Global Forest Policy and Politics:Current Trends, Issues and Future Directions  Implications for Community Forestry in Asi...
OutlineI.     Global Forest Policy: Competing       Narratives, Evolving Political DynamicsII.    Key Driving Forces and T...
UN Conference on Environment and       Development (Rio 1992)• Laid the foundation for global environmental governance   –...
NLBI: Global Objectives1.   Reverse the loss of forest cover worldwide through     sustainable forest management (SFM),2. ...
Key Narratives Threads and Debates         in Global Forest Policy• Global vs. national/local values; authority to  decide...
Dynamics of Global Forest Politics• Fragmented policy regime (multiplicity of forums)• Widened interest group participatio...
Drivers of Forest Policy and Politics                              • Originate mainly from outside the                    ...
Decreasing Absolute Poverty, Growing Middle             Class, Increasing Inequality• 75% Global GDP growth (1992-2010), f...
Contribution of the Forestry Sector        as a Percentage of GDP in the          World by Subregion,2006            WORLD...
Demand for Land for Food, Fuel, Carbon•   7 billion people (2011); projected 9.1 billion by 2050•   2.7 billion people usi...
Climate change put forests back on          the global agenda• Recognition of the role of forests in climate change  mitig...
Empowerment of Indigenous Peoples and        Forest Communities          • Expansion of area under control of Indigenous  ...
Deforestation continues but at a slower pace• 13 million hectares of forest lost per year from 2000 to 2010• Increase in p...
Area of Forests in the World by                   Subregion, 1990, 2000, and 2010                 1200000                 ...
Forest Trends in the Asia Pacific Region                  Area of Planted Forests in                                      ...
Owned by individuals and                  Distribution of Forest Land Tenure                                 firms - 6%   ...
Contribution of the Forestry Sector as                                                Employment in primary           a Pe...
• Asia-Pacific fastest growing region since mid-1970s, has largest and  fastest growing middle class• Sovereign wealth fun...
Opportunities for Community Forestry• Move towards “Green Economy”   – Appropriate scale not economies of scale   – Locali...
Conditions for Success of Community     Forestry in Asia and Elsewhere• Protection and enforcement of rights• Strengthened...
Making CF a Viable Business Model         • Secure tenure over land and           resources         • Removing discriminat...
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Doris Capistrano ppt

  1. 1. Global Forest Policy and Politics:Current Trends, Issues and Future Directions Implications for Community Forestry in Asia Pacific Doris Capistrano Advisor ASEAN-Swiss Partnership on Social Forestry and Climate Change First Dr. Somsak Sukwong Annual Lecture Katsetsart University June 5, 2012
  2. 2. OutlineI. Global Forest Policy: Competing Narratives, Evolving Political DynamicsII. Key Driving Forces and TrendsIII. Implications for Community Forestry, particularly in Asia-Pacific
  3. 3. UN Conference on Environment and Development (Rio 1992)• Laid the foundation for global environmental governance – UN Convention on Climate Change – UN Convention on Biological Diversity – UN Convention on Desertification – Rio Declaration and Agenda 21• But no legally binding agreement on forests – Statement of Forest Principles – Created Intergovernmental Panel/Forum on Forests  Non-legally Binding Forest Instrument (NLBI) agreed in 2007; UNFF to negotiate a legally binding agreement in 2015
  4. 4. NLBI: Global Objectives1. Reverse the loss of forest cover worldwide through sustainable forest management (SFM),2. Enhance forest-based economic, social and environmental benefits,3. Increase significantly the area of protected forests worldwide and other areas of sustainably managed forests,4. Reverse the decline in official development assistance for sustainable forest management and mobilize significantly increased, new and additional financial resources
  5. 5. Key Narratives Threads and Debates in Global Forest Policy• Global vs. national/local values; authority to decide on forests• Conservation vs. development• Mix of forest products and services• Role of the state; voluntary standards vs. regulation Competing narratives about forests, people andhow to achieve Sustainable Forest Management(SFM)
  6. 6. Dynamics of Global Forest Politics• Fragmented policy regime (multiplicity of forums)• Widened interest group participation (beyond States) – Civil Society, Indigenous Peoples, Private Sector, Research, etc. – Consultative processes , multi-stakeholder mechanisms – Diffused leadership and influence in agenda setting• Dominance of market approaches – Creation of new property rights and markets to address environmental and equity issues – Payments for ecosystem services (e.g. REDD)• “Greening” of the corporate sector – Voluntary standards, certification, roundtables – Use of technology and innovation – Corporate political influence, bias in favor of concessions
  7. 7. Drivers of Forest Policy and Politics • Originate mainly from outside the forest sector Global Food Price Index 1990-2012 • Key drivers in recent years include: Source: FAO250.0 – Economic and demographic Trends200.0 – Renewed concerns about food security150.0 – Climate change, role of forests in100.0 mitigation and adaptation 50.0 – Empowerment of Indigenous Peoples and Communities 0.0 – Governance reforms (NFPs, FLEG, etc.) 1996 2000 2004 2008 1990 1992 1994 1998 2002 2006 2010 2012 Shifting balance of power; changing narratives
