Sample study - Methodology, Analysis, and Conclusion Chapters
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.2 Research Design
3.2.1 Research Purpose
3.2.2 Research Approach
3.2.3 Research Strategy
3.3 Population and Sampling Design
The population of a study basically refers to the total number of people in the form of a
thorough headcount of all elements the findings of the study seeks to represent (Sekaran, 2003).
A clearly defined population ensures that the results and findings apply to the correct category
of elements in the society. Considering that the study basically assesses the factors that affect
the motivation of workers in the UAE construction industry and other ways of enhancing
productivity through employee motivation, the population of the study is all construction
workers of UAE. In order to be able to pay closer attention to construction companies in a
thorough assessment of motivation factors, the multiple case study strategy presents the
construction workers of the two selected companies are main population under study. As
mentioned, whereas one construction company is large and widely networked in the UAE
construction industry, the other is comparably small in terms of workforce and assets.
3.3.2 Sampling method
Due to limited resources, there is almost always the need to sample respondents for any
investigation (Saunders et al. 2007). It may be added that it is not practical to use the whole
population to conduct the survey since that process takes a lot of effort and consumes a lot of
time. The term “Sample” is part picked from the whole set of data, which is called “population”
to reflect the responses of the whole population (Denscomble, 2010). “Once you have decided
the technique for collecting your fieldwork data and you have thought about what to ask, you
should be ready to decide on the characteristics of the respondents” (Naoum, 2007).Saunders
at al. (2007) add that the size of the sample may impact on the extent of significance of
relationship between variables of the study. Whereas a small sample size may not be
representative, a sample size too large can create the perception of significance of a non-
existing relationship. Irrespective of these, it is representative to select a sample size
appropriate for the study with the use of a method that offered each other equal chance of
selection. It must be noted that the two companies were conveniently selected due to the easy
access to data by the researcher.
Company A has a total of 30000 workers, of which 3000 are professionals. Company A was
established in 1967 and it operates in 11 countries and has 14 offices throughout the Middle
East. The annual turnover of company A is worth 1.4$ billion. The study took one of the
projects of company A during working hours and a sample of 35 workers, which was picked
randomly from a total of about 200 workers. The reason of not having an exact figure of the
total present workforce is the continuous change of the number of workers present at the site
due to the changes in type of operation. The other company, company B, has a total of 1000
workers, of which 75 are professionals. It was established in 2005 and it operates in one country
(United Arab Emirates); it has two offices throughout the United Arab Emirates in Abu Dhabi
& Dubai. The study visited company B workers accommodation after working hours. A sample
of 85 workers was conveniently selected from a total present figure of 350 workers. The total
of responses that were taken in the study is 97. The other responses were not taken into
consideration because of missing data and uncompleted surveys.
After quantitative data collection, another sample of top management employees were selected
by purposive sampling technique. Purposive sampling of top management was necessary in
order to ensure that respondents had adequate knowledge on the area of employee motivation
and productivity, as mentioned by Creswell (2009). A total of 11 top management employees
were therefore selected for interview discussions. In summary, two samples were selected from
both case study companies. Data from interviews significantly supported and paved way for
understanding of measures that are instituted by both companies to motivate workers.
Questionnaire on the other hand helped identify the real needs of the workers and to find out
whether the current motivational measures are desirable by them.
3.4 Sources of Data Collection
Cooper and Schindler (2006) assert that two main sources of data exist. These sources of data
are primary and secondary data sources. The study implements both primary and secondary
data in answering research questions (Table 3.2). Both data sources contribute to the objectives
and helped generate conclusions and recommendations.
3.4.1 Primary Sources
The various forms of data collection are explained: hence, the study adopts a questionnaire and
an interview guide as instruments for data collection in a joint qualitative and quantitative
approach. The survey strategy of study administration permits the collection of data from a
wide range of responses. The large mode of data collected helps gather enough evidence that
helped establish conclusions for the study. Yin (2003) argues that the survey strategy permits
the collection of a large amount of data which are later analyzed with the help of the appropriate
statistical modules towards founding of conclusions.
