lithuania           146

 Poland             168

Slovakia            179

 Spain              206

 Turkey                 219




                              1
CYPRUS
DIMOTIKO SCHOLEIO STROUMPIOU, Stroumbi



The baby’s birth




                A girl was born on the
                29th of May 2011!




                                         1
The baby’s naming
According to Cypriot traditions, parents name their
children after the grandparents’ names. Therefore
Eleonora was named after her grandmother’s name.




                                                      2
The child’s first churching




   40 days after her birth, Eleonora
   is taken to the church for the
   first time. This ritual survives
   from    Jesus    Christs’   time.
   According to history, He was
   taken from his parents to the
   church for the first time after a
   40-days interval. The ritual is
   known     as    «The      Christ’s
   Candlemas».



                                        3
Choosing the child’s
Godparents
 The next step is choosing the child’s
 spiritual parents. The godfather is
 supposed to spend quality time with his
 godchild, and be responsible for his/her
 instructing and care. Even though it’s
 not obligatory, traditionally parents
 assign the child’s christening to the
 groomsman.
 or the bridesmaid. In
 Eleonora’s case, the parents
 chose a good friend of them.




                                       4
The necessity of being
christened




• A few months later, Eleonora’s
parents organize their daughter’s
christening.
• According to religious tradition,
christening exempts the newborn
from original sin, making its soul as
pure as snow.




                                  5
Organizing the child’s
christening
Initially, parents have to choose the place
anddate of the ritual. In former times, the
ritual was executed forty days after the
child’s birth. Nowadays, children are being
christened sometime before they reach
their first year.
Usually, parents choose a chapel, which was
what Eleonora’s parents did.




                            Ayios Neophitos Chapel




                                               6
Reception
                           The next step is choosing
                           the    place    where     the
                           reception will be conducted.
                           Nowadays, parents choose a
                           restaurant or a hotel. In
                           older times, the ceremony
                           was    conducted     in   the
                           parents’ home.
                           Eleonora’s parents chose to
                           follow the traditional custom
                           and do the ceremony in their
                           house.


                Invitation
• The next step is composing the guests’ invitation.
In older days, the guests were being invited orally.
Nowadays, invitations are being written, and great
attention is given to the invitation’s styling. Parents
try to be as original as possible in composing the
invitation, choosing constructing-like styles.




                                                 7
The christening’s ‘theme’
    • Usually parents and godparents choose a
    theme according to which the christening will
    be organized (invitations, cake, decor, guests’
    gifts). Τhe expenses are supposed to be
    covered by both parties. This habit was
    established in recent years.




Τhe godfather’s obligations
Τhe christening cross is the first gift that the
godfather will give to his godchild. This cross will be
the child’s companion, protecting him/her for the rest
of his/her life.
Also, the godfather has to buy a sort of witnessing
gifts which are given to the christening’s attendees.




                                                8
The godfather prepares a sort of box, in which the
parents store the child’s towels, clothes and accessories.
In older times, the godparents were choosing a white
suitcase for the purpose. Nowadays, they prefer buying a
chest, which is later used as a decoration item in the
child’s bedroom. According to religious traditions, the
child’s christening clothes need to be white. The white
colour symbolizes purity, and the Holy Spirit’s force
which protects the newborn.




                          The christening’s candle
                          is accordingly white. It
                          symbolizes Jesus Christ’s
                          light which will guide the
                          child and illuminate its life. A
                          few days before the ritual,
                          the godfather chooses a boy
                          or girl that will hold the
                          candle      throughout      the
                          christening. Eleonora’s little
                          cousin was chosen in this
                          christening.

                                                  9
Also, the godfather chooses the bonbon that will
be given to every family as a memorial gift. Usually,
godparents choose smart gifts such as teacups,
frames, money boxes, saltshakers etc.




    The christening’s stages
 Finally, the great day is here!
 The parents hand over the child
 to     its    to-be    godparents.
 According to Cypriot tradition,
 the     child’s   parents   aren’t
 supposed to participate to the
 ritual.


           The godfather stands at the
           chapel’s entrance, holding the
           child in his hands. The priest
           reads        the    appropriate
           recommendations,    and     the
           indoctrination of the ritual
           begins.                           10
The godfather is supposed to
read the Creed for three times.
Being the child’s representative,
the godfather rebukes Satan to
draw away from the child, and binds
himself with the principles of the
Orthodox Christian Church.

Soon after, the priest and the
godfather with the child move in the
centre of the chapel. There, they
stand next to the font, and the priest
reads further recommendations.




    Right after, the godfather
    undresses the child. The priest
    uses holly oil to mark the child’s
    ears, hands, feet, and head with
    the sign of the cross..



    The priest submerges the child
    three times in the font.
    The purpose of this procedure is
    the symbolical death of the sinful
    soul, and its replacement with a
    new, Christian soul.

                            11
The godfather holds the
                                   child in his hands, the priest
                                   cuts off some of the child’s
                                   hair, forming the sign of the
                                   cross on its head.




Thencomes the child’s
anointment.     The    priest
suffuses the child with a
kind of holly essence.




                                The next step is dressing
                                 the child with its
                                 christening clothes which
                                 have been sanctified
                                 during the ritual. Also,
                                 the godfather gives the
                                 child its christening
                                 cross.




                                                        12
godfather performs
three circles around the
font, holding the child in
his hands. They are
being followed by the
priest and the child
holding the candle.


                             Then, the child tastes the
                              Holy Communion for the
                              first time. The godfather
                              is supposed to escort the
                              child in church for the
                              following three Sundays.


   The godfather hands
    over the child to its
    mother . The mother
    kisses the godfather’s
    hand showing in this
    way, the appreciation
    and respect she owns
    to him.
   After the ritual’s
    completion, the guests
    offer their wishes to
    the parents and
    godparents of the
    child.
                                                     13
The feast
    • The feast begins soon after the completion of the
      ritual. Eleonora’s party takes place in her home
      place. A food and drink supplier is responsible for
      the party’s catering. In previous years, the child’s
      parents and their relatives were responsible for
      the preparation of the party.




            Τν λνύζιμν ηνο μωξνύ
• Σύμθωμα με ηημ πξιζηιαμική παξάδνζη, ην μωξό
  δεμ κάμει μπάμιν για 3 μέξεπ. Τημ ηξίηη μέξα ν
  μνμόπ κάμει μπάμιν ην μωξό. Αοηό γίμεηαι γιαηί
  αοηόπ πνο λαδώμει ην μωξό πξέπει μα ην
  μελαδώζει. Ακνλνοθεί θαγνπόηι.




                                                     14
• From now on a special
  bond will unite Eleonora
  with her godparents.
• The most important
  obligation of the
  godfather is taking up
  the child’s education in
  religious matters.
• Additionally, gifts and
  clothes are given to the
  child from its
  godparents in every
  special occasion.




                             15
CYPRIOT
     WEDDING
through history, mythology and
     tradition




                                 16
PREHISTORY
      – CLASSICAL TIME
(10 thousand B.C. – 4th century A.D.)




      Pygmalion and Galatea

                   According to the Greek
                   Mythology, Pygmalion was the
                   son of a king of Cyprus. He
                   was a great artist and created
                   a female sculpture which he
                   called Galatea. The sculpture
                   was so beautiful that he fell in
                   love with it. Aphrodite, the
                   goddess of love, felt sorry for
                   him and gave life to the
                   sculpture. Pygmalion then
                   married his darling Galatea.
                   They even had a daughter,
                   Pafos. A town was, in fact,
                   named after Pafos.
                                                17
BYZANTINE ERA
  (315 – 1192)




  Akanthou
          According to the tradition,
         Saracen pirates, dressed like
         natives, intruded during a
         weddinginCyprus.
         However, they got drunk
         and they revealed the plan
         they had to steal the bride,
         called Anthousa. Then the
         bride and groom hid in the
         thorns until the Saracens
         left. That’s where a new
         village was built, called
         Akanthou – after the name
         of the bride and the thorns
         (in Greek agkathia).
                                18
FRANKISH – VENETIAN RULE
   (1192 - 1570)




    Catherine Cornaro


                James II, king of Cyprus was
               convinced to marry Catherine
               Cornaro from Venice. The king
               sent a delegate in Venice to
               ask for Catherine’s hand in
               marriage. Venice endowed
               Catherine and sent her in
               Cyprus for the wedding. After
               James II died, Cyprus, through
               Catherine, was ruled by the
               Venetians.



                                      19
OTHOMAN RULE
    (1570 - 1878)




Mastership and walk

           The grooming of the bride
          was usually the responsibility
          of an old woman, the
          masterwoman, that had a
          specialty in this section. She
          was grooming the bride
          secretly in some inside room.
          The Christians were not
          allowed at the time to wander
          around on horseback as the
          ‘masters’. So, if the groom was
          not from the same village as
          the bride, had to reach the
          bride’s house on foot.