  8. 8. Decreasing Absolute Poverty, Growing Middle Class, Increasing Inequality• 75% Global GDP growth (1992-2010), fastest in middle income countries• GDP pc in high income countries 30x that of low income countries• Global GDP expected to grow 5x from US$60 to US300 trillion by 2030• Emerging economies will contribute 2/3 of global growth by 2030 Economic power shifting from “West” to “East” notably to Asia 2 billion forest dwelling people among the poorest, with unmet expectations of justice and development
  9. 9. Contribution of the Forestry Sector as a Percentage of GDP in the World by Subregion,2006 WORLD SOUTH AMERICA OCEANIA NORTH AMERICA CENTRAL AMERICA CARIBBEANEUROPE (with Russia) Employment in primary production ASIA of forest goods, 2005 AFRICA Rest of the East Asia 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Russian World 12.4% Federation 16.8% Percentage of GDP 4.3% Western Asia 0.5% Central Asia 0.4% South Asia Southeast 61.3% Asia 4.4% Source: FAO 2011
  10. 10. Demand for Land for Food, Fuel, Carbon• 7 billion people (2011); projected 9.1 billion by 2050• 2.7 billion people using biomass energy for fuel• 4.9 billion hectares of agricultural land (2009)• 2.2% growth in agricultural production (1997 – 2007)• Agro-industrial plantation on community and indigenous landsSince 2008, about 1000% increase in “land-grabbing”-- over 240 million hectares, mostly in forest lands (ILO 2011; RRI 2012) Call for more integrated approach to landscape management
  11. 11. Climate change put forests back on the global agenda• Recognition of the role of forests in climate change mitigation and adaptation• Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD)• Reversed declining donor funding for forests – Adaptation funding doubled since 1990 but make up only 3% of total aid commitment – Funding over-estimated, mostly relabeling and repackaging of aid Source: Michaelowa (2011)
  12. 12. Empowerment of Indigenous Peoples and Forest Communities • Expansion of area under control of Indigenous Peoples and communities – Globally, from 10% in 2002 to 15% today – In developing countries, from 21% in 2002 to 31% • Over 50 laws recognizing rights since 1992, mostly in Latin America • UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (2007); FAO Guidance on Tenure Reform (2012) • Representation in international bodies, steering committees and governing boards  But still gap between rhetoric and implementation Source: RRI (2012)
  13. 13. Deforestation continues but at a slower pace• 13 million hectares of forest lost per year from 2000 to 2010• Increase in planted forests, especially in Asia-Pacific• Expansion of protected areas Net forest loss of 5.2 million hectares annually Source: FAO
  14. 14. Area of Forests in the World by Subregion, 1990, 2000, and 2010 1200000 1000000Area (1000 ha) 800000 600000 400000 200000 Series1 0 Series2 Area of Planted Forests in the World Series3 by subregion, 1990, 2000, and 2010 140000 120000 100000 80000 60000 Area (1000 ha) 40000 Subregion 20000 Series1 0 Series2 Series3 subregion
  15. 15. Forest Trends in the Asia Pacific Region Area of Planted Forests in • Asia-Pacific has 18% of global forest area Asia, by subregion, 1990, 2000, and 2010 • Forests in China, Australia, India, Indonesia 100000 and Myanmar account for 70% 90000 80000 • Annual deforestation of 0.7 millionArea (1000 ha) 70000 60000 50000 40000 hectares/ year (1990) 30000 Series1 20000 • Forest planting, regeneration 1.4 million 10000 Series2 0 Series3 hectares annually (2000-2010) • Gain in forest cover in subregion China, India, Vietnam, Philippines and Bhutan  Granting tenure and rights key factor in forest planting and regeneration
  16. 16. Owned by individuals and Distribution of Forest Land Tenure firms - 6% Asia-Pacific, 2008 Administered by government Owned by communities and indigenous groups - Designated for use by communities and 24% indigenous groups Owned by communities and indigenous Administered by groups Designated for use by government - 67% communities and Owned by individuals and firmsindigenous groups - 3% Source: Dahal et al (2011); RRI (2012)
  17. 17. Contribution of the Forestry Sector as Employment in primary a Percentage of GDP in Asia by production of forest goods, 2005 Subregion,2006 Russian Western Asia East Asia Federation Rest of the 12.4% 4.3% World 16.8%Southeast Asia Western Asia 0.5% Central South Asia Asia 0.4% East Asia Southeast South Asia Asia 61.3% Central Asia 4.4% 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 Percentage of GDP Source: FAO 2011
  18. 18. • Asia-Pacific fastest growing region since mid-1970s, has largest and fastest growing middle class• Sovereign wealth funds ($3.6 trillion in 2010) expected to be increasingly invested in Emerging Economies
  19. 19. Opportunities for Community Forestry• Move towards “Green Economy” – Appropriate scale not economies of scale – Localization of economy not globalization – Cooperation for the best not competition for the cheapest• Greater attention to social-environmental safeguards, expected flow of investment funds• Bonn Challenge (UNCBD/UNFCCC/IUCN) – Goal of restoring 150 million hectares degraded forests by 2020 – Require doubling rate of afforestation, regeneration and agroforestry
  20. 20. Conditions for Success of Community Forestry in Asia and Elsewhere• Protection and enforcement of rights• Strengthened policies and systems of support for CF and CF enterprises• Capacity and opportunities for investment and reinvestment in CF• Pro-poor governance reforms• Equitable sharing of benefits of SFM/ CF
  21. 21. Making CF a Viable Business Model • Secure tenure over land and resources • Removing discriminatory barriers against CF and small producers • Access to finance, markets, technology, assis tance with contracts, information • Scaling up through partnerships, federations, associati ons and hybrid models
  22. 22. Thank You

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