Primary data was gathered from management and operational level workers from 2 different
companies randomly selected through purposive sampling. Primary data basically includes the
data collected by interacting with workers and management of these companies. Zikmund
(2003) describes primary data as data gathered for the central purpose of a study. Collecting
primary data helped to enhance understanding and implementation of direct evaluation of the
subject using a survey questionnaire and an interview guide. For the purpose of this study
information was gathered from 97 construction workers in UAE using the survey questionnaire
(Appendix A-F) whereas 11 managerial workers were interviewed using the interview guide
(Appendix G & H).
The questionnaire was used in order to ensure the regularity of information on all factors that
affect the motivation of workers. The questionnaire collects data in an organized or structured
way whereas the interview collects data in a rather semi structured format. The interview
guide’s semi structured format was to make it easier to collect information on how employee
motivation is regarded and managed which the researcher thinks may not be strictly in
agreement with any of the factors discussed in the literature review of this study.
The survey questionnaire covered 4 main dimensions of physical, psychological, economic,
and organizational factors (Appendix A-F). All items and individual factors measured were
adequately discussed under the literature review section of the study. The various dimensions
were based on Kazaz et al. (2010) exploratory study to determine factors that influence workers
motivation in the construction sector, done with the help of 82 construction companies. A total
of 10 items were placed under physical dimension, 12 items under psychological factors, 10
under organizational factors, and finally 6 items under economic dimension.
Interview guide (Appendix G & H) was divided into two main sections with regards to mode
of answer required. Whereas the first seventeen open ended questions pertained to the
discussion of physical, psychological, economic, and organizational factors. Another 26 closed
ended questions were asked to re-enforce the various dimensions and items presented and
discussed under the questionnaire. The interview guide went a step ahead to investigate
management commitment to motivate construction workers towards enhanced performance.
3.4.2 Secondary sources of data
Secondary Data Sources may be referred to as data that is not originally gathered by the study,
and help in some way to arrive at a conclusion for the study. Secondary data sources according
to Sekaran (2003) are derived from data that is already in existence. Secondary data for this
study was acquired from a variety of online databases of journals, books, year projects by past
students of the institution, and other such sources. Secondary data was very instrumental in
gathering primary data to in the bid to find solutions to the study’sresearch questions.
Documentations on management attempts to install policies that significantly motivate
employees were requested. Other secondary data on employee satisfaction survey conducted
internally were requested.
3.5 Data Collection Administration
It may be mentioned that a pilot study was conducted to find out the appropriateness and
applicability of the scales to the study. Pilot studies assist in instituting measures and
constraints, clarity of directives, and help to determine the right level of the independent
variable (Teijlingen van et al., 2001). In all, 20 employees conveniently selected from UAE
construction companies were selected. Pilot study was also conducted to investigate the
understanding of the questions by the construction workers. On the whole, participants did not
show much signs of difficulty in answering questions on the survey questionnaire. The pilot
study also helped identify which languages that must be used for main data collection. After
the pilot study, a number of questions were adjusted to make them more understandable to
respondents. Main questionnaire administration was also offered in five different languages
including, English, Malayam, Hindi, Tamil and Urdu. Fundamentally, this preliminary
investigation was helpful in the understanding of the possible challenges to be expected during
the main data collection stage of the study
Fieldwork and data collection
In order to gain permission for data collection, a Student Identity (ID) card of Girne American
University used. To request a permission to collect data from respondents. The Student ID card
helped also to gain consent of individual workers towards contributing to data required for
answering research questions. Consent was also sought from each individual respondent
particularly before they were allowed to complete any instrument. Questionnaires were
personally administered by the researcher to selected respondents. Where needed, explanations
had to be offered to a few number of respondents who experience difficulties in completing the
3.6 Data Analysis Techniques
Quantitative data analysis was done with the help of IBM SPSS Statistics (SPSS) software
version 20 and Microsoft Office Excel 2013. Quantitative data collected was first coded and
entered into IBM SPSS to pave way for easy analysis. Descriptive aspects of the findings were
presented with the help of tables and graphs alongside other descriptive statistical indicators.
