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Sample study - Methodology, Analysis, and Conclusion Chapters

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Sample project methodology, analysis, and conclusion.

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Sample study - Methodology, Analysis, and Conclusion Chapters

  1. 1. CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Research Design 3.2.1 Research Purpose 3.2.2 Research Approach 3.2.3 Research Strategy 3.3 Population and Sampling Design 3.3.1 Population The population of a study basically refers to the total number of people in the form of a thorough headcount of all elements the findings of the study seeks to represent (Sekaran, 2003). A clearly defined population ensures that the results and findings apply to the correct category of elements in the society. Considering that the study basically assesses the factors that affect the motivation of workers in the UAE construction industry and other ways of enhancing productivity through employee motivation, the population of the study is all construction workers of UAE. In order to be able to pay closer attention to construction companies in a thorough assessment of motivation factors, the multiple case study strategy presents the construction workers of the two selected companies are main population under study. As mentioned, whereas one construction company is large and widely networked in the UAE construction industry, the other is comparably small in terms of workforce and assets. 3.3.2 Sampling method Due to limited resources, there is almost always the need to sample respondents for any investigation (Saunders et al. 2007). It may be added that it is not practical to use the whole population to conduct the survey since that process takes a lot of effort and consumes a lot of time. The term “Sample” is part picked from the whole set of data, which is called “population” to reflect the responses of the whole population (Denscomble, 2010). “Once you have decided the technique for collecting your fieldwork data and you have thought about what to ask, you should be ready to decide on the characteristics of the respondents” (Naoum, 2007).Saunders at al. (2007) add that the size of the sample may impact on the extent of significance of relationship between variables of the study. Whereas a small sample size may not be
  2. 2. representative, a sample size too large can create the perception of significance of a non- existing relationship. Irrespective of these, it is representative to select a sample size appropriate for the study with the use of a method that offered each other equal chance of selection. It must be noted that the two companies were conveniently selected due to the easy access to data by the researcher. Company A has a total of 30000 workers, of which 3000 are professionals. Company A was established in 1967 and it operates in 11 countries and has 14 offices throughout the Middle East. The annual turnover of company A is worth 1.4$ billion. The study took one of the projects of company A during working hours and a sample of 35 workers, which was picked randomly from a total of about 200 workers. The reason of not having an exact figure of the total present workforce is the continuous change of the number of workers present at the site due to the changes in type of operation. The other company, company B, has a total of 1000 workers, of which 75 are professionals. It was established in 2005 and it operates in one country (United Arab Emirates); it has two offices throughout the United Arab Emirates in Abu Dhabi & Dubai. The study visited company B workers accommodation after working hours. A sample of 85 workers was conveniently selected from a total present figure of 350 workers. The total of responses that were taken in the study is 97. The other responses were not taken into consideration because of missing data and uncompleted surveys. After quantitative data collection, another sample of top management employees were selected by purposive sampling technique. Purposive sampling of top management was necessary in order to ensure that respondents had adequate knowledge on the area of employee motivation and productivity, as mentioned by Creswell (2009). A total of 11 top management employees were therefore selected for interview discussions. In summary, two samples were selected from both case study companies. Data from interviews significantly supported and paved way for understanding of measures that are instituted by both companies to motivate workers. Questionnaire on the other hand helped identify the real needs of the workers and to find out whether the current motivational measures are desirable by them. 3.4 Sources of Data Collection Cooper and Schindler (2006) assert that two main sources of data exist. These sources of data are primary and secondary data sources. The study implements both primary and secondary
  3. 3. data in answering research questions (Table 3.2). Both data sources contribute to the objectives and helped generate conclusions and recommendations. 