                                       20
ENGLISH RULE
  (1878 - 1959)




Dowry agreement

          Dowry agreement was
          some kind of contract that
          was signed before the
          wedding,amongthe
          parents of the bride and
          groom. This determined in
          details what was offered by
          each side to the bride-
          groom to be: land, animals,
          trees, linen, cloths and
          house utensils. The contract
          was accepted by everyone
          and it was very difficult for
          someone to break it.
                                  21
REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS
   (1960 - today)




 Modern weddings
            Weddings nowadays take
           place on a more modern
           line. Often, bachelor and
           hen parties precede the
           wedding for men and
           women respectively. The
           bride throws the bouquet to
           indicate who is the next girl
           to get married. The
           reception usually takes
           place at some hotel with
           nice flowers and live music.
           Many even choose to get
           married with a civil wedding
           at the ministry.
                                22
2012 CALENDAR
TRADITIONAL CYPRIOT WEDDING
Stroumbi Primary School




                              23
INTRODUCTORY NOTE
     Our school has participated in a school project within the frame-
work of the Comenius European Programme. We cooperated with
schools from different European countries (Lithuania, Slovakia, Turkey,
Italy, Spain, Poland, Latvia). The topic we focused on was "Back to our
Roots: Traditions and Customs bring us together". In specific, we
had to give an oral presentation of a project regarding our wedding tra-
ditions and customs in Cyprus.
    On our effort to deliver the project at its best, we, the pupils of the
Stroumbi Primary School, created our own 2012 Calendar entitled
"Traditional Cypriot Wedding". Having studied everything related to
the Cypriot wedding, we divided the customs in 12 stages, as many as
the months in a year. We wrote a few comments for each custom and
painted our own drawings to accompany the text. Finally, we put each
stage in a logical chronological order. Here is our Calendar!



                                   The pupils at the Stroumbi Primary School



                                                                              24
January 2012
                                                             Mon        Tue        Wed        Thu        Fri        Sat        Sun

                                                                                                                                      1




                                                                    2          3          4          5          6          7          8




                                                                    9         10         11         12         13         14         15




                                                                   16         17         18         19         20         21         22




                                                                   23         24         25         26         27         28         29




      The Custom of entering the village on foot
                                                                   30         31
 In the case that the groom was from a village other than
the bride's, he would have to go the bride's village along
with his guests, usually on an animal like a donkey. In
order to show respect and submissiveness to the new
community he had to enter the village on foot.

                                                                                                                    25
February 2012
                                                           Mon        Tue        Wed        Thu        Fri        Sat        Sun


                                                                                        1          2          3          4          5




                                                                  6          7          8          9         10         11         12




                                                                 13         14         15         16         17         18         19




                                                                 20         21         22         23         24         25         26




                  T                                              27         28         29
      The Prenuptial marriage agreement
The Prenuptial marriage agreement was a type of contract
that was signed before the wedding, between the bride's
and groom's parents. This agreement determined what
each side would give to the future newlyweds.



                                                                                                                  26
March 2012
                                                    Mon        Tue        Wed        Thu        Fri        Sat        Sun


                                                                                            1          2          3          4




                                                           5          6          7          8          9         10         11




                                                          12         13         14         15         16         17         18




                                                          19         20         21         22         23         24         25




          The Engagement                                  26         27         28         29         30         31
The engagement would last three to four years so
that the house and the dowry would be prepared.
The bride and the groom would stay separately,
each at their parents' places. The engaged couple
would only meet under the supervision of their
mother-in-law.

                                                                                                           27
April 2012
                                                            Mon        Tue        Wed        Thu        Fri        Sat        Sun

                                                                                                                                     1




                                                                   2          3          4          5          6          7          8




                                                                   9         10         11         12         13         14         15




                                                                  16         17         18         19         20         21         22




                                                                  23         24         25         26         27         28         29




             The Invitation Process                               30
The couple's parents would go along the village with the
aim of inviting villagers to the wedding. To invite them,
they used to give a candle to each guest and spray them
with cologne.


                                                                                                                   28
May 2012
                                                              Mon        Tue         Wed        Thu        Fri        Sat        Sun


                                                                                1           2          3          4          5          6




                                                                     7          8           9         10         11         12         13




                                                                    14         15          16         17         18         19         20




                                                                    21         22          23         24         25         26         27




              The Dowry Dance
While the bride was being prepared at her parents' house,
her friends and relatives would dance in so that they would         28         29          30         31
show the dowry the bride would later take to her own
house.




                                                                                                                      29
June 2012
                                                              Mon        Tue        Wed        Thu        Fri        Sat        Sun


                                                                                                                 1          2          3




                                                                     4          5          6          7          8          9         10




                                                                    11         12         13         14         15         16         17




                                                                    18         19         20         21         22         23         24




             The wedding mattress
While the dowry was shown, seven women who had been
married once initiated to sew the wedding mattress, filling
it in with wool or cotton. The bride's brother would then           25         26         27         28         29         30
take the mattress on his shoulder and dance with it.




                                                                                                                     30
July 2012
                                                        Mon        Tue         Wed        Thu        Fri        Sat        Sun

                                                                                                                                  1




                                                               2          3           4          5          6          7          8




                                                               9         10          11         12         13         14         15




                                                              16         17          18         19         20         21         22




                                                              23         24          25         26         27         28         29


          Handing Over the Bride
Once the bride was ready, relatives and friends would
accompany her to the church where the bride's father
would formally "hand her over" to her future husband.
                                                              30         31




                                                                                                                31
August 2012
                                                                   Mon        Tue        Wed        Thu        Fri        Sat        Sun


                                                                                                1          2          3          4          5




                                                                          6          7          8          9         10         11         12




                                                                         13         14         15         16         17         18         19




                                                                         20         21         22         23         24         25         26




                   The Wedding
The day would begin with the bridal grooming process at the
bride's house as well as the bridegroom's shaving at the groom's
place. Both preparations were done with musical instruments              27         28         29         30         31
playing traditional songs for them. As soon as the bride and
groom were ready, they would set off to the church, each with
their own relatives and friends




                                                                                                                          32
September 2012
                                                             Mon         Tue        Wed        Thu        Fri        Sat        Sun


                                                                                                                            1          2




                                                                    3           4          5          6          7          8          9




                                                                   10          11         12         13         14         15         16




                                                                   17          18         19         20         21         22         23




         After the Wedding Ceremony
Before the wedding dinner, the bride had to say a dirty
word in order to indicate that she has now joined the mar-
ried people's club. Right after the ceremony, the couple's         24          25         26         27         28         29         30
parents would visit the groom's house to give their best
wishes.




                                                                                                                     33
October 2012
                                                             Mon        Tue        Wed        Thu        Fri        Sat        Sun


                                                                    1          2          3          4          5          6          7




                                                                    8          9         10         11         12         13         14




                                                                   15         16         17         18         19         20         21




                                                                   22         23         24         25         26         27         28



            The In-Laws Dance
The parents in-law used to dance together: the groom's
father would dance with the bride's father; while the
groom's mother would dance the so called 'sirtos' with the         29         30         31
bride's mother. This dance showed to the guests that the
two families were happy and respected each other.




                                                                                                                    34
November 2012
                                                         Mon        Tue        Wed        Thu        Fri        Sat        Sun


                                                                                                 1          2          3         4




                                                                5          6          7          8          9         10         11




                                                               12         13         14         15         16         17         18




                                                               19         20         21         22         23         24         25




         Dancing next to each other
                                                               26         27         28         29         30
At every social event, men and women acted separately.
Even while celebrating, men and women were not allowed
to dance together. Mixed dances were forbidden, thus
males would dance together with males; so would fe-
males.




                                                                                                                35
December 2012
                                                             Mon        Tue        Wed        Thu            Fri        Sat        Sun


                                                                                                                                         2
                                                                                                         1




                                                                   3          4          5           6             7          8          9




                                                                   10         11         12         13             14         15         16




                                                                   17         18         19         20             21         22         23




                                                               24             25         26         27             28         29     30




             Monday's Celebrations
The night after the wedding day, 'Monday's Wedding'                31
would take place. The guests brought their own food
(called 'kassini') and the newlyweds danced a special kind
of dance during which the guests pinned paper money on
their clothes as wedding gift.




