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SCOALA CU CLASELE I – VIII “SFANTUL ANDREI”                          SECONDARY SCHOOL “SAINT ANDREW”                      ...
RHYTM AND HARMONY    • "The man received the Gods with      pleasure feeling the rhythm and      harmony.    • The Gods th...
FOLK DANCES   PERINITA             GAMES WITH      SUMMER                          MASKS         CUSTOMS(the little pillow...
HORA                 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OnhSBe8diDo•   When the incoming Greek-speaking peoples arrived into t...
• Hora, plural Hore (same reading as  greek Horae), is the name of an  ancient circular dance, which  survived up to nowda...
• The Romanian circular dance called hora is a metaphor for the  community: the circle opens admittion nubile women, adole...
PERINITA         http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=px12Ec5iJtY• "Perinita" (the little pillow) is a distinctive Romanian  dan...
MORISCA              (the little mill)• In ancient times, dances were widely used in the passing rites such as  passing of...
THE PENGUIN DANCE         http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7MEN0cUZjSs• The penguin dance – is the latest fashion in  Romani...
BRASOVEANCA     http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KtMt_e366M•   Brasoveanca – it is     Brasoveanca - wedding dance    a pai...
GAMES WITH        MASKShttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bseN7ZMGBFs http://youtu.be/1W_I9EWL898             • In the framewo...
• In the primitive societies, the early forms of disguising,  masking appeared in the process of work and were  connected ...
• In Romania, particularly in the Vrancea area , but also in  Maramures, and seemingly in other parts of the country, as  ...
SUMMER CUSTOMS•   SANZIENE DANCE•   LAZARITELE       Its summer time in•   PAPARUDE         Romania, the sun is shining   ...
LAZARITELE• The fertility of the land is required by  the custom of "Lazaritele", a relict of  the ancient worship of the ...
PAPARUDE• In case of drought, the "Paparude", very  young gipsy girls, wearing only leaves, are  dancing and singing incan...
http://youtu.be/TX-tudjDNxQ       CUNUNA SECERISULUI• In many Romanian villages the harvest has had a feast  dedicated to ...
SANZIENE DANCE  http://youtu.be/d4P8wCoFGA0• On the 23rd of June, on the summer solstice, there is  the celebration of San...
CALUSULhttp://youtu.be/3Iw4FhBg_XY  http://youtu.be/8E-Z_ugiRnA
ORIGINS OF CALUSUL•   Dimitrie Cantemir, the king of Moldavia (1693, 1710-1711) and a remarkable    historian, wrote in hi...
ABOUT DANCE OF CALUSUL• A calusari group is active for only a ritually defined period of time during the  spring, and begi...
• The most important part, of what they do is the ritual    curing of delirium or paralysis caused by the possession by   ...
• The leader of the group is the one responsible for choosing and training any new members, and is also the keeper of the ...
• Now days, the "calusari", often accompanied by  a masked personage (the mute) carry clubs and  are performing dances of ...
PLOUGH           http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sB6a7dybzeI                     http://youtu.be/Ir-JWILveoE• In ancient ti...
"Plough" at Bucharest, Romania at the beginning of the 20th century
THE GOAT’S DANCE       http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bb_iVlPUQUQ                      http://youtu.be/VfrD6SV903s•   Goat...
CONCLUSIONS• We hope that you liked our traditional dances.• Now, many of these dances lost their first  significance , bu...
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Folklore & dances - Romania 2011

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Presentation of folk and traditional dances of Romania for Comenius Project "European Portfolio Musical."
Scoala cu clasele I-VIII ,,Sf. Andrei" Brăila
Str. Dudului, Nr. 2, Braila
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Folklore & dances - Romania 2011

  1. 1. SCOALA CU CLASELE I – VIII “SFANTUL ANDREI” SECONDARY SCHOOL “SAINT ANDREW” BRAILA, ROMANIA FOLK DANCES FROM ROMANIA MULTILATERAL PARTENERSHIP “EUROPEAN MUSICAL PORTOFOLIO” HEADMASTER: ROTARU CATALINA TEACHERS: MIHAI ADINA, BABES MARIAN, CRAIOVEANU AURELIA, MANCIULESCU CORNELIA, RADU IOANA This project This publication reflects the views only of the has been funded author, and the Commission cannot be held with support from responsible for any use which may be made ofthe European Commission the information contained therein
  2. 2. RHYTM AND HARMONY • "The man received the Gods with pleasure feeling the rhythm and harmony. • The Gods themselves were the conductors of their dances, and the name of the heart, Choros, derives naturally from the word which means happiness, chora" Platon, Laws, II, 653/4.