3.4.1 Primary Sources The various forms of data collection are explained: hence, the study adopts a questionnaire and an interview guide as instruments for data collection in a joint qualitative and quantitative approach. The survey strategy of study administration permits the collection of data from a wide range of responses. The large mode of data collected helps gather enough evidence that helped establish conclusions for the study. Yin (2003) argues that the survey strategy permits the collection of a large amount of data which are later analyzed with the help of the appropriate statistical modules towards founding of conclusions. Primary data was gathered from management and operational level workers from 2 different companies randomly selected through purposive sampling. Primary data basically includes the data collected by interacting with workers and management of these companies. Zikmund (2003) describes primary data as data gathered for the central purpose of a study. Collecting primary data helped to enhance understanding and implementation of direct evaluation of the subject using a survey questionnaire and an interview guide. For the purpose of this study information was gathered from 97 construction workers in UAE using the survey questionnaire (Appendix A-F) whereas 11 managerial workers were interviewed using the interview guide (Appendix G & H). The questionnaire was used in order to ensure the regularity of information on all factors that affect the motivation of workers. The questionnaire collects data in an organized or structured way whereas the interview collects data in a rather semi structured format. The interview guide’s semi structured format was to make it easier to collect information on how employee motivation is regarded and managed which the researcher thinks may not be strictly in agreement with any of the factors discussed in the literature review of this study.  Survey Questionnaire The survey questionnaire covered 4 main dimensions of physical, psychological, economic, and organizational factors (Appendix A-F). All items and individual factors measured were adequately discussed under the literature review section of the study. The various dimensions were based on Kazaz et al. (2010) exploratory study to determine factors that influence workers motivation in the construction sector, done with the help of 82 construction companies. A total
  4. 4. of 10 items were placed under physical dimension, 12 items under psychological factors, 10 under organizational factors, and finally 6 items under economic dimension.  Interview Guide Interview guide (Appendix G & H) was divided into two main sections with regards to mode of answer required. Whereas the first seventeen open ended questions pertained to the discussion of physical, psychological, economic, and organizational factors. Another 26 closed ended questions were asked to re-enforce the various dimensions and items presented and discussed under the questionnaire. The interview guide went a step ahead to investigate management commitment to motivate construction workers towards enhanced performance. 3.4.2 Secondary sources of data Secondary Data Sources may be referred to as data that is not originally gathered by the study, and help in some way to arrive at a conclusion for the study. Secondary data sources according to Sekaran (2003) are derived from data that is already in existence. Secondary data for this study was acquired from a variety of online databases of journals, books, year projects by past students of the institution, and other such sources. Secondary data was very instrumental in gathering primary data to in the bid to find solutions to the study’sresearch questions. Documentations on management attempts to install policies that significantly motivate employees were requested. Other secondary data on employee satisfaction survey conducted internally were requested. 3.5 Data Collection Administration Pilot Study It may be mentioned that a pilot study was conducted to find out the appropriateness and applicability of the scales to the study. Pilot studies assist in instituting measures and constraints, clarity of directives, and help to determine the right level of the independent variable (Teijlingen van et al., 2001). In all, 20 employees conveniently selected from UAE construction companies were selected. Pilot study was also conducted to investigate the understanding of the questions by the construction workers. On the whole, participants did not show much signs of difficulty in answering questions on the survey questionnaire. The pilot study also helped identify which languages that must be used for main data collection. After the pilot study, a number of questions were adjusted to make them more understandable to respondents. Main questionnaire administration was also offered in five different languages
  5. 5. including, English, Malayam, Hindi, Tamil and Urdu. Fundamentally, this preliminary investigation was helpful in the understanding of the possible challenges to be expected during the main data collection stage of the study Fieldwork and data collection In order to gain permission for data collection, a Student Identity (ID) card of Girne American University used. To request a permission to collect data from respondents. The Student ID card helped also to gain consent of individual workers towards contributing to data required for answering research questions. Consent was also sought from each individual respondent particularly before they were allowed to complete any instrument. Questionnaires were personally administered by the researcher to selected respondents. Where needed, explanations had to be offered to a few number of respondents who experience difficulties in completing the questionnaire. 3.6 Data Analysis Techniques Quantitative data analysis was done with the help of IBM SPSS Statistics (SPSS) software version 20 and Microsoft Office Excel 2013. Quantitative data collected was first coded and entered into IBM SPSS to pave way for easy analysis. Descriptive aspects of the findings were presented with the help of tables and graphs alongside other descriptive statistical indicators. Qualitative data was manually coded by the researcher (Appendix J). This significantly reduced the amount of data available for analysis. Qualitative data was analyzed alongside quantitative data in a concurrent triangulation approach to mixed methodologies. Whereas coded data permitted the reduction of errors in analysis, the use of a likert scale permitted easiness of quantitative data analysis. Likert scales present a quantitative approach to the assessment of significance between any two or more variables of the study (Creswell, 2009). Saunders et al (2007) add that the use of likert scales for quantitative data collection permit the expression of responses over a degree of opinion or no opinion at all. 3.7 Limitations of methodology and ethical considerations Limitations It may be observed first and foremost that the present study is geographically limited and confined to the United Arab Emirates, Abu Dhabi city. An important limitation however is the