                                                                                                                        36
Ο ΚΣΠΡΙΑΚΟ΢ ΓΑΜΟ΢:
 ΗΘΗ ΚΑΙ ΕΘΙΜΑ ΑΠΟ ΢Ο
 ΠΑΡΕΛΘΟΝ



THE CYPRIOT WEDDING: CUSTOMS
AND TRADITIONS FROM THE PAST
                               37
΢Α ΠΡΟΞΕΝΙΑ
                                      The majority of
                                       weddings were not the
                                       result of people falling
The matchmaking                        in love and were usually
                                       arranged by parents.
   Σεει θεγάηε ελπν πηεελοεζία        Being older and wiser
    λε γάθλε δει γίιλιεαι από          they were considered to
    έμζεα, αηηά ζαιλιίδλιεαι           know the best choice for
    από ελπν γλιείν, δπιήδζν           their children. If a
    ξζμίν ια δεεεδεί ε γιώθε εζι       young man was
    θεηηλιύθζζι, αζλύ απελί            interested in a young
    δαι πελ ώμεθλε δα ήκεμαι           woman or if his family
     ζαηύεεμα πελ δα ήεαι ελ           agreed that a young girl
    δπθζέμλι εζι παεδεώι ελπν.         was a good bride to be
     Αι ηλεπόι ζάπλελν ιέλν            for their son, they
    ειδεαζεμόεαι γεα ζάπλεα            should send a message
    ζλπέηα ή αι λε γλιείν ελπ          asking her to be their
    πίδεεπαι πζν θεα ζλπέηα δα         son’s wife (“proxenia”).
    ήεαι ζαηή γεα απεόι έπμεπε         A woman in each
     ια δεείηεε «πμλκέιεα».            village (called
    Υπεύδπιε γεα απεό δπιήδζν          “proxenitra”) was
     ήεαι ε πμλκειήεμα (πλπ            responsible to take this
    ππήμξε δε ζάδε ξζμεό) ε            message to the girl’s
    λπλία θεεέζεμε εα ιέα δεει         family and tried to
     λεζλγέιεεα εεν ζλπέηαν,           point out all the good
    ζμλιείδλιεαν ια παειέοεε ελι       reasons why they
      ππλοήζελ γαθπμό.                 should accept.
                                               38
΢Ο ΠΡΟΙΚΟ΢ΣΜΤΩΝΟ
     The dowry
   Tλ πμλεζλδύθζζιλ, ήεαι έια είδλν
      δπθβληαίλπ ελ λπλίλ ζαδόμεδε εα
      πεμελπδεαζά δελεξεία εα λπλία δα
    έδειαι δελπν θεηηόιπθζλπν λε γλιείν
    ελπν. Φζμάζεα, δπίεε, δώα, δέιεμα,
     δειεόιεα, μλύξα ζαε λεζεαζά δζεύε.
    Τα πεμεδδόεεμα εα έδειαι λε γλιείν        The dowry given to the couple was determined
       εεν ιύζεν. Καεά εε δπθζζιία             by a special kind of contract (called
    έπμεπε απαμαεεήεζν ια είιαε παμώι          “prikosimfono”). Any property or real estate
     - εζεόν από ελπν δπθπεδέμλπν - λ
                                               should be written down in details on the
    εεμέαν εεν ζλειόεεεαν, λ ζλειλεάμξεν
       ζαε ζάπλελν γμαθθαεεδλύθειλν,           contract (even the number of clothes, sheets,
    δπιήδζν λ δάδζαηλν. Μεμεζέν ζλμέν          utensils, and farm animals). Most of the dowry
    γίιλιεαι δζηεμά παδάμεα θεεακύ εζι         was given by the parents of the bride to be.
       δπθπεδέμζι, ζαε όεαι εεηεζά             When coming to an agreement, the contract
    δπθζζιλύδαι έθπαειαι ππλγμαζέν             was signed by parents of both sides as well as
       ζαε δζμαγεδόεαι ζαε από ελι             by the community authorities and always in
       ζλειλεάμξε. Τλ πμλεζλδύθζζιλ            the presence of the priest, the mayor and the
       ζπηαδδόεαι δεει εζζηεδία εεν            teacher of the community. The contract was
    ζλειόεεεαν ειώ λ εεμέαν δεαδμαθάεεδε       kept in the church by the priest who would also
      μόηλ δεαζαιλιεδεή δε πεμίπεζδε           mediate in any case of disagreement or
         δεαζζιίαν .
                                               misunderstanding.
                                                                                    39
Ο ΑΡΡΑΒΩΝΑ΢
    The engagement
   Ο αμμαβώιαν γειόεαι θε θεα
    δύιελθε εεηεεή από ελι εεμέα
      δελ δπίεε δπιήδζν εεν
    θέηηλπδαν ιύζεν. Παμόιεεν
      ήεαι θόιλ λε γλιείν ζαε
      ζάπλελε πληύ δεειλί
      δπγγειείν. Σε όηε εει
    δεάμζεεα ελπ αμμαβώια πλπ
    θπλμλύδε ια ζμαεήδεε έζν
                                      The engagement was a small ceremony
    ζαε εμία θε εέδδεμα ξμόιεα-
    θέξμεν όελπ εελεθαδελύι εα         performed by the priest of the community
      πμλεζεά ζαε ελ δπίεε- λε         and usually took place in the house of the
    αμμαβζιεαδθέιλε δει έθειαι         bride to be, in the presence of parents and
    θαδί, αηηά δεα παεμεζά ελπν        few close relatives. During the engagement,
    δπίεεα. Μπλμλύδαι όθζν ια          that could last up to three or four years
      δπθθεεέξλπι θαδί δε              (until the house and the dowry were ready),
    λεζλγειεεαζέν δπγζειεμώδεεν,       the couple would live separately. They could
     δε γελμεέν ή δε δεάζλμεν          attend family gatherings or community
    δλπηεεέν δεα ξζμάζεα, αηηά         festivitiestogether,butalways
     πάιεα ππό εει επεεήμεδε           accompanied by their parents.
       εζι γλιεώι ελπν.
                                                                          40
΢Ο ΚΑΛΕ΢ΜΑ
    The invitation
   Τλ ζάηεδθα δελ γάθλ γειόεαι
    θεμεζέν θέμεν πμει, δπιήδζν
     από ελπν γλιείν λε λπλίλε
      γύμεδαι από γεεελιεά δε
    γεεελιεά ζαε θλίμαδαι από έια
      ζεμί δελι ζάδε ξζμεαιό,
    μαιείδλιεάν ελπν θε ζληόιεα
       από έια δλξείλ (εε
     «θεμμέξα») ζαε ζαηώιεαν
    ελπν δεεν ξαμέν εζι παεδεώι
                                       The invitation to the wedding took place few
    ελπν. Κάπλεεν ζλμέν θαδί θε
    ελ ζεμί έδειαι ζαε έια είδλν        days before the wedding day. The parents
    ζλπηλπμελύ, εε «γηπδεαμζά»          would go from door to door and give each
    ή «γπμεδεαμζά» ή έια είδλν          fellow villager a candle while sprinkling them
    οζθελύ, εει «ζλπθλπηεά» ή           with a special cologne from a vessel called
      εα «ζλύθλπηηα». Απεό              “merrecha”. Often they would treat them with
    δήθαειε πζν ελ δπγζεζμεθέιλ
                                        a special kind of crispy round bread roll called
     άελθλ ζαε ε λεζλγέιεεά ελπ
    ήεαι ζαηεδθέιλε δελ γάθλ.           “glistarka” or “giristarka” or a type of bread
                                        called “koumoulia”. This meant that a certain
                                        person and his/her family were invited to the
                                        wedding.
                                                                                41
Προετοιμασίες για το γάμο
    Wedding preparations
Το Σάββατο, την προηγούμενη
 μέρα του γάμου -που γινόταν
  
πάντα τις Κυριακές– κατέφθαναν
οι μουσικοί και κατευθύνονταν
στο πατρικό σπίτι της νύφης. Εκεί
 ακολουθούσε το ράψιμο ή
 γέμισμα του στρώματος του              On Saturday (a day previous the wedding which
 κρεβατιού και η επίδειξη των          was always taking place on Sundays) musicians
προικιών. Η όλη διαδικασία ήταν         and relatives of the bride would go to her house,
 σωστή ιεροτελεστία.Επτά                where the stuffing and the sewing of the couples’
 γυναίκες έραβαν το νυφικό              first mattress took place. This was a kind of ritual
 κρεβάτι προσθέτοντας στις              having to do with the fertility of the couple. The
γωνιές του τέσσερις σταυρούς με         bride also used to show off the trousseaus given
                                        to
 κόκκινη κορδέλα. Όταν
                                        her by her family. The mattress would be stuffed
τελείωναν το ράψιμο, κυλούσαν
                                        with well cleaned sheep wool and then sewed by
στο κρεβάτι ένα μικρό παιδάκι,          seven women. Four crosses with red ribbon – one
συνήθως αγόρι, για να είναι το          in each corner of the bed-would complete the
αντρόγυνο καρπερό αλλά και το           procedure that was accompanied by songs and
πρώτο τους παιδί να είναι αγόρι.        cheering. When the mattress was ready a young
Στη συνέχεια οι κουμπάρες και           child (usually a boy) would be thrown on it,
συγγενείς της νύφης έπαιρναν το         symbolizing fertility. In the end, bridesmaids and
κρεβάτι στους ώμους τους και με                                                   42
                                        relatives of the bride used to lift the mattress upon
τη συνοδεία μουσικής χόρευαν.           their shoulders and dance around the room.
Προετοιμασίες για το γάμο
Wedding preparations
Τλ Σάββαελ πμει από ελ
  