  3. 3. FOLK DANCES PERINITA GAMES WITH SUMMER MASKS CUSTOMS(the little pillow) HORA BRASOVEANCA MORISCA PENGUIN DANCECALUSUL GOAT’S DANCE PLOUGH
  4. 4. HORA http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OnhSBe8diDo• When the incoming Greek-speaking peoples arrived into the Balkan Peninsula, from the north, during the first millennium BC, they adopted the Pelasgian sacred mountain, Olimpus, which was guarded by the Pelasgian priestess of Hera, the amazons called Horai or Horae.• In the Iliad they were the custodians of the gates of Olympus. They are also the collective personification of justice. Hesoid, who saw them as givers of the law, justice and peace gave them the names Eunomia (Discipline), Dike (Justice) and Eirene (Peace).• The Horae became in the Greek mythology, the personifications of the seasons and goddesses of natural order.• In later mythology the Horae became the four seasons. When the day was divided into 12 equal parts, each of them took the name of Hora. Their yearly festival was the Horaia or Horaea.• The "hour" comes from Greek Hora, Pers. Houri, who kept the hours of the night by dances - the "ladies of the hour".
  5. 5. • Hora, plural Hore (same reading as greek Horae), is the name of an ancient circular dance, which survived up to nowdays in Romania.• In the ancient times, naked women danced it.• In Romania there were found three clay depictions of this dance, two of them having five dancers and one with six dancers.• The last one, which is the most famous, was found at Bodesti- Frumusica, in Moldavia. All of them are dating from 4000 - 3000 BC.• These objects have been used as crowns, during some ritual ceremonies.• So that you are looking at the oldest crowns ever found!
  6. 6. • The Romanian circular dance called hora is a metaphor for the community: the circle opens admittion nubile women, adolescent boys entering manhood, and those ending mourning; conversely, it shuts out anyone who has violated local moral standards. There are few patterns of dance steps.• The dancers, while facing the center, are stepping forward and backward, making the hora to resemble to either to a wave, or to a whirlpool, when they are doing quick steps in only one direction. Usually the dancers are moving more to the right, so that the circle moves counterclockwise.• The "entering into the hora", performed usually on Easter, marks the entering of the girl into the adolescence. The days before and after her wedding, the girl must dance into the hora, because the wedding rituals are accomplished through the magic of this dance which guarantees the abundance, the good luck and the divine blessing during the marriage.
  7. 7. PERINITA http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=px12Ec5iJtY• "Perinita" (the little pillow) is a distinctive Romanian dance of the kiss.• It is a hora dance, in which alternatively, men and women pick their partners from the circle of the dancers, for a short swirl, and a kiss upon the dance floor while kneeling in the middle of the hora, on a little pillow or on an embroidered handkerchief.• After the kissing, the last chosen will choose a new partner, while his former partner takes his place into the hora. This dance is performed on the night of the New Year and is the last hora on the wedding celebrations.
  8. 8. MORISCA (the little mill)• In ancient times, dances were widely used in the passing rites such as passing of the seasons, wedding celebrations and funerary celebrations. Such a passing rite was also the milling of the seeds. It has already been mentioned that the name of the Morris dance comes from the Romanian word morisca, which means "the little mill".• The Romanian word for mill is moara, which also means to die or dieing, while omoara means killing. Mara was the Hindu god of death and Moros was in Hesiods Theogonia, a "divine being whos mother was the night". The Romanian word moroi means ghost.• In the village of Nerej, Vrancea county from Romania, the participants to a funeral watch and play the funerary dance of farewell, around a brushwood fire which symbolizes the sacred fire of the hearth , and they wear masks.This dance is called the hora of death watch. The majority of masques are called "unchiaşi" (uncles). Other young boys are disguising into women, other into different animals such as the bear, and others into devils. All of them are dancing around the funerary fire.
  9. 9. THE PENGUIN DANCE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7MEN0cUZjSs• The penguin dance – is the latest fashion in Romanian’s wedding, being a dance and song of Finnish origins.• The Finnish dance is called “JENKA” and arrived in Romania, most probably by the Greek’s version, called “GIANKA”.• The Romanian sounds is also inspired from ’50s Finnish song.