  6. 6. limited amount of time offered to complete the present study by the researcher’s institution. A time table was maintained in order to overcome such limitations pertaining to interim submissions and maintenance of other milestones necessary to complete the study in time. It was critical to establish a timetable with pre-determined achievable milestones in an attempt to keep track of vial activities that are fundamental in meeting necessary deadlines of project. The researcher’s busy work schedule also served as a major obstacle in this area. Other important challenges such as the time allocation to each questionnaire and interview administration was altered due to experience gained from the pilot study. Other implications of the methodology to findings are discussed in the next chapter. Ethical Considerations Strict code of ethics as outlines by Girne American University was observed. Creswell (2009) argue that ethical considerations must be an integral aspect of any particular study. Dependable ethical principles were observed in the course of conducting the research. Saunders et al. (2009) add that gaining permission and consent to collect data is a very important aspect of any study. All data collection instruments were therefore made to contain an informed consent form. Prior to data collection however, a student ID card with request latter was submitted to the two companies for their approval as previously mentioned. In addition to this, personal data pertaining to any of the respondents were not collected. Interview questions were as well submitted to respondents ahead of time before face-to-face discussion.
  7. 7. CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS 4.1 Introduction In this chapter, primary data collected is summarized. Whereas quantitative data collected with the help of the survey questionnaire is presented with the help of tables, graphs and brief explanations, qualitative data narrated concurrently the data and will answers the research, as discussed in the previous chapter. Where relevant, relationships are tested for significance between variables, with the help of statistical software and techniques, towards providing answers to the research questions. The chapter begins with a discussion of the demographics of primary data collection; it then proceeds to discuss findings in context of the research questions. After the presentation of data findings, discussions and implications of findings to theory and practice are also discussed. Other implications of the methodology and limitations are as well discussed. Presentation and discussion of findings is critical to the achievement of set objectives. 4.2 Demographics Out of data collected with the help of the questionnaire, 14 were in Urdu Language, 55 in Malayalam, and the rest in Hindi language. Most of the workers were from India (83%), a few others were from Pakistan (8%) and Bangladesh (6%). Most workers were between the ages of 18 to 30 years (54%). This was closely followed by the age group of 30 to 40 years (29%). Responsive rate of the study was 80.83%. Table 4.1 Worker Centred Demographics Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Country of Origin Pakistan 8 8.2 8.2 8.2 Bangladesh 6 6.2 6.2 14.4 India 83 85.6 85.6 100 Age Range 18-30 54 55.7 55.7 55.7 31-40 29 29.9 29.9 85.6 41-50 14 14.4 14.4 100 Total 97 100 100 Other demographics collected and pertaining to occupational related demographics are presented in Table 4.2 below. Considering the fact that ETA is comparably larger than ACC,
  8. 8. 73% of the respondents came from ETA. This is in light of representativeness of data to the 2 corporations selected for the study and the fact that limited respondents were available in ACC whereas more were available and accessible in ETA. Table 4.2 Company Related demographic Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Company ACC 26 26.8 26.8 26.8 ETA 71 73.2 73.2 100 Type of Work Steel fixer 4 4.1 4.1 4.1 Mason 37 38.1 38.1 42.3 Foreman 12 12.4 12.4 54.6 Safety Assistant 1 1 1 55.7 Office Worker 9 9.3 9.3 64.9 Electrician 27 27.8 27.8 92.8 Driver 4 4.1 4.1 96.9 Carpenter 3 3.1 3.1 100 0-3 years 26 26.8 26.8 26.8 3-5 years 17 17.5 17.5 44.3 Years working in this field 5-8 years 19 19.6 19.6 63.9 8-12 years 13 13.4 13.4 77.3 over 12 years 22 22.7 22.7 100 Years working with this company 0-3 years 34 35.1 35.1 35.1 3-5 years 23 23.7 23.7 58.8 5-8 years 19 19.6 19.6 78.4 8-12 years 12 12.4 12.4 90.7 over 12 years 9 9.3 9.3 100 Total 97 100 100 Many of the respondents interviewed were of the mason profession, other professions such as labor, filler, and helper were categorized under the broader mason category of work which made up to 37 respondents (38.1%). The next dominated profession was electrician, this accounted for close to 28% of total respondents. To add to that, a high number of respondents had worked in the same field for the past three years (26.8%), others had worked more than 12 years in the same field (22.7%). Analyzing the years spent in the same category of work and the years spent working with the company reveals that even though many had worked in the same work category for a long time, these people had more likely not worked for the company in question (22 workers in the same kind of work for more than 12 years but only 9 workers had been with that particular company for the same period).
