Turks are migrating to Anatolia from Middle Asia in 11th century because of the hunger, famine and the wars in Central Asia
Rise of an Empire (1299–1453) <ul><li>Turks settled in Anatolia and Ottomans were founded in Söğüt in 1299 by Osman 1. We can say that a new baby was born. </li></ul>Osman 1 The founder of the Ottomans
Growth (1453–1683) The Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Mehmed II against the Byzantine Empire was the biggest step of the growth.
Expansion and apogee (1453–1566) The baby has grown and become a man. The strongest times of the Ottomans were shown in the map.(colourful parts)
Stagnation and reform (1683–1827) <ul><li>A series of wars were fought between the Russian and Ottoman empires from the 18th to the 19th century. By the mid-19th century, the Ottoman Empire was called the "sick man" by Europeans. </li></ul>It’s impossible to become the strongest forever. Ottomans are losing power.
Decline and modernization (1828–1908) Ottomans are getting old and losing power day by day. The map is getting smaller and smaller.
The important events <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>World War I (1914–1918) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>It started in 1914 and ended in 1918. 135 countries took part in World War I, and more than 15 million deaths happened in the war. GERMANY ITALY AUSTRIA AND HUNGARY RUSSIA ENGLAND FRANCE Ottomans fought in the Germany’s side in World War I Italy changed its group after a time and fought in the other pan of the scale.
OTTOMANS LOSES EXCEPT GALLIPOLI In the boxing matches one side wins and the other loses.Ottomans fought in different fronts but just won one battle in Gallipoli and lost the rest. World War I was much wilder than boxing. We hope all nations work for the protection of the peace.
Dissolution (1908–1922) We can say that Ottomans were cornered. Everywhere was unsafe for the Ottomans because of the Treaty of Sevres.That treaty cornered Ottomans.Losing its freedom or maybe its life was one step away for Ottomans. Unfortunateley history is full of violence for all nations. We wish peace forever for all nations. Anatolia was occupied by the winner nations for different reasons althogh the peace treaty after the World War I .
A HERO COMES TO THE WORLD FOR TURKS Mustafa Kemal ATATÜRK Turkish War of Independence (1919–1922) Atatürk started an independence war on 19th May 1919 and he became the leader of this movement. He was a soldier in the army who led the Gallipoli Battle and won that battle. He became famous after That victory and people trusted him and followed him.He had no hope that Ottoman Sultan can save the country and so he opened the Turkish Grand National Assembly.That was the first step of republic. He and his followers saved the Anatolia, after that he founded the Republic of Turkey on 29th of November 1923. That can be called the rebirth of a nation .
Rebirth of a Nation Like a tree turns into paper, like the sand turns into glass Ottomans turned into Turkey, and a new baby was born again. And the name of the baby is Republic of Turkey. Map of Turkey covered with Turkish flag.
Atatürk’s reforms… . Political Reforms: • Abolition of the Sultanate (1 November 1922) • Proclamation of the Republic (October 29, 1923) • Abolition of the Caliphate (3 March 1924) Opening of Parliament (23 April 1920) <ul><li>Social and Legal Reforms • Women had the same rights with the men (1926-1934) • Hat and Dress Revolution (November 25, 1925) </li></ul><ul><li>• Turkish Civil Code was formed and secularism was accepted in governing the state (1924-1937) </li></ul><ul><li>• International clock, calendar, and the length of acceptance of measurements (1925-1931) </li></ul><ul><li>the adoption of the new Turkish alphabet instead of Arabic alphabet (1 November 1928) </li></ul>Atatürk was a real reformist.
OTTOMAN SULTANS <ul><li>Osman I. (1299-1326) </li></ul><ul><li>Orhan I. (1326-1359) </li></ul><ul><li>Murad I. (1359-1389) </li></ul><ul><li>Beyazid I. (1389-1402) </li></ul><ul><li>Mehmed I. (1403-1421) </li></ul><ul><li>Murad II. (1421-1451) </li></ul><ul><li>Fatih Mehmed II. (1451-1481) </li></ul><ul><li>Beyazid II. (1481-1512) </li></ul><ul><li>Selim I. (1512-1520) </li></ul><ul><li>Süleyman I. (1520-1566) </li></ul><ul><li>Selim II. (1566-1574) </li></ul><ul><li>Murat III. (1574-1595) </li></ul><ul><li>Mehmed III (1595-1603) </li></ul><ul><li>Ahmed I. (1603-1617) </li></ul><ul><li>Mustafa I. (1617-1623) </li></ul><ul><li>Osman II.(1618-1622) </li></ul><ul><li>Murat IV. (1623-1640) </li></ul><ul><li>Ibrahim I. (1640-1648) </li></ul><ul><li>Mehmed IV. (1648-1687) </li></ul><ul><li>Süleyman II. (1687-1691) </li></ul>Ahmed II. (1691-1695) Mustafa II. (1695-1703) Ahmed III. (1703-1730) Mahmud I. (1730-1754) Osman III. (1754-1757) Mustafa III. (1757-1774) Abdülhamid I. (1774-1789) Selim III. (1789-1807) Mustafa IV. (1807-1808) Mahmud II. (1808-1839) Abdülmecid I. (1839-1861) Abdülaziz I. (1861-1876) Murat V. (1876) Abdülhamid II. (1876-1909) Mehmed V. Resad (1909-1918) Mehmed VI. Vahdettin (1918-1922 )
The most well-known Ottoman Sultans (1451-1481) (1512-1520) (1520-1566) Fatih Sultan Mehmet Yavuz Sultan Selim Kanuni Sultan Süleyman (Suleiman the Magnificent)
TURKISH PRESIDENTS OF TURKEY 1.Mustafa Kemal Atatürk 2.İsmet İnönü 3.Cemal Gürsel 4.Cevdet Sunay 5.Fahri Korutürk 6.Kenan Evren 7.Turgut Özal 8.Süleyman Demirel 9.Ahmet Necdet Sezer 10.Abdullah Gül
First President of Turkey Mustafa Kemal ATATÜRK <ul><li>Atatürk was born in 1881 and died in 1938. </li></ul><ul><li>He his the hero of Turkey and you can see his pictures and statues everywhere, in all classes at schools, in streets etc. </li></ul>
İsmet İnönü Second President of Turkey Atatürk and İsmet İnönü He was a commander and one of the of the heroes of the Independence War. He became the second president of Turkey. He played a very important role in gaining the victory.
Cemal Gürsel Third President of Turkey Cevdet Sunay Fourth President of Turkey Fahri Korutürk The fifth President of Turkey
1989-1993 Turgut Özal The seventh President of Turkey 1982-1989 Kenan Evren The sixth President of Turkey
Süleyman Demirel The eighth President of Turkey Ahmet Necdet Sezer The ninth President of Turkey
Abdullah Gül The tenth President of Turkey Recep Tayyip Erdoğan The Prime Minister of Turkey The Turkish Government at Present
Prepared by Fırat Özdemir Berat Çiçek Tolgahan Özdemir