  10. 10. BRASOVEANCA http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KtMt_e366M• Brasoveanca – it is Brasoveanca - wedding dance a pair dance, the from Brasov area pairs are dancing • And, three steps forward and three back on a rhythm which Thats Brasoveanca which we dance is becoming more Three steps forward and three back and more alert. Thats Brasoveanca which we dance The girl goes left than she passes right The girl goes left, thats Brasoveanca, hey! (Bis stanza) • That is how the girl dances Also on the left and right! And forward and back, As we dance!
  11. 11. GAMES WITH MASKShttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bseN7ZMGBFs http://youtu.be/1W_I9EWL898 • In the framework of traditional communities, the calendar cycle and its constituent moments are marked out by sets of customs, components of each communitys folk system. • The calendar used to organize the time from both a material and spiritual standpoint: the dates, moments and periods inscribed therein were not viewed as units of measure, but as units of quality assessment of the rhythm of time. • The calendar was the expression of this rhythm of time; it was, functionally speaking, a reference point for the peasants entire material and spiritual being.
  12. 12. • In the primitive societies, the early forms of disguising, masking appeared in the process of work and were connected with magic practices.• Archaic ceremonies would resort to dance, pantomime, music, pictorial and sculptural elements, poetic text, in actual fact to a complex of syncretic, typically folk, elements imitating an action.• The characteristic element embodying this metamorphosis was the mask. The use of mask in theatrical representations facilitates the recognition of a characters scenic function; the mask is a formalized accessory that makes the person who wears it to acquire an identity and a precise signification, according to a given custom.• Individual occupations, productive activities as well as the principal moments of a mans life - birth, marriage and death - are rigorously ordered in the calendar by a system of customs marked by fixed or changeable dates, with free intervals and periods of interdiction, which are ultimately based on a different system that coordinates and articulates that communitys whole life and activity, namely religious system.
  13. 13. • In Romania, particularly in the Vrancea area , but also in Maramures, and seemingly in other parts of the country, as well games with anthropomorphic masks have been practiced of old and vigil time, at the funerary ceremonial that preceded the burial of the dead. Some specialists would see in it the group of dead old men meeting the newly deceased one get, there also exists a zoomorphic vigil goat mask, in which the performer used to lament for the dead until the assistance would chase him away.• As known, a close connection exists between funerary and fertility rites; however, one should not overlook the importance of the Christian burial ceremonial, the gravity of this act and the exigency of the church and the faithful in this matter.• The old form of the relationship between the goats old man and the goat itself, as played at vigil time, has developed into the modern old man – old woman couple, which diversifies the image of our ancestors while protecting the community and defending fertility.
  14. 14. SUMMER CUSTOMS• SANZIENE DANCE• LAZARITELE Its summer time in• PAPARUDE Romania, the sun is shining and one can even smell the• CUNUNA ripped corn and the newly made bread. Summer SECERISULUI customs seem to be magic rituals meant to protect the crops.
  15. 15. LAZARITELE• The fertility of the land is required by the custom of "Lazaritele", a relict of the ancient worship of the sun: young girls are going from house to house, wishing abundance and good health to the hosts.
  16. 16. PAPARUDE• In case of drought, the "Paparude", very young gipsy girls, wearing only leaves, are dancing and singing incantation meant to bring rain. http://youtu.be/k5ig9-Djfxw
  17. 17. http://youtu.be/TX-tudjDNxQ CUNUNA SECERISULUI• In many Romanian villages the harvest has had a feast dedicated to it called "Cununa Secerissului" or "Cununa" because of the traditional wreath made of twisted ears of corn worn by girls on their heads. The group of girls go to all the houses in the village, praising the peoples labour and expressing their joy for the new bread. As a matter of fact ears of corn and grain appear figuratively in a lot of picturesque elements of Romanian folklore and so do flowers on either wooden objects, fabrics or ceramics.
  18. 18. SANZIENE DANCE http://youtu.be/d4P8wCoFGA0• On the 23rd of June, on the summer solstice, there is the celebration of Sanziene or Rusalii, who are the fairies protecting the crops and are dancing in the air, over the fields and forests. During this day, women are dancing in a hora, having at its middle buckets with water, flowers and personal objects, as offerings to the fairies.