  9. 9. 4.3 Descriptive data: Main factors influencing construction workers’ motivation Key areas of investigation in the quest for factors that affect workers motivation include psychological, physical, organizational, and economic factors. Data presented is therefore presented under these sub headings. There was the need to investigate the level of internal consistency between items under the same dimensions. Table 4.3 Reliability tests for dimensions Dimension Cronbach's Alpha N of Items Physical .288 12 Psychological .622 14 Organizational .538 13 Economic .075 10 It may therefore be noted that responses pertaining to psychological items followed by the organizational dimension. Economic items/dimension were least reliable. Physical Factors As elaborated in the methodology, 9 items were investigated under physical dimension. It may be noted at this point that more than one question may pertain to any single item as a factor under any of the dimensions discussed. Many workers agreed that keeping them in their designated position important to their motivation; a total of 79.4% rates this statement as important. The second dimension tested project design; a total of 85 respondents against 12 respondent who thought project design is not important. Figure 4.1 Keep working in similar activity Figure 4.2 Project design is important Majority of them also agreed that project complexity is very important (Figure 4.3); a total of 71% rated it as important – the third item under physical factors. Pertaining to the fourth item
  10. 10. on the questionnaire, respondents believed that minor mistakes should be pardoned (65%), others believed that minor mistakes must be pardoned depending on the type of mistake (34%). The fifth physical dimension pertained to the availability of rules about weather work conditions; 98% were positive of the existence of weather work conditions. Out of the total, 76% further agreed that rules on weather conditions did contribute to motivation. Productivity disruptions and pressures are other issues that affect worker motivation. Figure 4.3 Project Design Complexity Figure 4.4 Minor mistakes be forgiven Figure 4.5 Weather work conditions (WWC) exist Figure 4.6 WWC add to productivity Figure 4.7 Productivity disruptions Figure 4.8 Productivity Pressures
  11. 11. Dimension six (disruptions) and seven (pressure) presented in Figure 4.7 and 4.8. The last three items under the physical dimension is overtime, shift, and crowded site and its impact on worker motivation. Figure 4.9 Availability of overtime Figure 4.10 Importance of overtime Figure 4.11 Shift Affect productivity Figure 4.12 Crowdedness affect productivity It may be noted that aside the impact of crowdedness on productivity, respondents generally agreed that the other factors such as overtime and shift does affect motivation and productivity
  12. 12. of construction workers. Respondents were basically neutral whether crowdedness affect productivity. Psychological Factors A total of 11 items were investigated under the psychological dimension. The first item had to do with discipline whereas the second item had to do with safety guidelines. About 80% had safety guidelines installed, out of this 75% claimed that such guidelines are very important. Another 56.7% mentioned that discipline is important to productivity. Figure 4.13 Discipline & productivity Figure 4.14 Safety guidelines & productivity Figure 4.15 Satisfaction & productivity Figure 4.16 Relationship with other workers
  13. 13. Figure 4.17 Competition & productivity Figure 4.18 Increased responsibility Figure 4.19 Company share problems Figure 4.20 Social activities & Motivation Figure 4.21 Culture Differences & motivation Figure 4.22 Participation & motivation
  14. 14. Figure 4.23 Living close to work place Figure 4.24 Living close & motivation A total of 71% of respondents lived near to the work place, close to 80% as well agreed that living close to the work place affect productivity (Figure 4.23 and 4.24). Culture differences (Figure 4.19) and work participation (Figure 4.20) as well had positive responses but were not as having much impact on motivation as the previous dimensions presented in Figures 4.15 to 4.20. Organizational factors A total of 10 items were measured under organizational dimensions. Quality of site management, materials management, organized work and good supervision are important items that impact on productivity; these are presented in Figure 4.25 to 4.28. Layout was seen as very important to productivity (Figure 4.29). To add to this 97% had attended training programs and close to 71% agreed training programs is good for productivity (Figure 4.30). Even though 86% agreed that off days are available in their organizations, only 44.3% agreed that off-days increases motivation (Figure 4.34). Crew size, company name and camping conditions are some other factors which have significant impact on motivation according to workers (Figure4.31 – 4.33). Figure 4.25 Quality of site management Figure 4.26 Materials management