Qualitative data was manually coded by the researcher (Appendix J). This significantly
reduced the amount of data available for analysis. Qualitative data was analyzed alongside
quantitative data in a concurrent triangulation approach to mixed methodologies.
Whereas coded data permitted the reduction of errors in analysis, the use of a likert scale
permitted easiness of quantitative data analysis. Likert scales present a quantitative approach
to the assessment of significance between any two or more variables of the study (Creswell,
2009). Saunders et al (2007) add that the use of likert scales for quantitative data collection
permit the expression of responses over a degree of opinion or no opinion at all.
3.7 Limitations of methodology and ethical considerations
It may be observed first and foremost that the present study is geographically limited and
confined to the United Arab Emirates, Abu Dhabi city. An important limitation however is the
limited amount of time offered to complete the present study by the researcher’s institution. A
time table was maintained in order to overcome such limitations pertaining to interim
submissions and maintenance of other milestones necessary to complete the study in time. It
was critical to establish a timetable with pre-determined achievable milestones in an attempt to
keep track of vial activities that are fundamental in meeting necessary deadlines of project. The
researcher’s busy work schedule also served as a major obstacle in this area. Other important
challenges such as the time allocation to each questionnaire and interview administration was
altered due to experience gained from the pilot study. Other implications of the methodology
to findings are discussed in the next chapter.
Strict code of ethics as outlines by Girne American University was observed. Creswell (2009)
argue that ethical considerations must be an integral aspect of any particular study. Dependable
ethical principles were observed in the course of conducting the research. Saunders et al. (2009)
add that gaining permission and consent to collect data is a very important aspect of any study.
All data collection instruments were therefore made to contain an informed consent form. Prior
to data collection however, a student ID card with request latter was submitted to the two
companies for their approval as previously mentioned. In addition to this, personal data
pertaining to any of the respondents were not collected. Interview questions were as well
submitted to respondents ahead of time before face-to-face discussion.
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS
In this chapter, primary data collected is summarized. Whereas quantitative data collected with
the help of the survey questionnaire is presented with the help of tables, graphs and brief
explanations, qualitative data narrated concurrently the data and will answers the research, as
discussed in the previous chapter. Where relevant, relationships are tested for significance
between variables, with the help of statistical software and techniques, towards providing
answers to the research questions. The chapter begins with a discussion of the demographics
of primary data collection; it then proceeds to discuss findings in context of the research
questions. After the presentation of data findings, discussions and implications of findings to
theory and practice are also discussed. Other implications of the methodology and limitations
are as well discussed. Presentation and discussion of findings is critical to the achievement of
Out of data collected with the help of the questionnaire, 14 were in Urdu Language, 55 in
Malayalam, and the rest in Hindi language. Most of the workers were from India (83%), a few
others were from Pakistan (8%) and Bangladesh (6%). Most workers were between the ages of
18 to 30 years (54%). This was closely followed by the age group of 30 to 40 years (29%).
Responsive rate of the study was 80.83%.
Table 4.1 Worker Centred Demographics
Country of Origin
Pakistan 8 8.2 8.2 8.2
Bangladesh 6 6.2 6.2 14.4
India 83 85.6 85.6 100
18-30 54 55.7 55.7 55.7
31-40 29 29.9 29.9 85.6
41-50 14 14.4 14.4 100
Total 97 100 100
Other demographics collected and pertaining to occupational related demographics are
presented in Table 4.2 below. Considering the fact that ETA is comparably larger than ACC,
73% of the respondents came from ETA. This is in light of representativeness of data to the 2
corporations selected for the study and the fact that limited respondents were available in ACC
whereas more were available and accessible in ETA.