  19. 19. CALUSULhttp://youtu.be/3Iw4FhBg_XY http://youtu.be/8E-Z_ugiRnA
  20. 20. ORIGINS OF CALUSUL• Dimitrie Cantemir, the king of Moldavia (1693, 1710-1711) and a remarkable historian, wrote in his work "Descriptio Moldaviae", about the so called caluczeni telling us that they gathered in groups of 7, 9 or 11, wearing woman clothing and making their voices to sound like the women ones.• They were jumping as if they were flying, with their swords in hands. They were treating the sick ones, and if they killed somebody, they were not punished.• The Caluczenii had to fulfill their ritual duties for nine years, otherways they were punished by the spirits.• The Romanian folklorist Fochi Adrian wrote: "They are bound to remain into the calus for 3, 5 or 9 years. They are worshiping three fairies left by God to punish the humans (...). If one of them gets sick during the calus, they go to find other group of calusari, where all of them, are trying to remove the sickness of their comrade, with dances and tours around him."
  21. 21. ABOUT DANCE OF CALUSUL• A calusari group is active for only a ritually defined period of time during the spring, and begins with a ceremony called "raising the flag," which is performed secretly and includes the members swearing oaths to the group and its leader.• During the period of calus, the members are bound by a taboo against any sexual contact with women, and married members must live apart from their wives.• There is always an old number of men in a group. In addition to the dancing, the group also does skits very much like the folk theater.
  22. 22. • The most important part, of what they do is the ritual curing of delirium or paralysis caused by the possession by wood or water nymphs, or fairies.• Before performing this ritual, one of the members draws a magic circle around the group with his sword.• The space inside is considered a sacred space, and no one else is permitted to enter except the person being cured.• The leader would divine the specific taboo that had been violated by the victim, and pick the dance appropriate to it.• After the dance, the cure culminated in the breaking of an earthenware jar next to the sick person, destroying the evil spirits.• Sometimes one of the calusari would then become possessed as the victim recovers. He would then be revived by one of the many types of death and resurrection skits that are a large part of the folk theater. Again, many of these have humorous and bawdy aspects.
  23. 23. • The leader of the group is the one responsible for choosing and training any new members, and is also the keeper of the mysteries, passing the secrets orally to his successor. Kligman says that one retired leader would not reveal any of the secrets even though there was no longer a group in his village, but indicated that he still had to pass on the knowledge.
  24. 24. • Now days, the "calusari", often accompanied by a masked personage (the mute) carry clubs and are performing dances of great virtuosity. The unexpected developments of the dance are accompanied by "strigaturi" (humorous or satirical verse chanted during the dance) and the tunes sung by the groups of interpreters.• In Slatina, every year opens the competition of "calusari", presenting the distinct style of each separate team of dancers. Thrilling competitions of virtuosity are interrupted by solo dancers, some of whom are very old men, and even children who have inherited their parents’ talent.
  25. 25. PLOUGH http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sB6a7dybzeI http://youtu.be/Ir-JWILveoE• In ancient times, the New Year was celebrated at the end of March.• The Plough rituals are coming from that period, but changed the date together with the change of the calendar.• Plough is celebrated on the 31st of December. On this occasion, people are walking with the plough, from house to house, telling greetings of prosperity for the year to come.
  26. 26. "Plough" at Bucharest, Romania at the beginning of the 20th century
  27. 27. THE GOAT’S DANCE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bb_iVlPUQUQ http://youtu.be/VfrD6SV903s• Goats dance is very old and practiced on a large scale in South – Eastern Europe.• In Romania it is known in the village all regions of the country, with several names: Capra (Goat), Turca, Brezaia. The dance has deep symbolical meanings – goat was an animal worshiped in ancient times so it is associated with fertility cult.• Its behavior around New Year is premonitory one in relation to the abundance or troubles that follow. Therefore, the happy dance of goat ensures wealth in the coming year.• Children are particularly engaged in this dance. There are 2 or 3 dancers - one of them are completely masked and covered with colored clothes, other two are appointed shepherds and play the flute or recite comic texts to the goat which is dancing.• The mask was made earlier from animal skins. Today, the fabrics materials are used to achieve it crepe paper, tassels, bells. The head is made of hard wood where the skins of animals are glide. Lower jaw is mobile, so that a noise is produced in the rhythm of the dance.
  28. 28. CONCLUSIONS• We hope that you liked our traditional dances.• Now, many of these dances lost their first significance , but there are still danced on the important events: marriage, birth or other events.• Many people knew these dances and they are transmitted from generation to generation until these days.

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