  15. 15. Figure 4.27 Organized work Figure 4.28 Supervision and Productivity Figure 4.29 Layout Figure 4.30 Training program and productivity Figure 4.31 Crew size & motivation Figure 4.32 Company name & motivation
  16. 16. Figure 4.33 Camping conditions & motivation Figure 4.34 Off days & motivation Economic Factors Under this dimension, six main items were investigated. Workers believed that on time payment does enhance their productivity levels (Figure 4.35). Whereas 76.3% agreed that salary is not enough for them, 68% further agreed that salary is important for motivation (Figure 4.36). A total of 68% of respondents had social insurance and close to 90% rated social security as important (Figure 4.37). Out of 61% who agreed there are rewards in their companies, around 73% rated rewards as being very important to productivity (Figure 4.38). The last two items under this dimension was work stoppages (Figure 4.39) and union membership (Figure 4.40). Figure 4.35 On-time payment and productivity Figure 4.36 Salary & motivation
  17. 17. Figure 4.37 Social Security Figure 4.38 Rewards and Productivity Qualitative Data Analysis A total of 9 respondents were interviewed. Basically, demographics of interview respondents are presented in Table 4.4. Table 4.4 Interview demographics Interview Experience in years Company 1- Safety officer 5 to 10 years ACC 2- Project engineer more than 10 years ACC 3- Forman more than 10 years ACC 4- Site engineer Less than 5 years ETA 5- Project manager more than 10 years ACC 6- Forman Less than 5 years ETA 7- Forman 5 to 10 years ETA 8- Mechanic engineer Less than 5 years ETA 9- Site engineer Less than 5 years ETA Generally, all interview respondents acknowledged workers motivation are very important, they all agreed that workers motivation is important and gave reasons including the need to ensure a systematic flow of work and also ensure that workers are satisfied. Others stated that there is the need to motivate workers in order to ensure health and safety of workers and alleviate interruptions in the production processed. Key factors of workers’ motivation therefore fall into the categories of organizational and psychological factors. Respondents went further to explain how workers are motivated citing that they are educated through training and development programs to other strategies that include incentives and
  18. 18. financial rewards. In motivating employees, quality of site, materials flow, and systematic flow is fundamental. It is important to ensure satisfaction at all times through others strategies that include sharing of both organizational problems and workers’ problems. In light of these, the companies had installed human resource policies which primarily covered areas of training and development programs, as well as incentives payments and financial rewards. As part of the responsibilities of interviewed managers and pertaining to workers’ motivation and their productivity, responses include responsibilities to keep workers safe whereas others ensured that all workers’ physical needs required to correctly execute their work activities are provided. All other responses fell into these major categories include the need to ensure their ultimate satisfaction. Major challenges in managing workers include the need to manage cultural and language differences. Other top-management respondents had problems with ensuring discipline in the organization. Health and safety issues also remain one of the main factors which posed challenges to construction site managers. In order to increase motivation, management again suggested training and development, financial incentives, payment for overtime, and worker participation in decision making. In cases where an accident or an error occurs, management attempts to understand the scope of the problem and do not issue punishment at the scene. In the case of accidents however, the site nurse is called to attend to the injured before any other enquiries are made. Where the nurse is incapable of addressing the injuries or where the injuries are severe, workers are sent to the nearest medical facility for attendance. Severe matters are usually reported to the head office of the companies. All