Table 4.2 Company Related demographic
ACC 26 26.8 26.8 26.8
ETA 71 73.2 73.2 100
Type of Work
Steel fixer 4 4.1 4.1 4.1
Mason 37 38.1 38.1 42.3
Foreman 12 12.4 12.4 54.6
1 1 1 55.7
9 9.3 9.3 64.9
Electrician 27 27.8 27.8 92.8
Driver 4 4.1 4.1 96.9
Carpenter 3 3.1 3.1 100
0-3 years 26 26.8 26.8 26.8
3-5 years 17 17.5 17.5 44.3
Years working in this field 5-8 years 19 19.6 19.6 63.9
8-12 years 13 13.4 13.4 77.3
22 22.7 22.7 100
Years working with this
0-3 years 34 35.1 35.1 35.1
3-5 years 23 23.7 23.7 58.8
5-8 years 19 19.6 19.6 78.4
8-12 years 12 12.4 12.4 90.7
9 9.3 9.3 100
Total 97 100 100
Many of the respondents interviewed were of the mason profession, other professions such as
labor, filler, and helper were categorized under the broader mason category of work which
made up to 37 respondents (38.1%). The next dominated profession was electrician, this
accounted for close to 28% of total respondents. To add to that, a high number of respondents
had worked in the same field for the past three years (26.8%), others had worked more than 12
years in the same field (22.7%). Analyzing the years spent in the same category of work and
the years spent working with the company reveals that even though many had worked in the
same work category for a long time, these people had more likely not worked for the company
in question (22 workers in the same kind of work for more than 12 years but only 9 workers
had been with that particular company for the same period).
4.3 Descriptive data: Main factors influencing construction workers’ motivation
Key areas of investigation in the quest for factors that affect workers motivation include
psychological, physical, organizational, and economic factors. Data presented is therefore
presented under these sub headings. There was the need to investigate the level of internal
consistency between items under the same dimensions.
Table 4.3 Reliability tests for dimensions
Dimension Cronbach's Alpha N of Items
Physical .288 12
Psychological .622 14
Organizational .538 13
Economic .075 10
It may therefore be noted that responses pertaining to psychological items followed by the
organizational dimension. Economic items/dimension were least reliable.
As elaborated in the methodology, 9 items were investigated under physical dimension. It may
be noted at this point that more than one question may pertain to any single item as a factor
under any of the dimensions discussed. Many workers agreed that keeping them in their
designated position important to their motivation; a total of 79.4% rates this statement as
important. The second dimension tested project design; a total of 85 respondents against 12
respondent who thought project design is not important.
Figure 4.1 Keep working in similar activity Figure 4.2 Project design is important
Majority of them also agreed that project complexity is very important (Figure 4.3); a total of
71% rated it as important – the third item under physical factors. Pertaining to the fourth item
on the questionnaire, respondents believed that minor mistakes should be pardoned (65%),
others believed that minor mistakes must be pardoned depending on the type of mistake (34%).
The fifth physical dimension pertained to the availability of rules about weather work
conditions; 98% were positive of the existence of weather work conditions. Out of the total,
76% further agreed that rules on weather conditions did contribute to motivation. Productivity
disruptions and pressures are other issues that affect worker motivation.
Figure 4.3 Project Design Complexity Figure 4.4 Minor mistakes be forgiven
Figure 4.5 Weather work conditions (WWC) exist Figure 4.6 WWC add to productivity
Figure 4.7 Productivity disruptions Figure 4.8 Productivity Pressures
Dimension six (disruptions) and seven (pressure) presented in Figure 4.7 and 4.8. The last
three items under the physical dimension is overtime, shift, and crowded site and its impact on
Figure 4.9 Availability of overtime Figure 4.10 Importance of overtime
Figure 4.11 Shift Affect productivity Figure 4.12 Crowdedness affect productivity
It may be noted that aside the impact of crowdedness on productivity, respondents generally
agreed that the other factors such as overtime and shift does affect motivation and productivity
of construction workers. Respondents were basically neutral whether crowdedness affect
A total of 11 items were investigated under the psychological dimension. The first item had to
do with discipline whereas the second item had to do with safety guidelines. About 80% had
safety guidelines installed, out of this 75% claimed that such guidelines are very important.
Another 56.7% mentioned that discipline is important to productivity.