 γάθλ γίιλιεαι ζαε λε
  πμλεελεθαδίεν πλπ
αζλμλύδαι δελ ζαγεεό πλπ
δα πμλδζεμόεαι δελπν
ζαηεδθέιλπν. Εζεόν από ελ
λζεό ζαε εεν παεάεεν πλπ
οήιλιεαι δεα ζλπμιεά,
εελίθαδαι ζαε έια εεδεζό
πεηάζε θε ζλεόπλπηλ ή ζμέαν
ζαε δπαδθέιλ δεεάμε πλπ
λιλθαδόεαι «μέδε». Επίδεν       The day before the wedding the food for the
  δει ήεαι δπάιελ λε          
                                guests should be prepared. This included baked
πμλδζεζηεθέιλε ια έμξλιεαε      meat (called “ofto kleftiko”), potatoes and a
δελ γηέιεε ζέμιλιεαν λ          special pilaf made of boiled meat and smashed
ζαδέιαν εα ζαγεεά ελπ, «ελ      wheat grains (called “resi”). Often the guests
ζαιίδδει» όπζν ελ έηεγαι,       would contribute to the expenses, by bringing
βλεδώιεαν θε απεό ελι           their own prepared food on the day of the
  εμόπλ δελ ια θει              wedding. This food brought as a present to the
επεβαμπιδλύι λεζλιλθεζά λε      newlyweds was called “kanishin”.
   ιεόιπθζλε.
                                                                    43
Η ΜΕΡΑ ΢ΟΣ ΓΑΜΟΣ
The wedding day
   Η θέμα κεζειλύδε θε ελ δεόηεδθα εεν
    ιύθζεν, ελ κύμεδθα ζαε ιεύδεθλ ελπ
     γαθπμλύ, πάιεα θε εε δπιλδεία
    θλπδεζήν – βεληί ζαε ηαγλύελ. Μεεά
    ιεύδεθλ ζαε ελ δεόηεδθα έιαν έιαν λε
    γλιείν ζαε λε πληύ δεειλί δπγγειείν εεν
      ιύζεν (άηηα ζαε ελπ γαθπμλύ
    κεξζμεδεά) ελπν ζάπιεδαι θε εηεά ζαε
    ελπν έδζιαι θε έια ζόζζειλ θαιεήηε        
    γύμζ από εε θέδε γεα ια είιαε πάιεα           On the day of the wedding, the bride was dressed
    επηλγεθέιλε ζαε γόιεθλε. Σεε δπιέξεεα,        and prepared by the bridesmaids and the groom
     λε θεηηόιπθζλε δε δπλ ξζμεδεέν               was shaved by his friends, always with the escort
    πλθπέν, από εα παεμεζά ελπν δπίεεα
     κεζειλύδαι γεα εει εζζηεδία θε εε
                                                  of music. After that the parents and few very close
    δπιλδεία εζι γλιεώι, δπγγειώι ζαε             relatives of each the bride and the groom would
    ζίηζι. Μεεά ελ θπδεήμελ, αιεμόγπιλ            use a censer with olive leaves to chase away all
      πεα, θε ελι εεμέα ελπ ξζμελύ                bad spirits and tied a red scarf around their waste
    επεζεζαηήν, ζειλύδαι όηλε θαδί γεα ελ
      δπεεεζό πλπ δα δεέγαδε ελπν                 that symbolizes fertility. After that in two separate
    ιεόιπθζλπν δεε ιέα ελπν ζλειή δζή.            groups, parents, relatives and friends used to
    Σελ ζαεώζηε ελπ δπεεελύ λ γαθπμόν             escort the bride and the groom to the church.
    έδπαγε, μίξιλιεαν δελι ελίξλ, έια μόδε.
     Η ειέμγεεα απεή είξε δπθβληεζό
                                                  After the ceremony, the newlyweds accompanied
    ξαμαζεήμα. Είξαι εει πεπλίδεδε πζν            by the priest used to go to their new house, on the
     έεδε εκαδζάηεδαι εει επηλγία, εε             doorstep of which the groom crushed a
    γλιεθόεεεα ζαε εει αζδλιία αγαδώι.                                                       44
                                                  pomegranate as a symbolic action for good luck
                                                  and abundance of goods.
Η ΜΕΡΑ ΢ΟΣ ΓΑΜΟΣ
The wedding day

  Μεεά εει εεηεεή
        
αζληλπδλύδε γηέιεε θε
 θλπδεζή ζαε ξλμό. Οε
 άιεμεν δπιήδεδαι ια
ζάδλιεαε δε κεξζμεδεά
εμαπέδεα από εεν γπιαίζεν.
Φόμεπαι λε ζλπθπάμλε, λε
δπθπέδεμλε, λε δπγγειείν
 ζαε λε ζίηλε. Επίδεν           After the ceremony there was a big
εμαγλπδλύδαι, έζαιαι             celebration escorted by music and dancing.
δεαγζιεδθλύν εδεαεεεδεώι         Men and women used to sit at separate
ζαε δεαδζέδαδαι θέξμε εεν        tables. Friends, relatives and in-laws were
  πμζειέν ώμεν.                  eating, drinking, singing and dancing until
                                 late. They also used to make contests where
                                 many people improvised small rhyming
                                 poems (called “tsiattista”).



                                                                    45
Η ΕΠΟΜΕΝΗ ΜΕΡΑ
The day after the wedding
Τε
   Δεπεέμα θεεά ελ γάθλ ελ
 γηέιεε δπιεξεδόεαι. Όδλε
παμεπμίδζλιεαι έζεμιαι ζαε
πάηε θεμεζά ζαγεεά ή δεάζλμα
άηηα δώμα δελ δεπγάμε όπζν
 δειεόιεα ή μλύξα. Ή ιύζε
έβγαδε ελ ιπζεζό εεν ζαε έβαδε
έια άηηλ ζόμεθα δε δζλύμλ           The Monday following the wedding, the
  δπιήδζν ξμώθα πλπ                  celebrations were continued. The guests
λιλθαδόεαι «δεπεεμζάεεζλ».           would bring again food and presents for
                                     the couple, such as sheets or clothes.
Τε θέμα απεή ζαεά εε δεάμζεεα        The bride would wear a different dress
 ελπ γηειεελύ ελ αιεμόγπιλ           (which was called “defterkatiko”
ξόμεπε ζαε λε ζαηεδθέιλε ελπν        meaning “the Monday dress”). On
  «πηλύθεδαι» ελπν                   Monday the couple would dance a
  ζαμζίεδζιαι δεηαδή                 special song and the guests would pin
 ξαμελιλθίδθαεα πάιζ δεα             money on the couple’s clothes as they
 μλύξα ελπν ζν δώμλ γεα ελ           dance to give them the best start to
 ιέλ ελπν ζλειό κεζίιεθα.            their life together.
                                                                  46
Traditional Cypriot
      Wedding:
  Children s’ point of view


           Authors

Pupils of grade E’ & St’      47
48
Maroulla’s and Antriko’s
   secret diary


 Every summer I use to visit my grandfathers’ and grandmother’s
 house in the village. My latest exploration was an old diary.

      In the first page, it was written the : “The secret diary of
       Maroulla and Antrikos. Maroulla and Antrikos are my
          grandparents, who are now about 70 years old.

I opened the secret diary and full of curiosity I started reading it.
    In the following slides, we tried to paint what was the story
                        about.



                                                                 Hope you enjoy it too!!!




                                                                                      49
The first meeting




Monday, 23 August 1962
When I first showed Maroulla, I knew that this girl would become
my wife one day. I met her on the traditional tab -fountain of the
village, while she was trying to fill her jug with water …

After waiting for a while, I took a flower and I gave it to her…
                                                                     Antrikos

                                                                         50
The matchmaking




Friday, 27 August 1962
All those nights I can’t sleep…. All the time I am thinking of
Maroulla. Tonight is a big night because , after conversation
with my parents, wedecided to send to her parent sthe
matchmaker of the village to ask her hand. I hope that
everything will be ok.
…. Finally, the matchmaker came back and asked from my
parents to accompany her to Maroulla’s house because the answer
is positive. Most probably now the are signing the dowry contract.
                                                                     Antrikos


                                                                                51
Manufacturing process of resi




  Friday, 27 October 1962
  Today I get up early to write a few words because today
  we have to wash the wheat and reach it out to drain.
  More precisely, accompany with music we will go to the
  traditional fountain of the village to wash the wheat.
  After wards we will come back home and reached it to
  drain. Finally, we will grind it with the quern.
                                                            Antrikos


                                                                       52
Sewing the bridal mattress




  Thursday 27 October 1962
  From my window I am watching my friends preparing the layer
  of the bridal bed, filling it with wool. I noticed that as the
  women sewed the mattress, attendants threw bronze or silver
  coins sewn into it.