managers agreed that bad weather conditions have adverse impact on workers motivation and productivity. Many of them also commented that crowded site does reduce workers’ productivity. Interview respondents however had mixed respondents on whether competition does or does not influence workers’ productivity, some of them nonetheless mentioned that it is important to tie payment and other financial rewards with competition and performance. Culture differences significantly impacts negatively on workers motivation even though a few respondents would not clearly associate culture differences as deterrent of motivation. All respondents however agreed that it is important for workers to work from home in order to relax, attend to family, and save time. Other data sought from respondents pertained to worker supervision, whereas all respondents agreed that close supervision is important, primarily as an organizational element, a single
  19. 19. response was in the opposite direction that supervision is not a critical factor. Days off are mostly available in the organizations and are very important to workers motivation. An increase in salaries and other financial compensations are observed as important factors that can increase motivation and productivity in the construction industry. In order to arrive at more succinct results, other closed ended questions were considered. Data collected from the later aspects of the interview guide are presented in Figure 4.39. Figure 4.39 Workers motivation factors (management perspective) Management also commented that they do not usually work in shifts (6 respondents), whereas others mentioned that they do work in shift and it does not really motivate workers. A total of 8 managers thought discipline is important for productivity, they also agrees that safety rules are installed on site and this does contributes to workers’ productivity. Other factors pertaining to management perspective of what factors motivate workers and increase productivity are presented in Figure 4.40 and Figure 4.41. In Figure 4.42, respondents were asked to rate site management, equipment management, and materials management out of a total of 10, as key determinants of productivity.
  20. 20. Figure 4.40 Managers’ perspective of workers motivation Figure 4.41 Rating of site, materials, and equipment management
  21. 21. Other statistics showing top management perception of motivation and workers’ productivity are presented in Appendix J. 4.4 Orientation of employee motivation and performance in the construction sector Since the investigation was conducted in a single group in a single cross-sectional, one important manner through which the results showed above and pertaining to the sample collected form the study can be assessed as representative of the larger population is the one- sample t-test statistical analysis approach. The population mean for all responses were maintained at the center of responses based on the assumption that no particular differences exist between variables of the study. Four statements were selected from each dimension; two on motivation and other two on productivity. Physical Factors Table 4.5 assesses the level of significance based on the assumption of no particular impact on motivation and productivity by any of the items examined in the survey. Table 4.5 Test for significance (Physical factors) Dimension Test Value Mean t Sig (2-tailed) Mean difference Project design on motivation 2.5 1.12 -40.956 .000 -1.376 Productivity disruptions on motivation 2.5 1.76 -7.975 .000 -0.737 Working in shift and productivity 2.0 1.62 -3.804 .000 -0.3711 Crowdedness and productivity 2.0 2.28 2.666 .009 0.278 Concerning Physical factors, it may be established that considering a population mean of no particular effect of these factors on motivation and productivity, such assertions may be rejected. In order words, the findings significantly differ from the population assumption that one or more of these items does not impact on motivation and productivity. It may as well be observed that the mean values are lower that the population mean values, since the responses were coded as ‘1’= ‘very important/yes’ and ‘4/5’ = ‘Not important at all/No’, it may be interpreted that the actual results of the study shows that these variables are important determinants of motivation and productivity. Psychological Factors Presented in Table 4.6 pertain to the establishment of relationship that no relationship exists between psychological variables and motivation/productivity. Key variables here include responsibility, social activity, discipline, and overall satisfaction.
