Pp origens catalunya (anglès) comenius


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Origins of Catalonia

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Pp origens catalunya (anglès) comenius

  1. 1. CATALONIA’S HISTORY 2nd ESO students from Institut Pere Barnils
  2. 2. UNA SOCIETAT FEUDAL The feudalism in Catalonia In the eleventh century, in Catalonia, the nobles in front of the need  to defend themselves and  without  the authority of the counts began a violent process that governed the  land. The nobles made the post as being possible to be inhereted and put themselves  the title of barons. The free peasants became servants. The hegemony of the house of Barcelona Ramon Berenguer I started a number or agreements with the barons: the nobles accepted to become their vassalls and in exchange Berenguer accepted that the title of baron could be inherited. He created the usages, considered the first European federal code. · Berenguer started deals so he could get that other counts became his vassals too. And in this way the city of the counts, Barcelona, became the head of the Catalan feudal system . The fall of the caliphate – LES PARIES (the taxes) When the caliphate of Cordova broke up it also disappeared the military superiority of the Islamic state. The counts previously mentioned hurried to ask the Islamic kings the payment of taxes (paries).
  3. 3. NEW AND OLD CATALONIA <ul><li>Old Catalonia : It was formed by the territories in northern Catalonia that were not reached by the Islamization. </li></ul><ul><li>New Catalonia: These were the territories in South and West of Catalonia that were more than three hundred years under the control of Al-Andalus. They adopted the Arabic language and Islamic religion and customs. </li></ul>Catalunya nova (Islamic lands) Old Catalonia ( Christian lands)
  4. 4. ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES <ul><li>The most important economic activities were: The agriculture, crafts and trade. </li></ul><ul><li>The 23% of the Catalan population lived in cities of more than 2.000 inhabitants. The majority lived in the countryside. </li></ul>
  5. 5. THE URBAN AND ECONOMIC GROWTH <ul><li>In the eleventh century  the agricultural production increased and this favoured domestic trade at the markets in cities . </li></ul><ul><li>Forges were created in the Pyrenean lands. </li></ul>
  6. 6. SOCIAL RANKS OF THE INHABITANTS IN THE CITIES <ul><li>mà major or the big hand: It was formed by the  richest  bourgeoisie who were devoted primarily to banking and overseas trade (honorable citizens). </li></ul><ul><li>mà mitjana or the middle hand: They were the merchants, ship owners or skippers, artists, notaries, doctors, goldsmiths and artisans of a certain prestige. </li></ul><ul><li>mà menor or little hand or “small town”: The majority of them were the craftsmen (artisans), the workers and peasants. </li></ul><ul><li>Social groups without rights : Moorish, Jewish and slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Outside the cities: </li></ul><ul><li>- peasants (90% of the population). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Catalonia expanded military and commercially to the Mediterranean. This began with the kings: Jaume I “El Conqueridor”, Pere II “ El Gran”
  8. 8. THE SEA CONSULATES <ul><li>The sea consulate (consolat de mar) were created in Barcelona in1260. They were courts with a representative from the city that had the authority to solve the problems between the traders. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The first king in the Catalan and Aragonese dynasty was Alfons I “ El Cast” son of Ramon Berenguer IV de Barcelona & Peronella d’Aragó
  10. 10. THE PARLIAMENT (LES CORTS) AND LA GENERALITAT OF CATALUNYA <ul><li>Les Corts were meetings of the privileged people’s representatives. </li></ul><ul><li>La Generalitat is the most important institution of Catalonia. It was created at 1289. </li></ul>
  11. 11. THE CONSELL DE CENT <ul><li>El  Consell del Cent  was an institution of government in Barcelona city, established in the 13th century and it lasted until 18th century. Its name comes from the number of their members. They were 100. </li></ul>
  12. 12. THE JEWISH IN CATALONIA <ul><li>The Jewish immigration to Catalunya started in the XII century. </li></ul><ul><li>The Jewish were artisans, merchants, money lenders or hold posts in the royal court. </li></ul><ul><li>They were left on the sidelines and suffered discrimination: they were forced to wear a distinguishing mark on the clothes and to live in separated neighbourhoods, called Jewish quarters . </li></ul><ul><li>In the second half of the 14th century a series of persecutions of the Jewish took place , they were called PROGROMS . </li></ul><ul><li>“ Call”  </li></ul>
  13. 13. ROMANIC ART <ul><li>SCULPTURE : romanic sculpture was subordinated to the architecture and it was a decorative complement, but it also acquired a didactic function. </li></ul><ul><li>PAINTING :Catalonia has one of the richest samples of Romanic peninsular paintings . Scenes about Jesus’ life and Virgin Mary used to appear in the paintings. </li></ul><ul><li>ARCHITECTURE : In architecture Catalan Romanic Art adopted the presence of tall towers and the use of the basilical ground plan. Among the numerous examples outstand the group of churches in the Boi Valley, which are part of the humankind heritage. </li></ul>
  14. 14. GOTHIC CATALAN ART Civil gothic : Drassanes de Barcelona Painting: Mare de Déu dels Consellers Religious gothic: Església de Sta. Maria del Mar