Figure 4.13 Discipline & productivity Figure 4.14 Safety guidelines & productivity
Figure 4.15 Satisfaction & productivity Figure 4.16 Relationship with other workers
Figure 4.23 Living close to work place Figure 4.24 Living close & motivation
A total of 71% of respondents lived near to the work place, close to 80% as well agreed that
living close to the work place affect productivity (Figure 4.23 and 4.24). Culture differences
(Figure 4.19) and work participation (Figure 4.20) as well had positive responses but were not
as having much impact on motivation as the previous dimensions presented in Figures 4.15 to
A total of 10 items were measured under organizational dimensions. Quality of site
management, materials management, organized work and good supervision are important items
that impact on productivity; these are presented in Figure 4.25 to 4.28. Layout was seen as
very important to productivity (Figure 4.29). To add to this 97% had attended training
programs and close to 71% agreed training programs is good for productivity (Figure 4.30).
Even though 86% agreed that off days are available in their organizations, only 44.3% agreed
that off-days increases motivation (Figure 4.34). Crew size, company name and camping
conditions are some other factors which have significant impact on motivation according to
workers (Figure4.31 – 4.33).
Figure 4.25 Quality of site management Figure 4.26 Materials management
Figure 4.27 Organized work Figure 4.28 Supervision and Productivity
Figure 4.29 Layout Figure 4.30 Training program and
Figure 4.31 Crew size & motivation Figure 4.32 Company name & motivation
Figure 4.33 Camping conditions & motivation Figure 4.34 Off days & motivation
Under this dimension, six main items were investigated. Workers believed that on time
payment does enhance their productivity levels (Figure 4.35). Whereas 76.3% agreed that
salary is not enough for them, 68% further agreed that salary is important for motivation
(Figure 4.36). A total of 68% of respondents had social insurance and close to 90% rated social
security as important (Figure 4.37). Out of 61% who agreed there are rewards in their
companies, around 73% rated rewards as being very important to productivity (Figure 4.38).
The last two items under this dimension was work stoppages (Figure 4.39) and union
membership (Figure 4.40).
Figure 4.35 On-time payment and productivity Figure 4.36 Salary & motivation
Figure 4.37 Social Security Figure 4.38 Rewards and Productivity
Qualitative Data Analysis
A total of 9 respondents were interviewed. Basically, demographics of interview respondents
are presented in Table 4.4.
Table 4.4 Interview demographics
Interview Experience in years Company
1- Safety officer 5 to 10 years ACC
2- Project engineer more than 10 years ACC
3- Forman more than 10 years ACC
4- Site engineer Less than 5 years ETA
5- Project manager more than 10 years ACC
6- Forman Less than 5 years ETA
7- Forman 5 to 10 years ETA
8- Mechanic engineer Less than 5 years ETA
9- Site engineer Less than 5 years ETA
Generally, all interview respondents acknowledged workers motivation are very important,
they all agreed that workers motivation is important and gave reasons including the need to
ensure a systematic flow of work and also ensure that workers are satisfied. Others stated that
there is the need to motivate workers in order to ensure health and safety of workers and
alleviate interruptions in the production processed. Key factors of workers’ motivation
therefore fall into the categories of organizational and psychological factors.
Respondents went further to explain how workers are motivated citing that they are educated
through training and development programs to other strategies that include incentives and
financial rewards. In motivating employees, quality of site, materials flow, and systematic flow
is fundamental. It is important to ensure satisfaction at all times through others strategies that
include sharing of both organizational problems and workers’ problems. In light of these, the
companies had installed human resource policies which primarily covered areas of training and
development programs, as well as incentives payments and financial rewards.
As part of the responsibilities of interviewed managers and pertaining to workers’ motivation
and their productivity, responses include responsibilities to keep workers safe whereas others
ensured that all workers’ physical needs required to correctly execute their work activities are
provided. All other responses fell into these major categories include the need to ensure their
ultimate satisfaction. Major challenges in managing workers include the need to manage
cultural and language differences. Other top-management respondents had problems with
ensuring discipline in the organization. Health and safety issues also remain one of the main
factors which posed challenges to construction site managers.
In order to increase motivation, management again suggested training and development,
financial incentives, payment for overtime, and worker participation in decision making. In
cases where an accident or an error occurs, management attempts to understand the scope of
the problem and do not issue punishment at the scene. In the case of accidents however, the
site nurse is called to attend to the injured before any other enquiries are made. Where the nurse
is incapable of addressing the injuries or where the injuries are severe, workers are sent to the
nearest medical facility for attendance. Severe matters are usually reported to the head office
of the companies.