  22. 22. Table 4.6 Test for significance (Psychological factors) Dimension Test Value Mean t Sig (2-tailed) Mean difference Responsibility on motivation 2.5 1.63 -10.688 .000 -0.8696 Social activity on motivation 2.5 1.77 -8.699 .000 -0.7268 Discipline and productivity 2.5 1.47 -17.448 .000 -1.0257 Satisfaction and productivity 2.5 1.35 -19.584 .000 -1.1495 Findings pertaining to psychological factors and their impact on workers motivation and productivity presented in Table 4.6, imply that significant differences exist between the test values and the study findings. The test value that the various elements have a neutral impact on motivation and productivity may therefore be rejected. Organizational Factors Organizational factors examined as having any impact on motivation include crew size and company name. Other factors examined in context of productivity include supervision and training, as presented in Table 4.7. Table 4.7 Test for significance (Organizational factors) Dimension Test Value Mean t Sig (2-tailed) Mean difference Crew size on motivation 2.0 1.495 -4.918 .000 -0.505 Company name on motivation 2.5 1.454 -13.736 .000 -1.0464 Supervision and productivity 2.0 1.6598 -3.77 .000 -0.340 Training and productivity 2.0 1.536 -4.664 .000 -0.6614 Organizational factors as well are significantly different from the population mean that these factors have no impact on motivation and productivity. Thea mean values under this dimension are as well lower than the population mean, implying results points into a favorable direction where these factors are considered to have positive influence on motivation and productivity. Economic Factors This represents the last dimension investigated from the perspective of the construction workers. Table 4.8 Test for significance (Economic factors) Dimension Test Value Mean t Sig (2-tailed) Mean difference Salary on motivation 2.5 1.4021 -16.482 .000 -1.0979 Social Insurance on motivation 2.5 1.4124 -15.912 .000 -1.0876 Rewards & bonuses and productivity 2.0 1.3918 -8.210 .000 -0.6083 Union membership and productivity 2.5 1.5155 -10.742 .000 -0.98454
  23. 23. Key items tested under this dimension include salary and social insurance as important determinants of workers motivation, and rewards & bonuses and union membership as key determinants of productivity, as presented in Table 4.8. Mean comparisons with population mean shows that significant differences exist. It may therefore be held that the assumption that the economic factors have no impact on motivation and productivity may be rejected. 4.5 Discussions and Improvement of motivation towards enhanced performance Generally, responses from construction workers were favorable. Both quantitative and qualitative data findings indicate that salaries and other financial awards are key determinants of construction worker motivation. In order to improve motivation of workers, the four areas pertaining to the physical, psychological, organizational, and economic dimensions must be attended to. It is important that close attention is paid to weather conditions. In the UAE, geographical and other climatic conditions are mostly unfavorable, especially for outdoor activities like that construction labor activities. Even though the UAE government has established rules and regulations in order to control workers activities in times when climatic conditions are harshest, there is also the need to put measures in place to take care of workers throughout the year in order to ensure that workers are in the best of conditions. Workers must as well be made to interact with themselves more often in addition to other contributions to overall organizational decision making. Such factors, according to the investigation, would primarily increase motivation and productivity. Interaction must be made possible however not at the expense of discipline as management stressed that discipline is a critical element to ensuring that tasks are successfully executed in the work place. Interaction must be ensured within the companies to ensure that workers would have a sense of contribution towards organizational development. In addition to interactions among workers and with management, proximity of home to work place would significantly improve performance by ensuring that workers interact with family and reach the work place with ease. Concerning organizational factors, even though workers did not value materials management and other elements within this category as opposed to other items in the other dimensions, top management stressed that such factors are very important to productivity. These factors are therefore observed as within the jurisdiction of management. Management must implement organizational elements which include training and development, site layout, materials
  24. 24. management, equipment management, crew size, and other factors towards ensuring optimum motivation and productivity. The final dimension of economic factors are as well equally important in ensuring motivated employees. Salaries is a very important factor here, agrees by both management and operational employees. From the results, salaries were observed as not enough for the construction workers. Since workers’ salaries are very important to motivation, there is the need to increase workers salary and other financial benefits. There is the need to increase rewards and bonuses even for overtime work done. It was observed that workers unions are largely unavailable. To add to that, construction workers do acknowledge union membership as a motivating factor.
