National symbols The national flagThe national emblem Anthem
During the formation of the Polish country , lands amongthe Baltic Sea, the Vistula River, the Odra and the Notećbelonged to tribes of Mazowszanie, Polanie, Wiślanie,Lędzianie and Goplanie. These tribes are included to theWest Słowian Group. The lands of Poland at that timewere not much populated and there were mostly ruralareas. In the X th century the most powerful tribe wasPolanie. Around Gniezno and Poznań they have set theirown country. Under the reign of dukes from the PiastDynasty, the Polish history was born. A very importantevent this history was the Baptism, which took place inAD 966.
The first King of Poland The first crowned king of Poland was Bolesław Chrobry. He was Mieszko I crowned in 1025. He was a son of Mieszko I and Czech princess Dobrawa. His achievement is the Union in Gniezno in 1000.Bolesław Chrobry
The battle of GrunwaldIt was fought on 15 July in 1410. The Polish-Lithuanianarmy was fighting against the army of the TeutonicOrder. It was one of the biggest battles of medieval Europe,in which the Polish defeated the Teutonic Knights.
The XVII th century-a war century The symbol of great victories of Rzeczpospolita in XVII century were hussars. They were the main type of Polish army. The battle of Vienna (conflict with Russia and Turkey)
After many battles fought with Turkey, finally the hero appeared. He was hetman Jan III Sobieski, who was to be a king. He pushed away the Turkish army in Vienna in 1683. Swedish Deluge. In the summer in 1655 the Swedish army approached Poland. Most of the country was occupied, however the attack on Jasna Góra caused the war of the whole country. The war ended in making peace in Oliwa in 1660. According to it, the king of Poland Jan Kazimierz resigned his rights to Swedish throne.
Who wrote down the Polishhistory? I. Gall Anonim He was the author of the first Polish History Chronicle. II. Wincenty Kadłubek He is also the author of the Polish History Chronicles from legendary times to 1202. III. Jan Długosz
Wars of the XX th centuryPoland during the Ist World War /1914-1918/-Polish army sided with either theCentral Powers or the Entente. The Polishwanted to form their own divisions to takepart in the Ist World War in order to showtheir willingness to fight for theirindependence.
Józef Piłsudski was one of themost courageous and determinedpeople. He was the TemporaryChief of State from 1918, andbetween 1919 and 1922- the Chiefof State. He was in charge of thePolish army during the Polish-Bolsheviks War. He was also incharge when Poland was attackedby the Red Army, which wasspreading communism to the west.
The miracle at the Vistula It was a battle between 13th and 22nd August 1920 during the Polish- Bolsheviks War. The Polish army with the leader - Józef Piłsudski-has stopped and defeated the Red Army, as a result not only Poland but also Western Europe were rescued.
The Polish fighting abroad -the Home army (inPolish „Armia Krajowa”) with Władysław Anders incharge, the 10th Armoured Cavalry Brigade (pl„10 Brygada Kawalerii Pancernej”) with StanisławMaczek as a leader, the Polish IndependentCarpathian Brigade (pl „Samodzielna BrygadaStrzelców Karpackich”) which was led by thegeneral Zygmunt Szyszko-Bohusz, the PolishArmy with the general Zygmund Berling in charge.They fought in the west under the command ofWładysław Sikorski.
The Second World WarThe IInd World War was the most destructiveconflict in the human history. It involved almostthe whole world. Its results were enormous inPoland too. According to the official records,around 6 million Polish citizens died includingapproximately 3 million of the Jews and people ofJewish origin. The real number of casualties isdifficult to estimate because there were alsovictims of the Stalin’s terror and the furtherrepression after the war. The material damagewas around 38% of the National Wealth and a lotof cities were turned into ruins.
The Warsaw Uprising 1st August to 2nd October 1944. It was an armoured rebellion against the German Army which occupied Warsaw. It was organized by the Home Army as a part of the Operation Tempest (pl „Akcja Burza”). At the end of the uprising the rebels were defeated and thousands of people died, almost entire Warsaw was destroyed. But in fact, it was the evidence of courage and the best example of bravery and heroism of the Polish Nation.
The Polish oppression - times of Stalin and the Polish People’s Republic (in polish Polska Republika Ludowa - PRL).From 1944 to 1989 the communists were rulingPoland. The Polish People’s Republic was acountry fully depended on the Soviet Union. ThePolish United Worker’s Party („PolskaZjednoczona Partia Robotnicza” - PZPR) ruledthe PRL. The government was putting thecommunists’ ideas into practice. In the PRL therewere many social uprisings against thecommunists. They were put down violently andtook place between 1956 and 1970.
Between 1944 and 1989 Polandwasn’t a fully sovereign country.During these years authorities weregradually changing. The terror wasdecreased and a range of freedomwas broaden. Although it wasn’t thesame as in Western Europe. At thePRL times the society wasprotesting. These strikes weremainly connected with the politics:lack of sovereignty and freedom ofspeech; and with the economy: thelow standard of life.
A very important episode of those times was alegalizing of the Independent Self-governingTrade Union „Solidarity” (NiezależnySamorządny Związek Zawodowy- NSZZ„Solidarność”). It was an opposing organizationconsists of over 10 million people. Lech Wałęsawas in charge of it. In December 1990 hebecame the President of the Republic of Poland.He was chosen in the grand elections. He was apresident until 1995.
Martial LawWas announced in Poland on 13th December1991. Poland was ruled by the Military Council ofNational Salvation (pl Wojskowa Rada OcaleniaNarodowego) with Wojciech Jaruzelski as aleader. The official reason of The Martial Lawwas bad economic situation in the country.During that period around 10000 people wereimprisoned and interned. They were mostlyactivists from „Solidarity”. It finished in 1983.
The formation of the III Republic of Poland The first period of the III Republic of Poland /from 1990 to 2000/ was connected with building a legal basis of the independent and democratic country. 1990-the general elections for a president 1991-the parliamentary elections 1997-the Constitution was written Poland has a policy of good relations with all the countries especially the neighbouring ones. From 1999 Poland is a partner of NATO. From 2004 Poland is a part of the European Union.
Great and famous Polishpeople John Paul II (Karol Wojtyła) the Polish Pope from 16th October 1978 to 2nd April 2005. On 16th October 1978 the sensational news was revealed-the Cardinal Karol Wojtyła, archbishop of Cracow, was elected to be the Pope. He chose a new name - John Paul II. He was the first pope from many centuries who wasn’t Italian. To the Polish it was a source of pride, joy and hope. However the government of the PRL was completely astonished and panicked.
The Nobel Laureates Maria Curie-Skłodowska in the field of Physics in 1903, in Chemistry in 1911. Henryk Sienkiewicz in the field of Literature in 1905. Władysław Reymont in Literature in 1924.
The Nobel Laureates Czesław Miłosz in Literature in 1980. Lech Wałęsa won The Nobel Peace Prize in 1983. Wisława Szymborska in Literature in 1996.
Presidents of RP Wojciech Jaruzelski 19.07.1989 - 22.12.1990 Lech Wałęsa 22.12.1990 - 22.12.1995 Aleksander Kwaśniewski 22.12.1995 - 23.12.2005
Presidents of RP Lech Kaczyński 23.12.2005 - 10.04.2010 Bronisław Komorowski 06.08.2010