  Oh my Good, I still don’t believe it that in a few days I will get
  married with handsome Antrikos!!!                                    Maroulla


                                                                                  53
The dressing of the bride




 Sunday 30 October 1962

 Today I am very nervous and anxious. My bridesmaids will
 come early at my home with the musicians and will dance
 my clothes in a basket turning 3 times around me, symbol
 of the Holy Trinity.
                                                            Maroulla


                                                                       54
The dressing of the bride




 Sunday 30 October 1962
 …While my bridesmaids were making my make up and
 fixing we hair, I closed my eyes and I was thinking that in
 a few hours I would become Antriko’s wife.
                                                               Maroulla


                                                                          55
The groom’s shaving




Sunday 30 October 1962

…I can’t wait meeting my dear Maroulla !!!Ouf… they will
finish shaving in order to start going to the church….

                                                           Antrikos


                                                                  56
Isaih’s dance




Sunday 30 October 1962
…At the church I feel my heart beating quickly… I can’t
understand what is going on around me. I see roses and rice to
be thrown in the church. I just hold tightly the hand of
Antrikos and we together with the priest we are moving around
3 times.
                                                                 Maroulla



                                                                            57
The sewing of the bridal
    mattress




Sunday 30 October 1962
…After the church, we went back home for the sewing of the
bridal mattress. There my bridesmaids started sewing four cross
at the four edges of the bed in order God to bless our wedding
and soon to have a lot of descendants. Some of our guests put
money on it…

                                                                  Maroulla



                                                                             58
Dancing the bridal mattress




  Sunday 30 October 1962
  …Afterwards my brother took the mattress and
  danced it accompanied with the musicians.
                                                 Antrikos


                                                            59
The party




Sunday 30 October 1962

 …Finally we started eating and drinking. Everybody was looking
satisfied. Our guests all the time were proposing to us. Also, during
the night were organized “song contests”. The best impromptu couplet
either for the our wedding either for us, won enthusiastic applause.


                                                                        Antrikos


                                                                                   60
The newly married dance




Monday 31 October 1962

…We gathered again to celebrate our wedding. We ate and we
begin dancing with Antrikos. While we were dancing our
relatives hung us money as our weeding present.

                                                             Maroulla


                                                                        61
The baptism




Sunday 30 June 1963

…Today is the most special day in our common life. Our
marriage is blessed by the birth of our daughter, Katerina,
who we baptized today. Katerina is the rewarding of our
life.


                                                              Antrikos


                                                                         62
Traditions and customs
 bring us together
 Photo album of
 our activities

                         63
Collecting photos from Weddings in the
                      past…




                                         64
Writing down the authentic
     recipe of ressi




                             65
Demonstration of the tools we need to
      cook ressi




                                        66
Ressi
Ingredient
• 2 1 / 2 pounds veal or lamb or pork or chicken, according to your preference [
• 3-4 kg wheat
• Salt
• water


Instructions:
• Wash well the meat, so no trace of blood or
    and place in bottom of a deep pot.
• Wash the wheat that goes over the meat.
• Calculate n 'leave a distance of approximately 10 million
    below the rim of the pot.
• Add water to cover materials.
• Place on low heat and some distance from the eye.
• Not mix, but add water periodically.
• Once cooked materials, start mixing
    and add salt.
• If you need another water periodically add, one cup at a time.
    It is to melt the material and make a thick porridge.
• Then remove from the heat and cover the pot in order to absorb any liquid and serve the
    department until cool.


                                                                                    67
Cooking ressi




                68
Cooking ressi




                69
Testing ressi




                70
Painting

Eva              Maria




                         71
Painting

       Konstantinos              Savvas




Konstant




                                     72
Painting

Agni              Nicoletta




                       73
Painting

Peter              George




                      74
75

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Christenings and Weddings Traditions Bring Us Together