All managers agreed that bad weather conditions have adverse impact on workers motivation
and productivity. Many of them also commented that crowded site does reduce workers’
productivity. Interview respondents however had mixed respondents on whether competition
does or does not influence workers’ productivity, some of them nonetheless mentioned that it
is important to tie payment and other financial rewards with competition and performance.
Culture differences significantly impacts negatively on workers motivation even though a few
respondents would not clearly associate culture differences as deterrent of motivation. All
respondents however agreed that it is important for workers to work from home in order to
relax, attend to family, and save time.
Other data sought from respondents pertained to worker supervision, whereas all respondents
agreed that close supervision is important, primarily as an organizational element, a single
response was in the opposite direction that supervision is not a critical factor. Days off are
mostly available in the organizations and are very important to workers motivation. An increase
in salaries and other financial compensations are observed as important factors that can increase
motivation and productivity in the construction industry.
In order to arrive at more succinct results, other closed ended questions were considered. Data
collected from the later aspects of the interview guide are presented in Figure 4.39.
Figure 4.39 Workers motivation factors (management perspective)
Management also commented that they do not usually work in shifts (6 respondents), whereas
others mentioned that they do work in shift and it does not really motivate workers. A total of
8 managers thought discipline is important for productivity, they also agrees that safety rules
are installed on site and this does contributes to workers’ productivity. Other factors pertaining
to management perspective of what factors motivate workers and increase productivity are
presented in Figure 4.40 and Figure 4.41. In Figure 4.42, respondents were asked to rate site
management, equipment management, and materials management out of a total of 10, as key
determinants of productivity.
Figure 4.40 Managers’ perspective of workers motivation
Figure 4.41 Rating of site, materials, and equipment management
Other statistics showing top management perception of motivation and workers’ productivity
are presented in Appendix J.
4.4 Orientation of employee motivation and performance in the construction sector
Since the investigation was conducted in a single group in a single cross-sectional, one
important manner through which the results showed above and pertaining to the sample
collected form the study can be assessed as representative of the larger population is the one-
sample t-test statistical analysis approach. The population mean for all responses were
maintained at the center of responses based on the assumption that no particular differences
exist between variables of the study. Four statements were selected from each dimension; two
on motivation and other two on productivity.
Table 4.5 assesses the level of significance based on the assumption of no particular impact on
motivation and productivity by any of the items examined in the survey.
Table 4.5 Test for significance (Physical factors)
Dimension Test Value Mean t Sig (2-tailed) Mean difference
Project design on motivation 2.5 1.12 -40.956 .000 -1.376
Productivity disruptions on motivation 2.5 1.76 -7.975 .000 -0.737
Working in shift and productivity 2.0 1.62 -3.804 .000 -0.3711
Crowdedness and productivity 2.0 2.28 2.666 .009 0.278
Concerning Physical factors, it may be established that considering a population mean of no
particular effect of these factors on motivation and productivity, such assertions may be
rejected. In order words, the findings significantly differ from the population assumption that
one or more of these items does not impact on motivation and productivity. It may as well be
observed that the mean values are lower that the population mean values, since the responses
were coded as ‘1’= ‘very important/yes’ and ‘4/5’ = ‘Not important at all/No’, it may be
interpreted that the actual results of the study shows that these variables are important
determinants of motivation and productivity.
Presented in Table 4.6 pertain to the establishment of relationship that no relationship exists
between psychological variables and motivation/productivity. Key variables here include
responsibility, social activity, discipline, and overall satisfaction.
Table 4.6 Test for significance (Psychological factors)
Dimension Test Value Mean t Sig (2-tailed) Mean difference
Responsibility on motivation 2.5 1.63 -10.688 .000 -0.8696
Social activity on motivation 2.5 1.77 -8.699 .000 -0.7268
Discipline and productivity 2.5 1.47 -17.448 .000 -1.0257
Satisfaction and productivity 2.5 1.35 -19.584 .000 -1.1495
Findings pertaining to psychological factors and their impact on workers motivation and
productivity presented in Table 4.6, imply that significant differences exist between the test
values and the study findings. The test value that the various elements have a neutral impact
on motivation and productivity may therefore be rejected.