  25. 25. Chapter Five: Conclusions & Recommendations 5.1 Introduction This section establishes conclusions based on findings of the study and in accordance with the research objectives established in chapter one. It may be noted that conclusions are established in consideration of findings and other literature discussed earlier in the study. The agreement or disagreement of findings to reviewed literature on the area of study is also discussed. Aside from conclusions, recommendations are also established. Recommendations are proposed on future researches on motivation among construction workers. Other recommendations are proposed on enhancement of employee motivation towards improved performance in the case study firms. Finally, recommendations are offered to industry stakeholders, with particular regards to construction organizations in the GCC construction sector. 5.2 Conclusions Conclusions are established in context of the three main objectives set in the primary chapter of the study. Factors influencing motivation of workers in the construction industry Categorized into four main factors, physical factors are an important aspect of construction workers’ motivation. Basically workers wish to be kept in the same or similar work activity. They as well believed that minor mistakes should be forgiven and weather conditions acknowledged. Climatic condition are a very important area for productivity. Other factors that significantly affect productivity include production disruptions and production pressures. Workers had mixed feeling that crowdedness does impact on productivity. This may be due to the believe by some workers that a larger work force would reduce individual stress load and ensure that work activities are successfully executed. Pertaining to psychological factors, disciple and productivity significantly impacts on productivity and workers motivation. Management as well agrees that these together with adequate relationship with co-workers would enhance motivation. Even though workers believed that competition affects productivity to some extent, some management employees believed that this was quite debatable. Company inclusion of workers in the decision making process is observed as another important psychological variable which contributes to
  26. 26. construction workers’ motivation. Social activities nonetheless contributed greatly to motivation. It must be mentioned here however, that cultural difference presents one of the highest forms of psychological challenges to both management and operational workers towards motivation and productivity. The third area of discussion of factors affection construction workers’ motivation and productivity was attributable to organizational factors. It may be concluded that management are the largest stakeholders with regards to these factors and their ability to ensure optimum performance. Even though some of the items identified under this dimension may influence motivation of operational workers, such factors are not dominant. It is important to ensure that sire, materials, and equipment are effectively and efficiently managed by management towards increased productivity. There is the need to ensure that work is organized and supervised, training and development installed, and a good layout implemented. In addition to these, crew size must be controlled at all timed in order to ensure that optimum performance per group is achieved. Camping conditions and off days must as well be offered. The last dimension pertaining to economic factors revealed that on-time payment is critical to motivation. Other factors include salary and motivation, social security, rewards and productivity. Such economic factors are among some of the most significant factors that impact on motivation and performance, and must be duly noted. Relationship between motivation and productivity of construction workers & Improvement Based on an assessment of the sample mean with the population assumed mean, significant results were arrived at. Due to the non-existence of comparable means to use as test valued, the midpoint of each item was assumed as the population mean, assuming responses form the population are neutral. Findings revealed that such assumption be rejected; significant difference of means exist between the population and sample mean values all the dimensions under investigation. Based on discussion, key areas that must be attended to in order to improve performance and productivity are in areas of financial rewards and other such compensations. Basically, salaries must be increased to an acceptable level. Other bonuses and financial rewards must be offered to workers, especially when they work for longer that contracted durations. Weather conditions must as well be improved. Management might want to pay close attention to organizational factors towards the larger organizational performance.
  27. 27. 5.3 Recommendations Based oni findings, it is recommended that workers conditions be improved, important areas that is recommended for improvement pertains to financial benefits awarded to construction workers. Workers showed concern for lower financial benefits even though they as well agreed that such financial benefiots are fundamental to motivation and productivity. It is recommended that the instruments for conducting the investigation be improved and made more reliable. The fact that the dimensions, particularly the physical and economic dimensions, failed the Chronbach alpha reliability test, the overall results pertaining to these areas may be questionable. There is the need to ensure that the various items in the dimensions are re-visited and re-tested for relaibility. A framework that considers a ratio/interval asessment of factors and their contribution to motivation and production should be established. This would belp investigate correlation and regression analysis between important causes of motivation and its result in terms of productivity. Further attempt should be made to separate motivation and productivity on two different platforms. As done in the present study, the distinction between motivation and productivity is not very clear. The relationship between workers motivation and productivity must as well be investigated. It must be established whether construction workers motivation leads to any level of productivity.

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