  • 1. Christenings and Weddings, Traditions bring us together.
  • 2. INDEX COUNTRY PAGE Cyprus 1 Italy 75 Latvia 141 Lithuania 146 Poland 168 Slovakia 179 Spain 206 Turkey 219 1
  • 3. CYPRUS DIMOTIKO SCHOLEIO STROUMPIOU, Stroumbi The baby’s birth A girl was born on the 29th of May 2011! 1
  • 4. The baby’s naming According to Cypriot traditions, parents name their children after the grandparents’ names. Therefore Eleonora was named after her grandmother’s name. 2
  • 5. The child’s first churching 40 days after her birth, Eleonora is taken to the church for the first time. This ritual survives from Jesus Christs’ time. According to history, He was taken from his parents to the church for the first time after a 40-days interval. The ritual is known as «The Christ’s Candlemas». 3
  • 6. Choosing the child’s Godparents The next step is choosing the child’s spiritual parents. The godfather is supposed to spend quality time with his godchild, and be responsible for his/her instructing and care. Even though it’s not obligatory, traditionally parents assign the child’s christening to the groomsman. or the bridesmaid. In Eleonora’s case, the parents chose a good friend of them. 4
  • 7. The necessity of being christened • A few months later, Eleonora’s parents organize their daughter’s christening. • According to religious tradition, christening exempts the newborn from original sin, making its soul as pure as snow. 5
  • 8. Organizing the child’s christening Initially, parents have to choose the place anddate of the ritual. In former times, the ritual was executed forty days after the child’s birth. Nowadays, children are being christened sometime before they reach their first year. Usually, parents choose a chapel, which was what Eleonora’s parents did. Ayios Neophitos Chapel 6
  • 9. Reception The next step is choosing the place where the reception will be conducted. Nowadays, parents choose a restaurant or a hotel. In older times, the ceremony was conducted in the parents’ home. Eleonora’s parents chose to follow the traditional custom and do the ceremony in their house. Invitation • The next step is composing the guests’ invitation. In older days, the guests were being invited orally. Nowadays, invitations are being written, and great attention is given to the invitation’s styling. Parents try to be as original as possible in composing the invitation, choosing constructing-like styles. 7
  • 10. The christening’s ‘theme’ • Usually parents and godparents choose a theme according to which the christening will be organized (invitations, cake, decor, guests’ gifts). Τhe expenses are supposed to be covered by both parties. This habit was established in recent years. Τhe godfather’s obligations Τhe christening cross is the first gift that the godfather will give to his godchild. This cross will be the child’s companion, protecting him/her for the rest of his/her life. Also, the godfather has to buy a sort of witnessing gifts which are given to the christening’s attendees. 8
  • 11. The godfather prepares a sort of box, in which the parents store the child’s towels, clothes and accessories. In older times, the godparents were choosing a white suitcase for the purpose. Nowadays, they prefer buying a chest, which is later used as a decoration item in the child’s bedroom. According to religious traditions, the child’s christening clothes need to be white. The white colour symbolizes purity, and the Holy Spirit’s force which protects the newborn. The christening’s candle is accordingly white. It symbolizes Jesus Christ’s light which will guide the child and illuminate its life. A few days before the ritual, the godfather chooses a boy or girl that will hold the candle throughout the christening. Eleonora’s little cousin was chosen in this christening. 9
  • 12. Also, the godfather chooses the bonbon that will be given to every family as a memorial gift. Usually, godparents choose smart gifts such as teacups, frames, money boxes, saltshakers etc. The christening’s stages Finally, the great day is here! The parents hand over the child to its to-be godparents. According to Cypriot tradition, the child’s parents aren’t supposed to participate to the ritual. The godfather stands at the chapel’s entrance, holding the child in his hands. The priest reads the appropriate recommendations, and the indoctrination of the ritual begins. 10
  • 13. The godfather is supposed to read the Creed for three times. Being the child’s representative, the godfather rebukes Satan to draw away from the child, and binds himself with the principles of the Orthodox Christian Church. Soon after, the priest and the godfather with the child move in the centre of the chapel. There, they stand next to the font, and the priest reads further recommendations. Right after, the godfather undresses the child. The priest uses holly oil to mark the child’s ears, hands, feet, and head with the sign of the cross.. The priest submerges the child three times in the font. The purpose of this procedure is the symbolical death of the sinful soul, and its replacement with a new, Christian soul. 11
  • 14. The godfather holds the child in his hands, the priest cuts off some of the child’s hair, forming the sign of the cross on its head. Thencomes the child’s anointment. The priest suffuses the child with a kind of holly essence. The next step is dressing the child with its christening clothes which have been sanctified during the ritual. Also, the godfather gives the child its christening cross. 12
  • 15. godfather performs three circles around the font, holding the child in his hands. They are being followed by the priest and the child holding the candle. Then, the child tastes the Holy Communion for the first time. The godfather is supposed to escort the child in church for the following three Sundays. The godfather hands over the child to its mother . The mother kisses the godfather’s hand showing in this way, the appreciation and respect she owns to him. After the ritual’s completion, the guests offer their wishes to the parents and godparents of the child. 13
  • 16. The feast • The feast begins soon after the completion of the ritual. Eleonora’s party takes place in her home place. A food and drink supplier is responsible for the party’s catering. In previous years, the child’s parents and their relatives were responsible for the preparation of the party. Τν λνύζιμν ηνο μωξνύ • Σύμθωμα με ηημ πξιζηιαμική παξάδνζη, ην μωξό δεμ κάμει μπάμιν για 3 μέξεπ. Τημ ηξίηη μέξα ν μνμόπ κάμει μπάμιν ην μωξό. Αοηό γίμεηαι γιαηί αοηόπ πνο λαδώμει ην μωξό πξέπει μα ην μελαδώζει. Ακνλνοθεί θαγνπόηι. 14
  • 17. • From now on a special bond will unite Eleonora with her godparents. • The most important obligation of the godfather is taking up the child’s education in religious matters. • Additionally, gifts and clothes are given to the child from its godparents in every special occasion. 15
  • 18. CYPRIOT WEDDING through history, mythology and tradition 16
  • 19. PREHISTORY – CLASSICAL TIME (10 thousand B.C. – 4th century A.D.) Pygmalion and Galatea According to the Greek Mythology, Pygmalion was the son of a king of Cyprus. He was a great artist and created a female sculpture which he called Galatea. The sculpture was so beautiful that he fell in love with it. Aphrodite, the goddess of love, felt sorry for him and gave life to the sculpture. Pygmalion then married his darling Galatea. They even had a daughter, Pafos. A town was, in fact, named after Pafos. 17
  • 20. BYZANTINE ERA (315 – 1192) Akanthou According to the tradition, Saracen pirates, dressed like natives, intruded during a weddinginCyprus. However, they got drunk and they revealed the plan they had to steal the bride, called Anthousa. Then the bride and groom hid in the thorns until the Saracens left. That’s where a new village was built, called Akanthou – after the name of the bride and the thorns (in Greek agkathia). 18
  • 21. FRANKISH – VENETIAN RULE (1192 - 1570) Catherine Cornaro James II, king of Cyprus was convinced to marry Catherine Cornaro from Venice. The king sent a delegate in Venice to ask for Catherine’s hand in marriage. Venice endowed Catherine and sent her in Cyprus for the wedding. After James II died, Cyprus, through Catherine, was ruled by the Venetians. 19
  • 22. OTHOMAN RULE (1570 - 1878) Mastership and walk The grooming of the bride was usually the responsibility of an old woman, the masterwoman, that had a specialty in this section. She was grooming the bride secretly in some inside room. The Christians were not allowed at the time to wander around on horseback as the ‘masters’. So, if the groom was not from the same village as the bride, had to reach the bride’s house on foot. 20
  • 23. ENGLISH RULE (1878 - 1959) Dowry agreement Dowry agreement was some kind of contract that was signed before the wedding,amongthe parents of the bride and groom. This determined in details what was offered by each side to the bride- groom to be: land, animals, trees, linen, cloths and house utensils. The contract was accepted by everyone and it was very difficult for someone to break it. 21
  • 24. REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS (1960 - today) Modern weddings Weddings nowadays take place on a more modern line. Often, bachelor and hen parties precede the wedding for men and women respectively. The bride throws the bouquet to indicate who is the next girl to get married. The reception usually takes place at some hotel with nice flowers and live music. Many even choose to get married with a civil wedding at the ministry. 22
  • 25. 2012 CALENDAR TRADITIONAL CYPRIOT WEDDING Stroumbi Primary School 23
  • 26. INTRODUCTORY NOTE Our school has participated in a school project within the frame- work of the Comenius European Programme. We cooperated with schools from different European countries (Lithuania, Slovakia, Turkey, Italy, Spain, Poland, Latvia). The topic we focused on was "Back to our Roots: Traditions and Customs bring us together". In specific, we had to give an oral presentation of a project regarding our wedding tra- ditions and customs in Cyprus. On our effort to deliver the project at its best, we, the pupils of the Stroumbi Primary School, created our own 2012 Calendar entitled "Traditional Cypriot Wedding". Having studied everything related to the Cypriot wedding, we divided the customs in 12 stages, as many as the months in a year. We wrote a few comments for each custom and painted our own drawings to accompany the text. Finally, we put each stage in a logical chronological order. Here is our Calendar! The pupils at the Stroumbi Primary School 24