Organizational factors examined as having any impact on motivation include crew size and
company name. Other factors examined in context of productivity include supervision and
training, as presented in Table 4.7.
Table 4.7 Test for significance (Organizational factors)
Dimension Test Value Mean t Sig (2-tailed) Mean difference
Crew size on motivation 2.0 1.495 -4.918 .000 -0.505
Company name on motivation 2.5 1.454 -13.736 .000 -1.0464
Supervision and productivity 2.0 1.6598 -3.77 .000 -0.340
Training and productivity 2.0 1.536 -4.664 .000 -0.6614
Organizational factors as well are significantly different from the population mean that these
factors have no impact on motivation and productivity. Thea mean values under this dimension
are as well lower than the population mean, implying results points into a favorable direction
where these factors are considered to have positive influence on motivation and productivity.
This represents the last dimension investigated from the perspective of the construction
Table 4.8 Test for significance (Economic factors)
Dimension Test Value Mean t Sig (2-tailed) Mean difference
Salary on motivation 2.5 1.4021 -16.482 .000 -1.0979
Social Insurance on motivation 2.5 1.4124 -15.912 .000 -1.0876
Rewards & bonuses and productivity 2.0 1.3918 -8.210 .000 -0.6083
Union membership and productivity 2.5 1.5155 -10.742 .000 -0.98454
Key items tested under this dimension include salary and social insurance as important
determinants of workers motivation, and rewards & bonuses and union membership as key
determinants of productivity, as presented in Table 4.8. Mean comparisons with population
mean shows that significant differences exist. It may therefore be held that the assumption that
the economic factors have no impact on motivation and productivity may be rejected.
4.5 Discussions and Improvement of motivation towards enhanced performance
Generally, responses from construction workers were favorable. Both quantitative and
qualitative data findings indicate that salaries and other financial awards are key determinants
of construction worker motivation. In order to improve motivation of workers, the four areas
pertaining to the physical, psychological, organizational, and economic dimensions must be
attended to. It is important that close attention is paid to weather conditions. In the UAE,
geographical and other climatic conditions are mostly unfavorable, especially for outdoor
activities like that construction labor activities. Even though the UAE government has
established rules and regulations in order to control workers activities in times when climatic
conditions are harshest, there is also the need to put measures in place to take care of workers
throughout the year in order to ensure that workers are in the best of conditions.
Workers must as well be made to interact with themselves more often in addition to other
contributions to overall organizational decision making. Such factors, according to the
investigation, would primarily increase motivation and productivity. Interaction must be made
possible however not at the expense of discipline as management stressed that discipline is a
critical element to ensuring that tasks are successfully executed in the work place. Interaction
must be ensured within the companies to ensure that workers would have a sense of
contribution towards organizational development. In addition to interactions among workers
and with management, proximity of home to work place would significantly improve
performance by ensuring that workers interact with family and reach the work place with ease.
Concerning organizational factors, even though workers did not value materials management
and other elements within this category as opposed to other items in the other dimensions, top
management stressed that such factors are very important to productivity. These factors are
therefore observed as within the jurisdiction of management. Management must implement
organizational elements which include training and development, site layout, materials
management, equipment management, crew size, and other factors towards ensuring optimum
motivation and productivity.
The final dimension of economic factors are as well equally important in ensuring motivated
employees. Salaries is a very important factor here, agrees by both management and operational
employees. From the results, salaries were observed as not enough for the construction
workers. Since workers’ salaries are very important to motivation, there is the need to increase
workers salary and other financial benefits. There is the need to increase rewards and bonuses
even for overtime work done. It was observed that workers unions are largely unavailable. To
add to that, construction workers do acknowledge union membership as a motivating factor.