  • 27. January 2012 Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 The Custom of entering the village on foot 30 31 In the case that the groom was from a village other than the bride's, he would have to go the bride's village along with his guests, usually on an animal like a donkey. In order to show respect and submissiveness to the new community he had to enter the village on foot. 25
  • 28. February 2012 Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 T 27 28 29 The Prenuptial marriage agreement The Prenuptial marriage agreement was a type of contract that was signed before the wedding, between the bride's and groom's parents. This agreement determined what each side would give to the future newlyweds. 26
  • 29. March 2012 Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 The Engagement 26 27 28 29 30 31 The engagement would last three to four years so that the house and the dowry would be prepared. The bride and the groom would stay separately, each at their parents' places. The engaged couple would only meet under the supervision of their mother-in-law. 27
  • 30. April 2012 Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 The Invitation Process 30 The couple's parents would go along the village with the aim of inviting villagers to the wedding. To invite them, they used to give a candle to each guest and spray them with cologne. 28
  • 31. May 2012 Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 The Dowry Dance While the bride was being prepared at her parents' house, her friends and relatives would dance in so that they would 28 29 30 31 show the dowry the bride would later take to her own house. 29
  • 32. June 2012 Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 The wedding mattress While the dowry was shown, seven women who had been married once initiated to sew the wedding mattress, filling it in with wool or cotton. The bride's brother would then 25 26 27 28 29 30 take the mattress on his shoulder and dance with it. 30
  • 33. July 2012 Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Handing Over the Bride Once the bride was ready, relatives and friends would accompany her to the church where the bride's father would formally "hand her over" to her future husband. 30 31 31
  • 34. August 2012 Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 The Wedding The day would begin with the bridal grooming process at the bride's house as well as the bridegroom's shaving at the groom's place. Both preparations were done with musical instruments 27 28 29 30 31 playing traditional songs for them. As soon as the bride and groom were ready, they would set off to the church, each with their own relatives and friends 32
  • 35. September 2012 Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 After the Wedding Ceremony Before the wedding dinner, the bride had to say a dirty word in order to indicate that she has now joined the mar- ried people's club. Right after the ceremony, the couple's 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 parents would visit the groom's house to give their best wishes. 33
  • 36. October 2012 Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 The In-Laws Dance The parents in-law used to dance together: the groom's father would dance with the bride's father; while the groom's mother would dance the so called 'sirtos' with the 29 30 31 bride's mother. This dance showed to the guests that the two families were happy and respected each other. 34
  • 37. November 2012 Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Dancing next to each other 26 27 28 29 30 At every social event, men and women acted separately. Even while celebrating, men and women were not allowed to dance together. Mixed dances were forbidden, thus males would dance together with males; so would fe- males. 35
  • 38. December 2012 Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun 2 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Monday's Celebrations The night after the wedding day, 'Monday's Wedding' 31 would take place. The guests brought their own food (called 'kassini') and the newlyweds danced a special kind of dance during which the guests pinned paper money on their clothes as wedding gift. 36
  • 39. Ο ΚΣΠΡΙΑΚΟ΢ ΓΑΜΟ΢: ΗΘΗ ΚΑΙ ΕΘΙΜΑ ΑΠΟ ΢Ο ΠΑΡΕΛΘΟΝ THE CYPRIOT WEDDING: CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS FROM THE PAST 37
  • 40. ΢Α ΠΡΟΞΕΝΙΑ  The majority of weddings were not the result of people falling The matchmaking in love and were usually arranged by parents.  Σεει θεγάηε ελπν πηεελοεζία Being older and wiser λε γάθλε δει γίιλιεαι από they were considered to έμζεα, αηηά ζαιλιίδλιεαι know the best choice for από ελπν γλιείν, δπιήδζν their children. If a ξζμίν ια δεεεδεί ε γιώθε εζι young man was θεηηλιύθζζι, αζλύ απελί interested in a young δαι πελ ώμεθλε δα ήκεμαι woman or if his family ζαηύεεμα πελ δα ήεαι ελ agreed that a young girl δπθζέμλι εζι παεδεώι ελπν. was a good bride to be Αι ηλεπόι ζάπλελν ιέλν for their son, they ειδεαζεμόεαι γεα ζάπλεα should send a message ζλπέηα ή αι λε γλιείν ελπ asking her to be their πίδεεπαι πζν θεα ζλπέηα δα son’s wife (“proxenia”). ήεαι ζαηή γεα απεόι έπμεπε A woman in each ια δεείηεε «πμλκέιεα». village (called Υπεύδπιε γεα απεό δπιήδζν “proxenitra”) was ήεαι ε πμλκειήεμα (πλπ responsible to take this ππήμξε δε ζάδε ξζμεό) ε message to the girl’s λπλία θεεέζεμε εα ιέα δεει family and tried to λεζλγέιεεα εεν ζλπέηαν, point out all the good ζμλιείδλιεαν ια παειέοεε ελι reasons why they ππλοήζελ γαθπμό. should accept. 38
  • 41. ΢Ο ΠΡΟΙΚΟ΢ΣΜΤΩΝΟ The dowry  Tλ πμλεζλδύθζζιλ, ήεαι έια είδλν δπθβληαίλπ ελ λπλίλ ζαδόμεδε εα πεμελπδεαζά δελεξεία εα λπλία δα έδειαι δελπν θεηηόιπθζλπν λε γλιείν ελπν. Φζμάζεα, δπίεε, δώα, δέιεμα, δειεόιεα, μλύξα ζαε λεζεαζά δζεύε. Τα πεμεδδόεεμα εα έδειαι λε γλιείν  The dowry given to the couple was determined εεν ιύζεν. Καεά εε δπθζζιία by a special kind of contract (called έπμεπε απαμαεεήεζν ια είιαε παμώι “prikosimfono”). Any property or real estate - εζεόν από ελπν δπθπεδέμλπν - λ should be written down in details on the εεμέαν εεν ζλειόεεεαν, λ ζλειλεάμξεν ζαε ζάπλελν γμαθθαεεδλύθειλν, contract (even the number of clothes, sheets, δπιήδζν λ δάδζαηλν. Μεμεζέν ζλμέν utensils, and farm animals). Most of the dowry γίιλιεαι δζηεμά παδάμεα θεεακύ εζι was given by the parents of the bride to be. δπθπεδέμζι, ζαε όεαι εεηεζά When coming to an agreement, the contract δπθζζιλύδαι έθπαειαι ππλγμαζέν was signed by parents of both sides as well as ζαε δζμαγεδόεαι ζαε από ελι by the community authorities and always in ζλειλεάμξε. Τλ πμλεζλδύθζζιλ the presence of the priest, the mayor and the ζπηαδδόεαι δεει εζζηεδία εεν teacher of the community. The contract was ζλειόεεεαν ειώ λ εεμέαν δεαδμαθάεεδε kept in the church by the priest who would also μόηλ δεαζαιλιεδεή δε πεμίπεζδε mediate in any case of disagreement or δεαζζιίαν . misunderstanding. 39
  • 42. Ο ΑΡΡΑΒΩΝΑ΢ The engagement  Ο αμμαβώιαν γειόεαι θε θεα δύιελθε εεηεεή από ελι εεμέα δελ δπίεε δπιήδζν εεν θέηηλπδαν ιύζεν. Παμόιεεν ήεαι θόιλ λε γλιείν ζαε ζάπλελε πληύ δεειλί δπγγειείν. Σε όηε εει δεάμζεεα ελπ αμμαβώια πλπ θπλμλύδε ια ζμαεήδεε έζν  The engagement was a small ceremony ζαε εμία θε εέδδεμα ξμόιεα- θέξμεν όελπ εελεθαδελύι εα performed by the priest of the community πμλεζεά ζαε ελ δπίεε- λε and usually took place in the house of the αμμαβζιεαδθέιλε δει έθειαι bride to be, in the presence of parents and θαδί, αηηά δεα παεμεζά ελπν few close relatives. During the engagement, δπίεεα. Μπλμλύδαι όθζν ια that could last up to three or four years δπθθεεέξλπι θαδί δε (until the house and the dowry were ready), λεζλγειεεαζέν δπγζειεμώδεεν, the couple would live separately. They could δε γελμεέν ή δε δεάζλμεν attend family gatherings or community δλπηεεέν δεα ξζμάζεα, αηηά festivitiestogether,butalways πάιεα ππό εει επεεήμεδε accompanied by their parents. εζι γλιεώι ελπν. 40
  • 43. ΢Ο ΚΑΛΕ΢ΜΑ The invitation  Τλ ζάηεδθα δελ γάθλ γειόεαι θεμεζέν θέμεν πμει, δπιήδζν από ελπν γλιείν λε λπλίλε γύμεδαι από γεεελιεά δε γεεελιεά ζαε θλίμαδαι από έια ζεμί δελι ζάδε ξζμεαιό, μαιείδλιεάν ελπν θε ζληόιεα από έια δλξείλ (εε «θεμμέξα») ζαε ζαηώιεαν ελπν δεεν ξαμέν εζι παεδεώι  The invitation to the wedding took place few ελπν. Κάπλεεν ζλμέν θαδί θε ελ ζεμί έδειαι ζαε έια είδλν days before the wedding day. The parents ζλπηλπμελύ, εε «γηπδεαμζά» would go from door to door and give each ή «γπμεδεαμζά» ή έια είδλν fellow villager a candle while sprinkling them οζθελύ, εει «ζλπθλπηεά» ή with a special cologne from a vessel called εα «ζλύθλπηηα». Απεό “merrecha”. Often they would treat them with δήθαειε πζν ελ δπγζεζμεθέιλ a special kind of crispy round bread roll called άελθλ ζαε ε λεζλγέιεεά ελπ ήεαι ζαηεδθέιλε δελ γάθλ. “glistarka” or “giristarka” or a type of bread called “koumoulia”. This meant that a certain person and his/her family were invited to the wedding. 41
  • 44. Προετοιμασίες για το γάμο Wedding preparations Το Σάββατο, την προηγούμενη μέρα του γάμου -που γινόταν  πάντα τις Κυριακές– κατέφθαναν οι μουσικοί και κατευθύνονταν στο πατρικό σπίτι της νύφης. Εκεί ακολουθούσε το ράψιμο ή γέμισμα του στρώματος του On Saturday (a day previous the wedding which κρεβατιού και η επίδειξη των  was always taking place on Sundays) musicians προικιών. Η όλη διαδικασία ήταν and relatives of the bride would go to her house, σωστή ιεροτελεστία.Επτά where the stuffing and the sewing of the couples’ γυναίκες έραβαν το νυφικό first mattress took place. This was a kind of ritual κρεβάτι προσθέτοντας στις having to do with the fertility of the couple. The γωνιές του τέσσερις σταυρούς με bride also used to show off the trousseaus given to κόκκινη κορδέλα. Όταν her by her family. The mattress would be stuffed τελείωναν το ράψιμο, κυλούσαν with well cleaned sheep wool and then sewed by στο κρεβάτι ένα μικρό παιδάκι, seven women. Four crosses with red ribbon – one συνήθως αγόρι, για να είναι το in each corner of the bed-would complete the αντρόγυνο καρπερό αλλά και το procedure that was accompanied by songs and πρώτο τους παιδί να είναι αγόρι. cheering. When the mattress was ready a young Στη συνέχεια οι κουμπάρες και child (usually a boy) would be thrown on it, συγγενείς της νύφης έπαιρναν το symbolizing fertility. In the end, bridesmaids and κρεβάτι στους ώμους τους και με 42 relatives of the bride used to lift the mattress upon τη συνοδεία μουσικής χόρευαν. their shoulders and dance around the room.
  • 45. Προετοιμασίες για το γάμο Wedding preparations Τλ Σάββαελ πμει από ελ  γάθλ γίιλιεαι ζαε λε πμλεελεθαδίεν πλπ αζλμλύδαι δελ ζαγεεό πλπ δα πμλδζεμόεαι δελπν ζαηεδθέιλπν. Εζεόν από ελ λζεό ζαε εεν παεάεεν πλπ οήιλιεαι δεα ζλπμιεά, εελίθαδαι ζαε έια εεδεζό πεηάζε θε ζλεόπλπηλ ή ζμέαν ζαε δπαδθέιλ δεεάμε πλπ λιλθαδόεαι «μέδε». Επίδεν The day before the wedding the food for the δει ήεαι δπάιελ λε  guests should be prepared. This included baked πμλδζεζηεθέιλε ια έμξλιεαε meat (called “ofto kleftiko”), potatoes and a δελ γηέιεε ζέμιλιεαν λ special pilaf made of boiled meat and smashed ζαδέιαν εα ζαγεεά ελπ, «ελ wheat grains (called “resi”). Often the guests ζαιίδδει» όπζν ελ έηεγαι, would contribute to the expenses, by bringing βλεδώιεαν θε απεό ελι their own prepared food on the day of the εμόπλ δελ ια θει wedding. This food brought as a present to the επεβαμπιδλύι λεζλιλθεζά λε newlyweds was called “kanishin”. ιεόιπθζλε. 43
  • 46. Η ΜΕΡΑ ΢ΟΣ ΓΑΜΟΣ The wedding day  Η θέμα κεζειλύδε θε ελ δεόηεδθα εεν ιύθζεν, ελ κύμεδθα ζαε ιεύδεθλ ελπ γαθπμλύ, πάιεα θε εε δπιλδεία θλπδεζήν – βεληί ζαε ηαγλύελ. Μεεά ιεύδεθλ ζαε ελ δεόηεδθα έιαν έιαν λε γλιείν ζαε λε πληύ δεειλί δπγγειείν εεν ιύζεν (άηηα ζαε ελπ γαθπμλύ κεξζμεδεά) ελπν ζάπιεδαι θε εηεά ζαε ελπν έδζιαι θε έια ζόζζειλ θαιεήηε  γύμζ από εε θέδε γεα ια είιαε πάιεα On the day of the wedding, the bride was dressed επηλγεθέιλε ζαε γόιεθλε. Σεε δπιέξεεα, and prepared by the bridesmaids and the groom λε θεηηόιπθζλε δε δπλ ξζμεδεέν was shaved by his friends, always with the escort πλθπέν, από εα παεμεζά ελπν δπίεεα κεζειλύδαι γεα εει εζζηεδία θε εε of music. After that the parents and few very close δπιλδεία εζι γλιεώι, δπγγειώι ζαε relatives of each the bride and the groom would ζίηζι. Μεεά ελ θπδεήμελ, αιεμόγπιλ use a censer with olive leaves to chase away all πεα, θε ελι εεμέα ελπ ξζμελύ bad spirits and tied a red scarf around their waste επεζεζαηήν, ζειλύδαι όηλε θαδί γεα ελ δπεεεζό πλπ δα δεέγαδε ελπν that symbolizes fertility. After that in two separate ιεόιπθζλπν δεε ιέα ελπν ζλειή δζή. groups, parents, relatives and friends used to Σελ ζαεώζηε ελπ δπεεελύ λ γαθπμόν escort the bride and the groom to the church. έδπαγε, μίξιλιεαν δελι ελίξλ, έια μόδε. Η ειέμγεεα απεή είξε δπθβληεζό After the ceremony, the newlyweds accompanied ξαμαζεήμα. Είξαι εει πεπλίδεδε πζν by the priest used to go to their new house, on the έεδε εκαδζάηεδαι εει επηλγία, εε doorstep of which the groom crushed a γλιεθόεεεα ζαε εει αζδλιία αγαδώι. 44 pomegranate as a symbolic action for good luck and abundance of goods.
  • 47. Η ΜΕΡΑ ΢ΟΣ ΓΑΜΟΣ The wedding day Μεεά εει εεηεεή  αζληλπδλύδε γηέιεε θε θλπδεζή ζαε ξλμό. Οε άιεμεν δπιήδεδαι ια ζάδλιεαε δε κεξζμεδεά εμαπέδεα από εεν γπιαίζεν. Φόμεπαι λε ζλπθπάμλε, λε δπθπέδεμλε, λε δπγγειείν ζαε λε ζίηλε. Επίδεν  After the ceremony there was a big εμαγλπδλύδαι, έζαιαι celebration escorted by music and dancing. δεαγζιεδθλύν εδεαεεεδεώι Men and women used to sit at separate ζαε δεαδζέδαδαι θέξμε εεν tables. Friends, relatives and in-laws were πμζειέν ώμεν. eating, drinking, singing and dancing until late. They also used to make contests where many people improvised small rhyming poems (called “tsiattista”). 45
  • 48. Η ΕΠΟΜΕΝΗ ΜΕΡΑ The day after the wedding Τε  Δεπεέμα θεεά ελ γάθλ ελ γηέιεε δπιεξεδόεαι. Όδλε παμεπμίδζλιεαι έζεμιαι ζαε πάηε θεμεζά ζαγεεά ή δεάζλμα άηηα δώμα δελ δεπγάμε όπζν δειεόιεα ή μλύξα. Ή ιύζε έβγαδε ελ ιπζεζό εεν ζαε έβαδε έια άηηλ ζόμεθα δε δζλύμλ  The Monday following the wedding, the δπιήδζν ξμώθα πλπ celebrations were continued. The guests λιλθαδόεαι «δεπεεμζάεεζλ». would bring again food and presents for the couple, such as sheets or clothes. Τε θέμα απεή ζαεά εε δεάμζεεα The bride would wear a different dress ελπ γηειεελύ ελ αιεμόγπιλ (which was called “defterkatiko” ξόμεπε ζαε λε ζαηεδθέιλε ελπν meaning “the Monday dress”). On «πηλύθεδαι» ελπν Monday the couple would dance a ζαμζίεδζιαι δεηαδή special song and the guests would pin ξαμελιλθίδθαεα πάιζ δεα money on the couple’s clothes as they μλύξα ελπν ζν δώμλ γεα ελ dance to give them the best start to ιέλ ελπν ζλειό κεζίιεθα. their life together. 46
  • 49. Traditional Cypriot Wedding: Children s’ point of view Authors Pupils of grade E’ & St’ 47
  • 50. 48
  • 51. Maroulla’s and Antriko’s secret diary Every summer I use to visit my grandfathers’ and grandmother’s house in the village. My latest exploration was an old diary. In the first page, it was written the : “The secret diary of Maroulla and Antrikos. Maroulla and Antrikos are my grandparents, who are now about 70 years old. I opened the secret diary and full of curiosity I started reading it. In the following slides, we tried to paint what was the story about. Hope you enjoy it too!!! 49
  • 52. The first meeting Monday, 23 August 1962 When I first showed Maroulla, I knew that this girl would become my wife one day. I met her on the traditional tab -fountain of the village, while she was trying to fill her jug with water … After waiting for a while, I took a flower and I gave it to her… Antrikos 50
  • 53. The matchmaking Friday, 27 August 1962 All those nights I can’t sleep…. All the time I am thinking of Maroulla. Tonight is a big night because , after conversation with my parents, wedecided to send to her parent sthe matchmaker of the village to ask her hand. I hope that everything will be ok. …. Finally, the matchmaker came back and asked from my parents to accompany her to Maroulla’s house because the answer is positive. Most probably now the are signing the dowry contract. Antrikos 51
  • 54. Manufacturing process of resi Friday, 27 October 1962 Today I get up early to write a few words because today we have to wash the wheat and reach it out to drain. More precisely, accompany with music we will go to the traditional fountain of the village to wash the wheat. After wards we will come back home and reached it to drain. Finally, we will grind it with the quern. Antrikos 52
  • 55. Sewing the bridal mattress Thursday 27 October 1962 From my window I am watching my friends preparing the layer of the bridal bed, filling it with wool. I noticed that as the women sewed the mattress, attendants threw bronze or silver coins sewn into it. Oh my Good, I still don’t believe it that in a few days I will get married with handsome Antrikos!!! Maroulla 53
  • 56. The dressing of the bride Sunday 30 October 1962 Today I am very nervous and anxious. My bridesmaids will come early at my home with the musicians and will dance my clothes in a basket turning 3 times around me, symbol of the Holy Trinity. Maroulla 54
  • 57. The dressing of the bride Sunday 30 October 1962 …While my bridesmaids were making my make up and fixing we hair, I closed my eyes and I was thinking that in a few hours I would become Antriko’s wife. Maroulla 55
  • 58. The groom’s shaving Sunday 30 October 1962 …I can’t wait meeting my dear Maroulla !!!Ouf… they will finish shaving in order to start going to the church…. Antrikos 56
  • 59. Isaih’s dance Sunday 30 October 1962 …At the church I feel my heart beating quickly… I can’t understand what is going on around me. I see roses and rice to be thrown in the church. I just hold tightly the hand of Antrikos and we together with the priest we are moving around 3 times. Maroulla 57
  • 60. The sewing of the bridal mattress Sunday 30 October 1962 …After the church, we went back home for the sewing of the bridal mattress. There my bridesmaids started sewing four cross at the four edges of the bed in order God to bless our wedding and soon to have a lot of descendants. Some of our guests put money on it… Maroulla 58
  • 61. Dancing the bridal mattress Sunday 30 October 1962 …Afterwards my brother took the mattress and danced it accompanied with the musicians. Antrikos 59
  • 62. The party Sunday 30 October 1962 …Finally we started eating and drinking. Everybody was looking satisfied. Our guests all the time were proposing to us. Also, during the night were organized “song contests”. The best impromptu couplet either for the our wedding either for us, won enthusiastic applause. Antrikos 60
  • 63. The newly married dance Monday 31 October 1962 …We gathered again to celebrate our wedding. We ate and we begin dancing with Antrikos. While we were dancing our relatives hung us money as our weeding present. Maroulla 61
  • 64. The baptism Sunday 30 June 1963 …Today is the most special day in our common life. Our marriage is blessed by the birth of our daughter, Katerina, who we baptized today. Katerina is the rewarding of our life. Antrikos 62
  • 65. Traditions and customs bring us together Photo album of our activities 63
  • 66. Collecting photos from Weddings in the past… 64
  • 67. Writing down the authentic recipe of ressi 65
  • 68. Demonstration of the tools we need to cook ressi 66
  • 69. Ressi Ingredient • 2 1 / 2 pounds veal or lamb or pork or chicken, according to your preference [ • 3-4 kg wheat • Salt • water Instructions: • Wash well the meat, so no trace of blood or and place in bottom of a deep pot. • Wash the wheat that goes over the meat. • Calculate n 'leave a distance of approximately 10 million below the rim of the pot. • Add water to cover materials. • Place on low heat and some distance from the eye. • Not mix, but add water periodically. • Once cooked materials, start mixing and add salt. • If you need another water periodically add, one cup at a time. It is to melt the material and make a thick porridge. • Then remove from the heat and cover the pot in order to absorb any liquid and serve the department until cool. 67
  • 73. Painting Eva Maria 71
  • 74. Painting Konstantinos Savvas Konstant 72
  • 75. Painting Agni Nicoletta 73
  • 76. Painting Peter George 74
  • 77. 75