Chapter Five: Conclusions & Recommendations
This section establishes conclusions based on findings of the study and in accordance with the
research objectives established in chapter one. It may be noted that conclusions are established
in consideration of findings and other literature discussed earlier in the study. The agreement
or disagreement of findings to reviewed literature on the area of study is also discussed. Aside
from conclusions, recommendations are also established. Recommendations are proposed on
future researches on motivation among construction workers. Other recommendations are
proposed on enhancement of employee motivation towards improved performance in the case
study firms. Finally, recommendations are offered to industry stakeholders, with particular
regards to construction organizations in the GCC construction sector.
Conclusions are established in context of the three main objectives set in the primary chapter
of the study.
Factors influencing motivation of workers in the construction industry
Categorized into four main factors, physical factors are an important aspect of construction
workers’ motivation. Basically workers wish to be kept in the same or similar work activity.
They as well believed that minor mistakes should be forgiven and weather conditions
acknowledged. Climatic condition are a very important area for productivity. Other factors that
significantly affect productivity include production disruptions and production pressures.
Workers had mixed feeling that crowdedness does impact on productivity. This may be due to
the believe by some workers that a larger work force would reduce individual stress load and
ensure that work activities are successfully executed.
Pertaining to psychological factors, disciple and productivity significantly impacts on
productivity and workers motivation. Management as well agrees that these together with
adequate relationship with co-workers would enhance motivation. Even though workers
believed that competition affects productivity to some extent, some management employees
believed that this was quite debatable. Company inclusion of workers in the decision making
process is observed as another important psychological variable which contributes to
construction workers’ motivation. Social activities nonetheless contributed greatly to
motivation. It must be mentioned here however, that cultural difference presents one of the
highest forms of psychological challenges to both management and operational workers
towards motivation and productivity.
The third area of discussion of factors affection construction workers’ motivation and
productivity was attributable to organizational factors. It may be concluded that management
are the largest stakeholders with regards to these factors and their ability to ensure optimum
performance. Even though some of the items identified under this dimension may influence
motivation of operational workers, such factors are not dominant. It is important to ensure that
sire, materials, and equipment are effectively and efficiently managed by management towards
increased productivity. There is the need to ensure that work is organized and supervised,
training and development installed, and a good layout implemented. In addition to these, crew
size must be controlled at all timed in order to ensure that optimum performance per group is
achieved. Camping conditions and off days must as well be offered.
The last dimension pertaining to economic factors revealed that on-time payment is critical to
motivation. Other factors include salary and motivation, social security, rewards and
productivity. Such economic factors are among some of the most significant factors that impact
on motivation and performance, and must be duly noted.
Relationship between motivation and productivity of construction workers & Improvement
Based on an assessment of the sample mean with the population assumed mean, significant
results were arrived at. Due to the non-existence of comparable means to use as test valued, the
midpoint of each item was assumed as the population mean, assuming responses form the
population are neutral. Findings revealed that such assumption be rejected; significant
difference of means exist between the population and sample mean values all the dimensions
Based on discussion, key areas that must be attended to in order to improve performance and
productivity are in areas of financial rewards and other such compensations. Basically, salaries
must be increased to an acceptable level. Other bonuses and financial rewards must be offered
to workers, especially when they work for longer that contracted durations. Weather conditions
must as well be improved. Management might want to pay close attention to organizational
factors towards the larger organizational performance.
Based oni findings, it is recommended that workers conditions be improved, important areas
that is recommended for improvement pertains to financial benefits awarded to construction
workers. Workers showed concern for lower financial benefits even though they as well agreed
that such financial benefiots are fundamental to motivation and productivity. It is recommended
that the instruments for conducting the investigation be improved and made more reliable. The
fact that the dimensions, particularly the physical and economic dimensions, failed the
Chronbach alpha reliability test, the overall results pertaining to these areas may be
questionable. There is the need to ensure that the various items in the dimensions are re-visited
and re-tested for relaibility.
A framework that considers a ratio/interval asessment of factors and their contribution to
motivation and production should be established. This would belp investigate correlation and
regression analysis between important causes of motivation and its result in terms of
productivity. Further attempt should be made to separate motivation and productivity on two
different platforms. As done in the present study, the distinction between motivation and
productivity is not very clear. The relationship between workers motivation and productivity
must as well be investigated. It must be established whether construction workers motivation
leads to any level of productivity.